Ancient peruvian ceramics of the north coast Essay

This essay has a total of 1162 words and 5 pages.

ancient peruvian ceramics of the north coast



Ancient Peruvian Ceramics of the North Coast
March 11, 1997

The first pottery pieces found in Peru were made somewhere between 1500 and 1000 b.p.
The pieces were found in the central Andean region where a religious cult lived. This
cult was called Chavín, after the best known ceremonial center, Chavín de Huántar. The
religious center was the home to massive temples that were highly embellished with low
relief sculptures of gods, animals, and symbols. The pottery found in the area where
vessels that were well made and highly decorated with a similar motif as the temples.
But the evolution of Peruvian pottery becomes somewhat confusing and complex after this
first civilization of potters. There is a division of people into the North Coast and
the South Coast. The split created two styles of pottery, although similar, they never
quite merge. I am only going to talk about the north coast traditions.

On the North coast there are five cultures that evolve into the dominant Mochica style,
which was one of the most vigorous and prosperous cultures of Ancient Peru. The next
earliest North Coast style, other than the Chavín, started with the Cupisnique people in
the Chicama valley. Their ceramics “closely resembled those of highland Chavín. They
were well made and polished, though somewhat thick walled and heavy. The type of firing
used produced a dark semireduced ware that varied from brownish gray to carbon black in
color. Decoration consisted of bold, curvilinear human, feline, and birds of pray heads,
eye patterns, pelt markings, and other brief symbols of geometric devices.”

In the valley to the south of the Cupisnique were the Salinar people who sometime during
the fifth century b.p. moved into the north coast of Peru and spread its influence
throughout the Cupisnique area. Salinar pottery, “though deceptively primitive in
ornamentation, was technologically superior to that of the Cupisnique. Vessels were made
of well-prepared clays that were fully oxidized in firing, making them an even orange
color. Cream and red slips were used to accentuate sculptural forms and create flat
geometric patterns, but not to draw figurative motifs. The technical advances of the
controlled oxidation firing and slip decoration soon had their effect on contemporary
Cupisnique ceramics.” Personally, I enjoyed the bottle forms they used with their double
strap handles that lead from the shoulder of the forms to the one central spout. (see
figures 1 and 2). This style of vessel seems to continue throughout the centuries.

Three other cultures in north coast valleys contributed their pottery style to the over
all Cusisnique style that was evolving into the Mochica style. These people were the
Gallinazo, Recuay, and Vicús. The Gallinazo constructed double chamber vessels with
whistle spouts and a type of decoration called negative decoration where they painted
their simple designs on after the pieces were fired. The Recuay also had double chamber
vessels but these had one functioning spout and one sculpted, usually an animal or figure.
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