African Americans who live in low-income communiti Essay

This essay has a total of 2370 words and 15 pages.

HIV




African Americans who live in low-income communities are more likely to engage in
unprotected sexual activities than those who live in higher-income communities.







ii


Table of Contents

Chapter Page/s
I. The Problem 1-2
II. Theoretical Framework 3-5
III. Hypothesis 6
IV. Population and Design 7-8
V. Conclusion 9-10
VI. Bibliography 11-12











1
I. Problem
Little to nothing was known about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) when it first
erupted in the 1970s. When the epidemic finally reached noticeable proportions in the
early 1980s, a disease that knows no gender, racial, or class boundaries has created a
devastating impact on society. This disease has afflicted society in virtually epidemic
proportions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta,
there are an estimated 1 million Americans infected with AIDS and 40,000-80,000 new
infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) each year.

There are few people who do not know someone who has died of AIDS, and it is estimated
that, early in the new millennium, some forty million people worldwide will be infected
with HIV, and ten million of them will develop AIDS. Research and statistics reveals that
individual behavior is the strongest determinant of HIV and AIDS risk. This high-risk
behavior place them in danger and is passed on to others by means of exchanging sex for
money or drugs, injection drug users (IDUs), incarcerated persons, unborn babies of
infected mothers, and other persons who have numerous sex partners.

Individuals in communities where Sexual Transmitted Diseases are prevalent are also at
high risk rates of AIDS and HIV infection are substantially higher in blacks than among
whites, especially among adolescents and young adults (Healthy People 2000). Many factors
contribute to why there are more African Americans infected with HIV, AIDS, and STDs than
any other racial and ethnic group.


2
The purpose of this explanatory study is to find out why African Americans who live in
low-income / African American communities are more likely to engage in unprotected sexual
activities than those who live in higher-income communities, which could lead to sexual
transmitted diseases. So, the issue at hand and the recommendation concerning preventive
health and counseling prevent sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency
virus begins with the efficacy of risk reduction (sexual behavior), prevention,
intervention, and clinician counseling deliver in a variety of settings (clinician or
non-clinician).

Many studies has revealed that children are not receiving information about sexuality and
sexual behavior from their parents, do not have the availability of physicians to counsel
adolescents and adult patients on measures to prevent STDs (primarily HIV), especially if
they are treated once for infections in lower-income communities. There are other factors
and measures that have been issued by a number of organizations that explain why African
Americans and where they live makes them more susceptible to HIV infection and AIDS.

Sexually transmitted diseases as a whole affect millions of people in the United States
and around the world each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality.

In this study, I will try to discover why this epidemic has run out of control, especially
among African Americans, in the United States which has continued to rise, reaching more
than 160,000 by the end of 1990 (CDC, 1994). And through December 2000, the Center for
Disease Control and Prevention has received reports of 774,467 AIDS cases, of those,
292,522 cases occurred among African Americans (CDC, 2000).


3

II. Theoretical Framework

Several reports and statistics has revealed that the correlation between these variables:
African Americans, low-income and poverty ridden communities are some of the main reasons
HIV infections and AIDS rates tend to be higher among African Americans than white
Americans. Reported rates of some others sexually transmitted diseases are as much as 30
times higher for African Americans than for whites. This disparity is due in part, to the
fact that African Americana are more likely to seek care in public clinics that report
STDs more completely than private providers. Maybe!

However, this reporting bias does not fully explain these differences I will be explaining
such as other important factors like the distribution of poverty (based on income), access
to quality health care, health seeking behaviors, the level of drug use, and sexual
networks with high sexually transmitted disease prevalence.

Some prominent organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American
College of Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the AMA Guidelines for
Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) recommend providing routine advice to all children
and adolescent about responsible sexual behaviors that include abstinence, the use of
condoms, and school based programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behaviors through
awareness and education.


4

The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG) and American Academy of
Pediatrics (AAP) supports encouraging abstinence among adolescents, but both organizations
endorse educating sexually active teens about proper condom use and also increasing the
availability of condoms at sites serving youth (AMA, 1994). Do these sites exist in
lower-income communities?

Nonetheless, many are concerned that promoting condoms use in adolescents will lead to
increased sexual activity. I agree, but the risk factors and the sexual behavior is
reduced. Whether we provide and issue condoms and contraceptives at our public schools or
not, our children must somehow understand how HIV infections and AIDS is spread throughout
the population (Anspaugh, Hamrick & Rosato, 2000, p.424-425).

Moreover, the level of prevention education may vary widely across communities. In some
areas such as high-income and upscale communities, community-based efforts may be
widespread across social, educational, and religious organizations. However, in other
communities, such as low-income and crime ridden communities, STDs prevention education
may not exist and possibly will never be a high priority. Even though some efforts I know
are underway to increase AIDS prevention in both public and private sectors here in
Columbus (billboards postings), but what about larger inner cities throughout the nation
where more cases are noted (population density is no excuse).

Yet, research has shown that some sectors (typically African Americans) are at very high
risks and lack even basic information about STDs, HIV infection, and AIDS prevention.


5

So, the problem still arises, because the facts and figures that I keep revealing are not
just theories, they point to prevention and not just the epidemiology of this dreadful
disease that is affecting so many African Americans. The epidemiology of STDs such as HIV
infection and AIDS are critical for several reasons.

First, STDs, like many other diseases, are transmitted through practice of human behavior.
Secondly, a wide range of social factors thus affect STDs, HIV infection, AIDS and how
they are spreaded, they include migration, identifying relationship between lifestyles and
diseases, and war and poverty (economics / income level). Understanding epidemiology will
help target those persons who are infected, where they live, and those who continued to
spread these diseases to other uninfected persons.

Continues for 8 more pages >>




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