America Pathway tto the Present Chp23 Essay

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America Pathway tto the Present Chp23




1. (A) Reformation- a new complication arose in the early 1500s, when a powerful religious
movement, the Reformation, brought bitter divisions to Europe. During the Reformation, a
new Christian faith, called Protestantism, developed in protest against what was seen as
the corruption and inadequery of Catholic Church. Because the English were Protestant and
the Irish were Catholic, the Reformation also heightened the conflict between the English
and the Irish.

(B) Joint Stock Company-They called the new village Jamestown in honor of their king,
James I. The land itself they called Virginia, after their last ruler, Elizabeth, who had
never married and bore the title “Virgin Queen.” The 104 adventures who started the colony
were shareholders in the Virginia Company, a joint stock company established in London in
1606. Investors, or shareholders, who each contributed money to the cots of an enterprise,
and expected a share of profit, organized joint stock companies like the Virginia Company.
Most of the investors in Virginia Company remained in England. But young men could earn a
share by simply paying their way to Virginia. At first the colony was made up exclusively
of men; women and children eventually followed.

(C) Indentured Servants- To produce tobacco, planters needed people to work the fields.
During the first sixty years after the founding of the colony, they turned primarily to
indentured servants from England. These were people who had to work for a master for a
period of time, usually seven years, under a contract called an indenture. In return for
their work, their master paid the cost of their voyage to Virginia and gave them food and
shelter. Some indentures promised a piece of land to the servant at the end of the
indentured period. Historians estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 men and women came
as servants to work in the fields of Virginia and Maryland during the 1600s. Most of them
were eighteen to twenty-two years of age, unmarried, and poor. Few of the indentured
servants lived long enough to claim their land at the end of their service. Exposure to
the climate and diseases of the Chesapeake Bay killed them in horrendous numbers.

(D) Enclosure Movement- Land owners had found that they could make more money from raising
livestock than they could collect rent from tenant farmers. The landowners forced their
tenants to leave and turned fields into pasture, or enclosed them. Many people in Europe
lost their homes as a result of this enclosure movement. Thus, England was swarming with
young people in search of food and work. Called, “masterless” men and women because they
had no master, or employer, they had few other choices besides signing indentures to work
for land in Virginia.


2. (A) Powhatan- Most of them recognized the authority of one powerful group, the Pamunkey
people. They particularly honored the Pamunkey leader, Powhatan. Paying him tribute- =a
kind of tax-in skins, beads, and food. Within weeks of the first attack on the English,
several Englishmen traveled to neighboring Native American villages to offer tribute of
their own and to persuade the Native American that their intentions in settling in the
area were good. Powhatan had every reason to distrust those intentions. The Spanish had
captured Powhatan’s brother, Opechancanough, in the 1560s. Doubtless Opechancanough and
Powhatan understood well that the settlement was a threat to their people’s way of life.

(B) John Smith- The Adventures had migrated to Virginia to become wealthy by living off
the work of others. In Europe wealthy landowners did little physical work. When me who
were or wanted to be gentlemen came to Virginia, their leader John Smith found it
difficult to get them to work at all. Even when they were starving, many men simply
refused to compromise their image of themselves as gentlemen by growing corn. In 1608
smith warned them: You must obey this now for a law, that he that will not work shall not
eat… for the labors of thirty or forty honest and industrious men shall not be consumed to
maintain a hundred and fifty idle loiterers.


3. The English based their pattern of conquest on their experiences in Ireland, the island
nation off their western coast. For centuries, English rulers had been trying to assert
control in this neighboring land, and the Irish people and steadily resisted. A new
complication arose in the early 1500s, when a powerful religious movement, the
Reformation, brought bitter divisions to Europe. During the Reformation, a new Christian
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