This essay has a total of 696 words and 3 pages.


Applications of Silicon

Silicon is one of man's most useful elements. In the form of sand and clay it is used to
make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and
in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc. Silica, as sand, is a
principal ingredient of glass, one of the most inexpensive of materials with excellent
mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Hyperpure silicon can be doped
with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic to produce silicon for use in transistors,
solar cells, rectifiers, and other solid-state devices, which are used extensively in the
electronics and space-age industries.

Though silicon was originally discovered in 1810 and thought to be a compound silicon was
discovered as an element in 1823 by Jons Berzelius. In 1824 Berzelius prepared amorphous
silicon by the same general method and purified the product by removing the fluosilicates
by repeated washings. Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second
allotropic form of the element. Davy in1800 thought silica to be a compound and not an
element; later in 1811, Gay Lussac and Thenard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon
by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

Silicon is a metalloid at room temperature with an atomic number of 14, 14 electrons, 14
Continues for 2 more pages >>