An MBA Graduate Defined Essay

This essay has a total of 2196 words and 11 pages.

An MBA Graduate Defined

An MBA Graduate Defined

An MBA is a degree awarded to individuals who complete required coursework in the field of
Management Science. The MBA title stands for Master of Business Administration and implies
that the person holding the degree is qualified to hold a position in senior management
within a firm. An MBA manager is similar to the captain of a ship. He is responsible for
making decisions and plans about the firm and for controlling the firm's employees. The
goal of an MBA manager is to maximise the firm's value through the use of the firm's
tangible and intangible assets. He maximises this value by obtaining the highest Profits
possible. In the following discussion, I will examine how senior management in general and
MBA graduates in particular can use the field of Managerial Accounting to make
decisions/plan and control employees in order to maximise Profits. For clarity throughout
this essay, senior managers and MBA graduates should be considered as one in the same.


Managerial Accounting Defined

Managerial Accounting is the process of using information systems to provide data to
senior managers who then use this data for decision-making/planning and monitoring
employee performance in order to maximise profits. The data that senior managers use is
supplied by the Financial Accounting function. This information is used to improve the
performance of the Marketing function, which generally provides the Revenue of the firm
and the Operations function, which generally incurs most operating costs. Marketing and
Operations are thus the functional areas which an MBA graduate is generally concerned.


Managerial Accounting is vital to a business's success because it quantifies a firm's
performance. By quantifying certain performance variables, senior management can carry out
its two most important functions: 1) Decision-Making/Planning and 2) Controlling Employee
Behaviour.


The Theory of the Firm tells us that a business exists to maximise the value of equity
investors have supplied. Profits result from decisions about what items to produce and
sell (Marketing) and planning what inputs are necessary for this production and
distribution activity (Operations). Value maximisation results from maximising Revenue and
minimising Total Costs. In business, resources are always limited or finite. Therefore,
they must be employed in the most economical and productive capacity in order to maximise
profits. MBA graduates are often hired to obtain the highest profits possible; therefore,
value maximisation is achieved or forgone as a result of their decision-making and
leadership.


The field of Managerial Accounting is concerned with helping senior managers use data
provided by the Financial Accounting function about the Marketing department and
Operations department to achieve the highest profit levels attainable thus increasing the
value of the firm as much as possible. Managerial Accounting is therefore cross-functional
in the purest sense and should be employed in all areas of a business.


The Financial Accounting Role in Managerial Accounting

To make informed decisions, MBA managers must use a scientific approach rather than simply
following their intuition. This scientific approach often uses historical data supplied by
accountants in the Financial Accounting department to plan future activities and monitor
employee performance.


This historical data includes such items as Balance Sheets, Income Statements, Statements
of Cash Flows and Statements of Retained Earnings. Data from these sources can be further
extrapolated into measures such as Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Investment (ROI).
The Financial Accounting documents provide senior managers with a tangible starting point
for decision-making/planning and analysing employee performance. Through this perspective,
we can see that Financial Accounting is backward-looking whereas Managerial Accounting is
forward-looking.


It is worth noting that in establishing a Financial Accounting system, senior managers
must often make a trade off between information used for decision-making/planning and
information used form employee control. Different systems provide better information in
one area or the other so executive management must make a choice about which function is
more important.


To illustrate how Financial Accounting systems could help MBA graduates solve Marketing
and Operations problems, let's consider a maker of bottled drinks. Suppose a bottled drink
firm makes 5 different drinks; 3 sugary sodas, 1 sports drink and 1 premium bottled water.
Each drink is manufactured at its own separate facility but the distribution and sales
force is the same for all 5 drinks. Financial Accounting documents are broken down on the
basis of each individual drink. These documents which detail Revenue and Cost figures are
the starting point for Managerial Accounting. It is this information which senior managers
can use to make decisions and plans for the Marketing and Operations divisions.


Managerial Accounting takes these Financial Accounting numbers one step further and reacts
by making decisions about resource utilisation, production planning and monitoring
employees. In the bottled drinks case for example, good senior managers might make a
decision to devote more resources to increased production for the sports drink that may be
fuelling profit growth. Or similarly, Financial Accounting data could show an unusual
spike in labour costs, which might alert senior management to a problem with employee
control.


The main point to remember is that Financial Accounting provides the numbers that
Managerial Accounting uses for planning/decision-making and employee control.


The Role of Managerial Accounting in Marketing

Profits are the residual income from Revenue earned producing and selling less the Costs
of producing and selling. Marketing is generally responsible for the Revenue side of the
equation and is therefore important in Managerial Accounting. The question for MBA
managers is one of: what to products to produce, what price to charge for the products,
how to promote the products and how to distribute the products in order to achieve the
greatest profit. Maximizing Revenue while minimizing costs does this.


Managerial Accounting uses Financial Accounting data to make Marketing decisions and plans
about future output. Financial Accounting for example, assembles data on sales into Total
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Accounting
    Accounting ABC is crucial because it tells managers which products or services make or lose money - they usually don\'t know. Traditional cost allocations often depict an unrealistic, inadequate view of profitability, sometimes distorted by hundreds of percent. In most cases, ABC is designed to provide profitability information for each segment of their product/service market matrix. After learning about the specific products, services or customers that make or lose money, managers can choose an
  • Entrepreneurial Adventure
    Entrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
  • Music of new millenium
    Music of new millenium Competencies are one of several factors, including performance results in determining annual pay adjustments. ´´´´´´´´ What Is Competency-Based Pay? · Valuing the how (high impact behaviors) of performance as well as the what (results). · Reinforcing high impact behaviors through pay delivery. · Critical to success, but a bad place to start; a good place to continue. ´´´´´´´´ Competency Based Systems Skills Knowledge Attitude Motives Traits Necessary for Top Performance bu
  • Deregulation
    Deregulation Deregulation of the U.S. airline industry has resulted in ticket prices dropping by a third, on an inflation-adjusted basis. As a result some 1.6 million people fly on 4,000 aircraft every day. Airlines carried 643 million passengers in 1998, a 25% increase over 1993 and the FAA estimates that the nation¡¦s airline system will have to accommodate 917 million passengers by the year 2008. The growth in air travel threatens to overwhelm the presently inadequate air traffic control syst
  • Privatization of Airports
    Privatization of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • Accounting
    Accounting On September 28, 1998, Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Arthur Levitt sounded the call to arms in the financial community. Levitt asked for, "immediate and coordinated action… to assure credibility and transparency" of financial reporting. Levitt’s speech emphasized the importance of clear financial reporting to those gathered at New York University. Reporting which has bowed to the pressures and tricks of earnings management. Levitt specifically addresses five
  • Accounting differences
    Accounting differences General Comments about the Insurance Industry Insurance Companies generate revenues by selling insurance policies. These policies provide a known amount of revenue for an unknown amount of losses offsetting that revenue. This can make the matching principle difficult. Some of the potential losses can come years after the insurance policy was written and the premiums received. The liabilities for these future losses are estimated by actuaries and are subject to a certain am
  • Accounting ethics1
    accounting ethics1 Contents 1. Introduction 2. What is Business Ethics? 3. The 10 Benefits of Business Ethics 4. Case Study on Nestle 4.1. The Impact of Business Ethics on Nestle 4.2. Nestle\'s view on Business Ethics 4.3. The Implications of Business Ethics on Stakeholders 5. Conclusion Introduction Businesses have power through their ability to spend vast amounts of money. They have the ability to enhance or change situations that the common individual does not. As organisations affect many pe
  • Accounting Software Decisions
    Accounting Software Decisions Selecting Accounting Software is one of the most important and, potentially, one of the most costly decisions a business makes. The decision is important because if the right choice is made, internal control of most accounting functions will provide a lower risk of doing business. An accurate method of keeping track of the essential financial functions of the business also will result. However, the decision could be costly if it is made without a thorough evaluation
  • Accounting1
    Accounting1 ACCOUNTING THE LIFE-LINE OF THE BUSINESS WORLD Christian De Church Professor Hercer Communications 215 April 18, 2000 Introduction What goes on in business and other organizations? How are their activities carried out? Who is responsible for them? And, what part does accounting play? These questions and many more are often thought about by many confused and mislead business majors. The main purpose of accounting is to provide useful, reliable, and timely information to people who mak
  • Activity Based Costing
    Activity Based Costing The Use of Activity Based Costing By Joseph P. Milazzo Masters of Business Administration Hawaii Pacific University Fall 2000 Activity based costing (ABC) is a relative new way to allocate costs to specific processes and services. This system assures that the costs are accurately distributed to the products or services that generated them. ABC illustrates costs more accurately, giving management insight to the cost associated with certain business activities. ABC extends t
  • ACTIVITYBASED COSTING BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS
    ACTIVITYBASED COSTING BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING: BEYOND THE SMOKE AND MIRRORS Summary The business environment in the 1990s is markedly different from that of the past when conventional cost accounting procedures were established. Activity-based costing (ABC), pioneered in the late 1980s, offered a new costing approach consistent with the changed environment. However, ABC did not diffuse rapidly into the business community. This article demonstrates why adopting ABC is
  • ADP Security Evaluation
    ADP Security Evaluation Valuation of a Security Automatic Data Processing, Inc. ADP by: Katie S. McCarthy April 7, 1999 Spring Hill College Management of Financial Resources Dr. Ralph Sandler ADP – Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (NYSE:AUD) ADP is one of the largest independent computing services firms in the world with more than .5 billion in annual revenues and more than 425,000 clients. Founded in 1949, ADP provides computerized transaction processing, data communications, software, and inf
  • Arthur D Little Inc
    Arthur D Little Inc Arthur D. Little, Inc. Does Process, Form, and Strategy make a business successful? The 60\'s and 70\'s ADL enjoyed a pre-emptive market share originating from the late 1800\'s, and became the leader of a growing management consulting practice during 60\'s and 70\'s. By the end of the 70\'s and early 80\'s they lost their dominant position as the market grew, and they continued to slide as the success of new companies tooled with contemporary technologies and skills, identifi
  • Audit risk model
    Audit risk model 1999 Semester II AFM 312 Auditing Assignment 1 Audit Risk Model Posting Date: 6 September, 1999 Table of Contents A) DEFINITION OF RISKS 1 INHERENT RISK 1 CONTROL RISK 1 AUDIT RISK 1 DETECTION RISK 1 B) ARMIDALE PTY LTD – YEAR 1 3 INHERENT & CONTROL RISK LEVELS 3 DETECTION RISK & EVIDENCE ACCUMULATION 3 C) ARMIDALE PTY LTD – YEAR 3 4 SETTING AUDIT RISK HIGH 4 WHAT IS A ‘LOW’ LEVEL OF IR & CR 4 D) THE AUDIT RISK MODEL IN PRACTICE 5 A) Definition of Risks Inherent Risk This is def
  • Boeing case Study
    Boeing case Study Keeping Boeing Flying Higher and Higher Case Study Introduction Boeing has been building commercial airliners since 1927 with the first Boeing commercial jet airliner, the 7O7, introduced in l955. As discussed in the article on page 172 of the text. This success is even more remarkable when one realizes that the Boeing "Design/ Build" process had not changed very much during the past three decades. The system was antiquated, cumbersome, and inefficient creating production delay
  • Break Even Analysis
    Break Even Analysis The American University in Dubai Research Report Break Even Analysis By Jasmeen Kaur A Paper submitted to Dr.T.Jordan of the Faculty of Business Administration, The American University in Dubai in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the successful completion of Marketing Management (MKT345) Dubai, U.A.E November 5, 2000 Introduction: “Break-even point.” That’s the magic number that tells you when your revenue will cover your expenses, which is being used by experts for
  • Business analysis of a Limited Company
    Business analysis of a Limited Company The Limited, Inc. Three Limited Parkway Columbus, Ohio 43230 614-415-7000 www.limited.com Written by:Dan Di Pietro s_djdipietro@clarion.edu Administrative Decision Making BSAD 490 Dr. Roth July 12, 1999 Overview Name: The Limited, Inc. Headquarters: Three Limited Parkway Columbus, Ohio 43230 Telephone: 614-415-7000 Internet Address: www.limited.com Top Officers: Leslie H. Wexner, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Kenneth B. Gilman, Vice Chairman and Chie
  • BUSINESS PLAN
    BUSINESS PLAN Introduction to the Sample Plan The following document is a sample of a finished business plan. In your final plan, you have the opportunity to elaborate on those ideas in your outline that you feel are most integral to your business. In composing your business plan, you can follow your outline as loosely or closely as you choose. For instance, in the sample plan, the Executive Summary, which is the last section of the Business Planning Wizard, is presented first in order to emphas
  • BUSINESS PLAN
    BUSINESS PLAN Introduction to the Sample Plan The following document is a sample of a finished business plan. In your final plan, you have the opportunity to elaborate on those ideas in your outline that you feel are most integral to your business. In composing your business plan, you can follow your outline as loosely or closely as you choose. For instance, in the sample plan, the Executive Summary, which is the last section of the Business Planning Wizard, is presented first in order to emphas
  • BUSINESS PLAN
    BUSINESS PLAN Introduction to the Sample Plan The following document is a sample of a finished business plan. In your final plan, you have the opportunity to elaborate on those ideas in your outline that you feel are most integral to your business. In composing your business plan, you can follow your outline as loosely or closely as you choose. For instance, in the sample plan, the Executive Summary, which is the last section of the Business Planning Wizard, is presented first in order to emphas
  • CEO Duality
    CEO Duality October 22,1999 Term Paper Separating the Board Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer: Pro and Con By: Danielle Thomas & Rebecca Hundley I Introduction Numerous reports on corporate governance have emphasised the desirability of increasing the number of outside directors on boards. An equally important and related issue is a growing insistence that the role of chairman and chief executive should be separate, though on this issue there is less unanimity in the U.S. than in other cou
  • CocaCola
    CocaCola History "Coca-Cola enterprises Incorporated, employees 66,199 operates, 444 facilities, 47,235 vehicles, 1.9 million pieces of cold drink equipment and sold 3.8billion unit cases in 46 states in the united states, all 10 provinces of Canada and portions of Europe including Belgium, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg and the Netherlands" (Coca-Cola facts 99). An, Atlanta Pharmacist Dr. John Slyth Pemberton founded Coca-Cola on May 8, 1886. The carmel colored ingredients, Coca leaves and k
  • Consulting Business Plan
    Consulting Business Plan Business Plan Business Plan: Progressive Consulting What follows is a complete business plan for a hypothetical company. Please copy or save to your disk and use as an example in developing your own business plan. If you would like to read a series of articles jump to Web Marketing . For additional business aids click on The Practical Tools of Consulting 1. 0 Executive Summary Progressive Consulting will be formed as a consulting company specializing in marketing of high
  • Contracts
    Contracts Lump Sum Contract A defined lump sum plan expresses employees\' pension benefits as a lump sum amount, which makes it easy for them to understand and appreciate the benefits. In many cases, the plans also allow employees to accrue larger benefits at younger ages than they would under a traditional pension plan. And, increasingly, defined lump sum plans provide "portable" benefits that employees can take with them if they leave the company before retirement age. Cost plus percentage con
  • Ecommerce companies and stock valuations
    ecommerce companies and stock valuations eCommerce Companies and Stock Valuations 1. Introduction A hot topic in today’s business culture is eCommerce. Experts argue about whether eCommerce will change business, whether or not it is a fad, and what viable strategies there are in a business world that is changing at the speed of idea generation. One thing that nobody argues about is the fact that eCommerce oriented companies have stock prices and market capitalizations that are enormous. Based on
  • Financial analysis
    financial analysis TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION. PROCEDURE. FINDINGS. 1.0 INVESTMENT RATIOS – MEASURES OF EFFICIENCY. 1.1 Earnings per Share. 1.2 P/E Ratio or Price / Earnings Ratio 1.3 Dividend Yield. 1.4 Dividend Cover. 2.0 PRIMARY OPERATING RATIOS – MEASURES OF EFFICIENCY. 2.1 Return on Capital Employed 2.2 Debtors Turnover Ratio 2.3 Creditors Turnover Ratio 2.4 Return on Shareholders’ Fund 3.0 PRIMARY FINANCIAL RATIOS – GEARING AND LIQUITY. 3.1 Gearing Ratio 3.2 Liquidity Ratio 3.2.1 Curr
  • Financial Case of Deanna Perez Fashions Inc
    Financial Case of Deanna Perez Fashions Inc The financial strength of Deanna Perez Fashions in comparison to the industry can be found by a relative comparison of its Current and TIE ratios to the industry averages. Both of these averages show the lack of their ability, relative to the industry to cover expenses. DPF’s current ratio, an indicator of the extent to which claims of short-term creditors are covered by current assets, is much lower than the industry average, suggesting that it’s liqu
  • Franchising
    Franchising “Franchising can be defined as a system based on a close and ongoing collaboration whereby a company, the franchisor, gets into partnership with one or several companies, the franchisee(s). Its prime aim is to develop a franchise concept designed in the first place by the franchisor.” (Internet, 1) In order to better understand the concept of franchising I will first explain several commonly used terms in this concept. Ø Franchise is a legal agreement that allows one organization wit
  • FROM BRICK AND MORTAR TO CLICK AND MORTAR
    FROM BRICK AND MORTAR TO CLICK AND MORTAR FROM BRICK AND MORTAR TO CLICK AND MORTAR: MAKING THE TRANSITION FROM CONVENTIONAL BUSINESS TO ELECTRONIC COMMERCE FROM BRICK AND MORTAR TO CLICK AND MORTAR: MAKING THE TRANSITION FROM CONVENTIONAL BUSINESS TO E-COMMERCE TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary 1 Making the Transition from Conventional Business to E-Commerce 4 Introduction 4 Background 4 Problem Definition 5 Hypothesis 6 Methodology 6 Research Design 6 Sources of Data 7 Research Results 7 The Question
  • Harley Davidson
    Harley Davidson Harley - Davidson Inc. Motorcycle Industry INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to develop a strategic corporate objective for HarleyDavidson Inc., a publicly traded, employee owned manufacturer of heavyweight motorcycles, recreational and commercial vehicles, military defense items, and small engines, distributing its products to domestic and international markets targeting all men and women of all ages. INDUSTRY AND COMPETITIVE MARKET The industry under study is the motor
  • History of the KwashaLipton Group
    History of the KwashaLipton Group I. The History of Kwasha-Lipton (Pricewaterhouse-Coopers) a. How Were They Formed Two actuaries created Kwasha Lipton in 1944 one was named Kwasha and the other Lipton who assisted companies with their pensions. The firm recently advised Fortune 500 firms such as Bell Atlantic, RJR Nabisco and Bank of America on everything from pensions and 401(k) retirement plans to medical insurance, and it administers the plans. More large companies are moving toward outsourc
  • How to rejuvenate a mature business
    How to rejuvenate a mature business The last two decades has seen a revolution in management accounting theory and practice due to the challenges of the competitive environment in the 1980s. Kaplan and Johnson (1987) identified the failings and obsolescence of existing cost and performance measurement systems which led to re-examination of traditional cost accounting and management control systems. Conventional financial and management accounting methods have developed primarily as a result of c
  • HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
    hrm HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT A responsibility that must be assumed by a business firm is that of maintaining sufficient and adequate personnel in its organization so that the purposes for which it exists may be achieved. Nature of the problem: 1) To find the right people and/or choose among the available ones 2) To appropriately train them for task 3) Too develop the right morale and esprit de corps It all depends on: a. Size of organization b. Labor market conditions c. Technological developm
  • IBM company
    IBM company I. Current Situation (1991-1993) 1. History of IBM: IBM is a multinational corporation that started its activities in 1911. But its origins can be traced back to 1890, during the height of the Industrial Revolution. It was first known as the Computing-Recording Company, then in 1924, it took the name of International Business Machines. Nowadays, this multinational company is known as the « Big Blue ». 2. Mission statement IBM main activity is to find solutions to its wide range of cl
  • Implementing SelfDirected Work Teams
    Implementing SelfDirected Work Teams Implementing Self-Directed Work Teams Self directed work teams are defined as a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach, for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). Collaborative self directed work teams can get complex projects done at faster rates than the traditional boss-worker arrangement, because the decision making process is made faster
  • Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Busine
    Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Business CONTENTS Section 1 1. INTRODUCTION 2. COMPANY PROFILE Section 2 3. SWOT ANALYSIS Issues to be taken under cosideration 4. THE PROBLEM(S) 5. OPTIONS – INCREASING EFFECTIVENESS a)Addressinng Local Lecturers b)Establishing new Services 6. EVALUATION-RECOMMENDATIONS 7. SUMMARY 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES Introduction All successful businesses owe their existence to the recognition and existence of a market opportunity. It is essential therefore for
  • Intrnational MKT research Canada
    Intrnational MKT research Canada TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Introduction Canada -- USA\'s Largest Trading Partner NAFTA Introduction Exporting Guidelines Incentives Customs Contacts Trade Contacts Company Specific -- Massasoit Machine, Inc. Manufacturers\' Representative Recommendations Appendices A Country Data B Canadian Domestic Economy C Canadian Trade Statistics D Canada - New England Trade Summary, 1997 E NAFTA: A Partnership at Work F (SIC-3081) - Machine Shop Industry G List of Major Indu
  • MANAGEMENT POLICY
    MANAGEMENT POLICY OPERATION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT All organizations have operations.” A manufacturing company may conduct operations in a foundry, mill, or factory. Our interest is in the management of operations, or operations management (OM), including the usual management cycle of planning, implementing, and monitoring/controlling. The driving force for OM must be an overriding goal of continually improving service to customers, where customer means the next process as well as the final,
  • Models for Predicting Corporate Financial Distress
    Models for Predicting Corporate Financial Distress INTRODUCTION 2 MEASURING FINANCIAL HEALTH 2 FINANCIAL DISTRESS 2 FACTORS AFFECTING FINANCIAL HEALTH 3 Capital Structure and Capital Adequacy 3 Operating Cash Flows and Cost Structure 4 Earnings Capacity 4 Liquidity 4 Asset Conversions – “Growing Broke” 5 Asset Utilisation Efficiency/Turnover 5 Strategic Position 5 PREDICTING FINANCIAL DISTRESS 6 FAILURE PREDICTION MODELS 7 Altman’s Z Score 8 Logit Analysis: The Model 9 Other Statistical Failure
  • Nike1
    Nike1 The athletic apparel industry in which Nike is involved is a major money maker in the United States, but the fact that none of the factories are located in North America has brought some heat to the company. Nike controls more than 40 percent of the U.S. Market for sports related goods, but doesn’t have a single sneaker factory in this country (Miller 1). Nike continues to make millions of dollars yet exploits workers overseas by paying them very little, while requiring long hours without
  • Organization Development (OD) is the application o
    OD Organization Development (OD) is the application of behavioral science knowledge to improve an organization\'s health and effectiveness through it\'s ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationship and increase problem-solving capabilities. OD is an effort of planned, organizationwide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization process\'s using behavioral science. It must be managed fr
  • Public Companies
    Public Companies PUBLIC COMPANIES Public Companies are those which are listed on the stock exchange. The public may buy and sell shares in them. A public company will have the word \'limited\' after the company name (usually abbreviated to Ltd). Characteristics The characteristics of a public company are that they are limited by shares and have limited liability. \'Limited by shares\' means that shares in the company can be bought and sold freely (shares are featured in the stock-exchange). Whil
  • Roatcap Cattle Company
    Roatcap Cattle Company Roatcap Cattle Company, Ltd. (RCC) faces changing the focus of its cattle operations. The options are (1) to maintain the cattle operations at the current level, (2) to expand to 100 cows, (3) to expand to 200 cows, or (4) to get out of the cattle business altogether. RCC currently uses a cash or tax based method to account for its cattle operations, RCC has employed our accounting firm to modify, based on RCC’s approval, its accounting methods for the following four objec
  • SelfDirected Work Teams
    SelfDirected Work Teams Self directed work teams are defined as a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach, for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). Collaborative self directed work teams can get complex projects done at faster rates than the traditional boss-worker arrangement, because the decision making process is made faster and more effective in a team. Empowering teams to m
  • Small Business funding gap
    Small Business funding gap “The Funding Gap” Due Date: Wednesday November 1st, 2000 The question “The funding gap” is always quoted as a major issue for dstart up and developingh small businesses. What evidence is there to support this view and what measures have relevant organisations taken to overcome the problem? Executive Summary This report critically examine concerned with how young small businesses and start up business fund themselves externally. Firstly we look at the funding ga,p what
  • SUCCESSFUL ENTRPRENEURSHIP
    SUCCESSFUL ENTRPRENEURSHIP Running head: SUCCESSFUL ENTRPRENEURSHIP Successful Entrepreneurship in the Real Estate Industry Stephen R. Boyd Eastern Nazarene College April 6, 1999 Table Of Contents Problem Statement…………………………………………………………Page 3 Abstract…………………………………………………………………….Page 4 Questionairre……………………………………………………………….Page 13 Appendices…………………………………………………………………Page 14 References………………………………………………………………….Page 15 Bibliography……………………………………………………………….Page 16 Statement of the problem What are the
  • Survival Tips For Small Businesses
    Survival Tips For Small Businesses You may be in Mail Order, Direct Mail, or you may be a local merchant with 150 employees; whichever, however or whatever... you\'ve got to know how to keep your business alive during economic recessions. Anytime the cash flow in a business, large or small, starts to tighten up, the money management of that business has to be run as a "tight ship." Some of the things you can and should do include protecting yourself from expenditures made on sudden impulse. We\'
  • Computer programer
    computer programer Computer programmers held about 568,000 jobs in 1996. Programmers are employed in almost every industry but the largest amount is in the computer and data processing industry that includes companies that write and sell software. Allot of programmers can also be found working for companies that provide engineering and management services, manufacturers of computer and office equipment, financial institutions, insurance carriers, educational institutions, and government agencies