A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 196 Essay

This essay has a total of 3207 words and 13 pages.

A modernday revolution American turmoil in the 1960s



Hubert Humphrey once stated, “When we say, ‘One nation under God, with liberty and justice
for all,’ we are talking about all people. We either ought to believe it or quit saying
it” (Hakim 111). During the 1960’s, a great number of people did, in fact, begin to
believe it. These years were a time of great change for America. The country was
literally redefined as people from all walks of life fought to uphold their standards on
what they believed a true democracy is made of; equal rights for all races, freedom of
speech, and the right to stay out of wars in which they felt they didn’t belong. The music
of the era did a lot of defining and upholding as well; in fact, it was a driving force,
or at the very least a strongly supporting force, in many of the movements that took
place. However, it is to be expected that in attempting to change a nation one will
inevitably face opposition. The Vietnamese weren’t the only ones involved in a civil war
those years; in America, one could easily find brother turning against brother, or more
commonly, parent against child, as each side fought to defend their views. The 1960’s were
a major turning point in the history of the U.S, and when it was all over, the American
way of life would never be the same.

Almost seventy years before the sixties even began, segregation was legalized. As long as
both races had “equal” facilities, it was entirely legal to divide them (Hakim 64-65). In
1955, however, an elderly black woman by the name of Rosa Parks refused to give up her
seat on a bus to a white man. She was arrested. Parks later proved to be the true
catalyst of the anti-segregation movement. When news of the arrest reached the black
population, action was taken immediately. A massive bus boycott was organized, during
which time no one of color could be found on a bus in the Montgomery area. Finally, in
1956, a law was passed proclaiming that any form of segregation was illegal and immoral
(Hakim 69-71). Unfortunately, not everyone was eager to embrace this change. Many whites
felt that if they were forced to share, they would rather go without. Across the country,
public recreational facilities were locked up rather than integrated. In Birmingham,
Alabama in 1962, for example, sixty-eight parks, thirty-eight playgrounds, six pools, and
four gold courses were closed to the public (Hakim 97).

Congress had finally granted equal rights, but the black population of America had a long
way to go before their rights were truly equal. Many groups such as the SCLC (Southern
Christian Leadership Conference), SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee), and
CORE (Congress Of Racial Equality) were formed to organize rallies and marches to support
their cause (Benson 15, 18-19). A few individuals such as James Farmer and Marin Luther
King, Jr., however, stand out among all others as the true leaders of the movement.
Farmer was the nation’s first black man to earn a Ph.D., and he was also the founder of
CORE. He realized that the black population would be seen as ignorant and inferior until
they had equal education and job training. He demanded that the federal government provide
programs to make education and training available, stating, “When a society has crippled
some of it’s people, it has an obligation to provide the requisite crutches” (Benson
34-35).

Martin Luther King Jr., born in 1929, became famous for his methods of anti-violent
protest, modeled after the methods of the late Mahatma Ghandi. He said Ghandi taught him
that, “…there is more power in socially organized masses on the march than… in guns in the
hands of a few desperate men.” In 1964, King became the youngest person ever to receive
the Nobel Peace Prize (Hakim 76, 121). On April 4, 1968, however, King’s short life was
brought to an untimely end when he was assassinated by white supremacist James Earl Ray in
Memphis, Tennessee at the age of thirty-nine. To this day, some people believe that the
FBI was involved in the killing, due to the fact that FBI director J. Edgar Hoover
strongly and openly disliked King . These beliefs have never been confirmed (Benson 33).

King’s tactics of peaceful demonstration were the most popular of the time. Sit-ins were
very common, originating in 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina when, despite being covered
in ketchup and brutally beaten by violent spectators, four black students refused to leave
a lunch counter at Woolworth’s until they were served (Benson 16),. Protestors simply
wrapped their ankles around the stool legs and grasped the edges of their seats, defiantly
resisting all attempts to remove them (Hakim 100).

More efficient than the sit-ins, however, were the marches that took place during the
time. A march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery in 1964 resulted in the passage of the
Voting Rights Act of 1965, and a march on Washington in 1963 consisting of two- hundred
and fifty thousand participants, sixty-thousand of whom were white (Benson 47), proved how
significant the movement really was. The march on Washington was also the day of Martin
Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech, in which he proclaimed,

“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will
not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character…that one
day down in Alabama…little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with
little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers…and when this happens and when
we allow freedom to ring… from every village…from every state and every city, we will be
able to speed up that day when all God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and
gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing… ‘Free at last.
Free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last’” (Hakim 103-104).

Despite the usually peaceful, non-violent attitudes of protestors, they were often met
with violence from people who were strongly opposed to their cause. In Birmingham, a bomb
exploded during a Sunday school class and four young girls were killed. Bull Conner,
ironically the public commissioner of safety of the same city, ordered the arrests of
hundreds of non-violent student demonstrators. He also ordered high-pressured fire hoses
and police dogs to be turned on the marchers, causing many injuries (Hakim 99-100).
Reporters covering such events often found themselves among the victims of such violence.
They were commonly beaten, and their cameras smashed. White supremacists in the south
felt that the media only encouraged the movement for equal rights, and this thought proved
to be correct. “Without the…media… the movement might not have succeeded, for the rest of
the nation… would not have seen in action the violent racism practiced by southern whites”
(Benson 20).

While the anti-segregation movement carried on in the American South, war raged in
Vietnam. The roots of the war dated back to the early 1950’s, when the Viet Minh were in
control of North Vietnam and the French were in control of the South. They shared a
common goal of wanting to unite the country, but neither wanted to relinquish control. In
1954, France abandoned the cause, leaving Ngo Dinh Diem in charge of the southern half of
the country. Diem, however, did not have the resources to fight against the Viet Minh, so
rather than admitting defeat, he appealed to the United States for help. President
Kennedy agreed to send a small number of troops in for assistance, and the general public
initially agreed with the choice. However, Diem was assassinated in 1963, and when no
strong government was formed afterwards, the U.S. was forced to “shoulder… more and more
of the burden of the war” (Benson 134-136). By 1967, the Vietnam war was costing America
seventy million dollars a day (Hakim 119), and by the wars end, two-three million
Vietnamese and fifty-eight thousand Americans were dead (Gitlin 3).

Prior to 1966, all students were exempt from the draft. After 1966, however, students
with below average grades were completely eligible to be sent to war (Benson 142). As can
be expected, this caused much dissent among the youth of America, playing a large role in
the birth of the Peace Movement.

For the most part, demonstrators followed the law with their protests. An initial form of
protest was the teach-in, where speakers from around the country would debate. A national
teach-in was held on May 15, 1965 in Washington D.C., educating many people on the issues
of Vietnam. Pamphlets were another common form of protest, due to a general mistrust of
the newspapers. It has been said that the number of pamphlets during the 1960s probably
equaled the number of pamphlets during the Revolutionary war era (Benson 142-144). Many
illegal and dishonest methods of protest took place as well. To avoid being drafted, or
as a response to being drafted, a great number of people fled to Canada or Europe, burned
their draft cards, or claimed religious beliefs that prevented them from fighting (Benson
180). Despite the numerous student protests, American youth were not the only ones who
believed their country did not belong in Vietnam. On March 16, 1965, an
eighty-two-year-old Quaker woman named Alice Herz immolated herself to protest the war
(Archer 119). Finally, in 1973, President Nixon ordered for the gradual with drawl of
troops from Vietnam, and in 1975, the last of the troops returned home.

The Vietnam Peace Movement was only part of the student movements that went on at the
time. The baby boom after World War II more than doubled the population of U.S. colleges
in 1960-1964. This was also the first generation to grow up with the knowledge that an
atomic bomb could destroy the world. The students “…felt power of their numbers, and they
felt also that they should have more say in the issues that affected their lives…”
(Benson 50)
Continues for 7 more pages >>




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