Arab-Israelia Wars Essay

This essay has a total of 1700 words and 8 pages.

Arab-Israelia Wars

Arab-Israeli Wars
Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the
modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49,
1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed
a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors,
complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s.


THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49)
The first war began as a civil conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs following the
United Nations recommendation of Nov. 29, 1947, to partition Palestine, then still under
British mandate, into an Arab state and a Jewish state. Fighting quickly spread as Arab
guerrillas attacked Jewish settlements and communication links to prevent implementation
of the UN plan.


Jewish forces prevented seizure of most settlements, but Arab guerrillas, supported by the
Transjordanian Arab Legion under the command of British officers, besieged Jerusalem. By
April, Haganah, the principal Jewish military group, seized the offensive, scoring
victories against the Arab Liberation Army in northern Palestine, Jaffa, and Jerusalem.
British military forces withdrew to Haifa; although officially neutral, some commanders
assisted one side or the other.


After the British had departed and the state of Israel had been established on May 15,
1948, under the premiership of David BEN-GURION, the Palestine Arab forces and foreign
volunteers were joined by regular armies of Transjordan (now the kingdom of JORDAN), IRAQ,
LEBANON, and SYRIA, with token support from SAUDI ARABIA. Efforts by the UN to halt the
fighting were unsuccessful until June 11, when a 4-week truce was declared. When the Arab
states refused to renew the truce, ten more days of fighting erupted. In that time Israel
greatly extended the area under its control and broke the siege of Jerusalem. Fighting on
a smaller scale continued during the second UN truce beginning in mid-July, and Israel
acquired more territory, especially in Galilee and the Negev. By January 1949, when the
last battles ended, Israel had extended its frontiers by about 5,000 sq km (1,930 sq mi)
beyond the 15,500 sq km (4,983 sq mi) allocated to the Jewish state in the UN partition
resolution. It had also secured its independence. During 1949, armistice agreements were
signed under UN auspices between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. The
armistice frontiers were unofficial boundaries until 1967.


SUEZ-SINAI WAR (1956)
Border conflicts between Israel and the Arabs continued despite provisions in the 1949
armistice agreements for peace negotiations. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs
who had left Israeli-held territory during the first war concentrated in refugee camps
along Israel's frontiers and became a major source of friction when they infiltrated back
to their homes or attacked Israeli border settlements. A major tension point was the
Egyptian-controlled GAZA STRIP, which was used by Arab guerrillas for raids into southern
Israel. Egypt's blockade of Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba
intensified the hostilities.


These escalating tensions converged with the SUEZ CRISIS caused by the nationalization of
the Suez Canal by Egyptian president Gamal NASSER. Great Britain and France strenuously
objected to Nasser's policies, and a joint military campaign was planned against Egypt
with the understanding that Israel would take the initiative by seizing the Sinai
Peninsula. The war began on Oct. 29, 1956, after an announcement that the armies of Egypt,
Syria, and Jordan were to be integrated under the Egyptian commander in chief. Israel's
Operation Kadesh, commanded by Moshe DAYAN, lasted less than a week; its forces reached
the eastern bank of the Suez Canal in about 100 hours, seizing the Gaza Strip and nearly
all the Sinai Peninsula. The Sinai operations were supplemented by an Anglo-French
invasion of Egypt on November 5, giving the allies control of the northern sector of the
Suez Canal.


The war was halted by a UN General Assembly resolution calling for an immediate ceasefire
and withdrawal of all occupying forces from Egyptian territory. The General Assembly also
established a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to replace the allied troops on the
Egyptian side of the borders in Suez, Sinai, and Gaza. By December 22 the last British and
French troops had left Egypt. Israel, however, delayed withdrawal, insisting that it
receive security guarantees against further Egyptian attack. After several additional UN
resolutions calling for withdrawal and after pressure from the United States, Israel's
forces left in March 1957.


SIX-DAY WAR (1967)
Relations between Israel and Egypt remained fairly stable in the following decade. The
Suez Canal remained closed to Israeli shipping, the Arab boycott of Israel was maintained,
and periodic border clashes occurred between Israel, Syria, and Jordan. However, UNEF
prevented direct military encounters between Egypt and Israel.


By 1967 the Arab confrontation states-Egypt, Syria, and Jordan-became impatient with the
status quo, the propaganda war with Israel escalated, and border incidents increased
dangerously. Tensions culminated in May when Egyptian forces were massed in Sinai, and
Cairo ordered the UNEF to leave Sinai and Gaza. President Nasser also announced that the
Gulf of Aqaba would be closed again to Israeli shipping. At the end of May, Egypt and
Jordan signed a new defense pact placing Jordan's armed forces under Egyptian command.
Continues for 4 more pages >>




  • ArabIsraeli wars
    ArabIsraeli wars The Rabinnovich article titled \'Seven Wars and a Peace Treaty\',gives a chronological background of wars made between Arabs and Israeli\'s after the birth of Israeli state. I: First War;1948-1949 The Israeli\'s reffered this war as the war of Independence.It had two distinct phases.It first begun in 1947 after UN resolution on the partition of Palestine.The resolution was accepted by the Jewish community,but Arabs rejected.The result was a civil war.Until May 15, 1948 th two fe
  • Summary of the ARABISRAELI WARS
    Summary of the ARABISRAELI WARS Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first w