Arab Nationalism

This essay has a total of 1023 words and 5 pages.


Arab Nationalism




Arab nationalism is defined as the idea that Arabs constitute a single distinctive nation
united by a history and common language of Arabic. It is the quest for a national
identity and struggle for political power in the Fertile Cresent.

Arab nationalism is a fairly new concept; itís only about one hundred years old. It did
not really develop until after world war one. It is basically he result of three major
influenced:

1.) The breakup of the Ottoman Empire after world war one and the emergence of modern
states that no longer shared a common religiously rooted ideology that was Islamic based
and religiously sociopolitical order.

2.) The intensified struggle for independence from political and religiocultural dominance of European imperialism.
3.) The ideological movement of Jamal Al-Deen Al Afghani disciples, Muhamed Abduh and Rashid Rida.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were profound changes in the Ottoman
system and a serious decentralization of power. With the end of the Ottoman expansion,
the state of insututions lost their administrative and military capacities. The empire
was plagues with popular revolts, economic regression and in the end military defeats.
Many political changes came. The Ottoman Empire was becoming weak, it was the perfect
time for its downfall.

Before the downfall of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans had ruled the Fertile Crescent as
a number of separate small provinces. There were no units of territorial government
corrersponding to the Ottoman sub-states in Egypt, Tunisia or Algeria. The principal
cities of the region, such as Damascus, Aleppo, Mosul, and Baghdad were the main centers
of government. Rural districts were often self-governing.

World war one was a good opportunity for the Arabs to gain freedom from the Ottoman
Empire. Leading the Struggle towards independence of the Arabs from Ottoman rule was
Sharif Hussein. Hussein was the Turkish appointed governor of the Hijaz province of
Arabia. He launched the Arab fight for freedom in June of 1916, with his Bedouin warriors
stormed the Turkish garrison groups in Mecca. Husseinís next move was to seek help of the
British; he needed their moral support, money and fighting equipment. It was of the
Britishís benefit to provide this help seeing as the British and Arabís had common enemy
so they agreed to cooperate.

Hussein dreamed of one day becoming the ruler of the Arab world, which included the
Arabian Peninsula, and what is now modern day Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq.
The Arab leader wanted the British to recognize this ambition in exchange for fighting a
Continues for 3 more pages >>




  • China the past
    china the past For most of its 3,500 years of history, China led the world in agriculture, crafts and science, then fell behind in the 19th century when the Industrial Revolution gave the West clear superiority in military and economic affairs. In the first half of the 20th century, China continued to suffer from major famines, civil unrest, military defeat, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China\'s autono
  • The Importance of Oil In U.S. Foreign Policy
    oil The Importance of Oil In U.S. Foreign Policy Introduction During the oil and energy crisis of the mid-1970s Americans became painfully aware of the consequences of the United States dependence on foreign sources of oil. Unfortunately, research and exploration for alternative sources of oil in North America has not been pursued vigorously enough to cease such foreign dependence. As a result, in the mid-1990s Americans find themselves in the same precarious position as they were during the 197
  • Gandhi
    Gandhi Gandhi Gandhi, lived from 1869-1948 and was also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in Porbandar, in the modern state of Gujarat, on October 2, 1869, into a Hindu family, Both his father and grandfather having been prime ministers of two adjacent and tiny states. After a modest career at school, he went to London in 1888 to train as a lawyer, leaving behind his young wife, whom he had married when she was in her teens. In London, Gandhi encountered theosophists, vegetarians, and others who
  • Federico garcia lorca
    federico garcia lorca Born in Fuente Vaqueros, Granada, Spain, June 5,1898; died near Granada, August 19,1936, GarcŪa Lorca is Spain\'s most deeply appreciated and highly revered poet and dramatist. His murder by the Nationalists at the start of the Spanish civil war brought sudden international fame, accompanied by an excess of political rhetoric which led a later generation to question his merits; after the inevitable slump, his reputation has recovered (largely with a shift in interest to th
  • War Economu
    War Economu The 20-year old Afghan conflict has created an open war economy, affecting Afghanistan and surrounding areas. Not only has Afghanistan become the worlds largest opium producer and a center for arms dealing, but it supports a multi-billion dollar trade in goods smuggled from Dubai to Pakistan. This criminalized economy funds both the Taliban and their adversaries. It has transformed social relations and weakened states and legal economies throughout the region. Sustainable peace wil
  • Algeria
    Algeria Algeria Algeria is located in North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea. It is situated to the west of Libya and Tunisia and east of Morocco. The north is fertile and mountainous, in contrast to the south that includes parts of the Sahara desert. In all, more than four-fifths of Algeria is desert. Algeria is 919,590 square miles and is the tenth largest country in the world. The country?s population is 29.2 million and is growing annually at 2.2 percent. About 75 percent of all residents ar
  • European Imperialism
    European Imperialism European Imperialism European expansion was almost a certainty. The continent was relatively poor place for agriculture, which pushed Europeans outside of Europe in search of new soil. Different countries sent explorers, like Columbus and Magellan, to find unknown trade routes to India and Asia. They stumbled onto new sources for raw materials and goods and Europe was suddenly substantially profiting. The exploration of Africa, Asia, and South America provided new wealth. I
  • Importance of Oil in US forieng policy
    Importance of Oil in US forieng policy The Importance of Oil In U.S. Foreign Policy Introduction During the oil and energy crisis of the mid-1970s Americans became painfully aware of the consequences of the United States dependence on foreign sources of oil. Unfortunately, research and exploration for alternative sources of oil in North America has not been pursued vigorously enough to cease such foreign dependence. As a result, in the mid-1990s Americans find themselves in the same precarious
  • The Causes of the SinoSoviet Schism 19271969
    The Causes of the SinoSoviet Schism 19271969 Causes and Elevation of the Sino-Soviet Schism 1927-1969 It can be argued that the most significant effect on foreign policy during the Cold War, besides the arms race, was the schism and eventually antagonism between the USSR and China. Some historians have argued that the schism between the USSR continued to elevate throughout the Cold War. Alvin Z. Rubenstien, in his book Soviet Foreign Policy Since World War II makes the argument that The Sino
  • A Critical Evaluation of Charles De Gaulles Handli
    A Critical Evaluation of Charles De Gaulles Handling of the Algerian Insurrection The 1950s was not a particularly good decade for France. The Fourth Republic, which had been established in the aftermath of the Second World War, remained unstable and lurched from crisis to crisis. Between 1946 and 1954, there had been a war in French Indo-China, between a nationalist force under Ho Chi Minh and the French. The war was long and bitter and towards the end, the French suffered the ignominy of losi
  • An Analyssi of Terrorism
    An Analyssi of Terrorism Introduction On September 11, 2001, every person was stunned with the earth shaking news that the World Trade Center (WTC), the highest building in the world was attacked by terrorist. This was done by hi-jacking two commercial airplanes which plowed the two famous sites. More than 5,000 American was feared dead. This was the most recent and most devastating terrorist act that brought terrorism into the timelight. Terrorism is a term of uncertain legal content. The term
  • Fascism in the Contemporary World
    Fascism in the Contemporary World FASCISM AND ULTRANATIONALISM IN CONTEMPORARY CROATIA, HUNGARY, AND SERBIA Introduction This research examines the development of fascism and ultranationalism in contemporary Croatia, Hungary, and Serbia. Fascism and ultranationalism are not one and the same thing. While a fascist likely will be an ultranationalist (and will certainly be nationalistic), an ultranationalist need not necessarily be a fascist. As these two terms are critical to this examination, th
  • My New Russia
    My New Russia My New Russia Economics, Politics, Military, and Problems with the Post-Soviet Transition Period International Politics 28 April 2000 Justin E. White Russia. It is a land full of history and culture. We have the Russians to thank for that most favorite potent potable, vodka and many other things. Russia is a very difficult country to understand. The people are incredibly warm and friendly. They believe that hospitality is one of the most important social graces and most Russians w
  • Arab-Israeli conflict
    Arab-Israeli conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most prolonged and bloody conflicts in not only modern history, but in the ancient world as well. The roots of the conflict, as well as the arguments on both sides, are as diversified and complicated as the conflict itself. The Israelites started to conquer and settle the "land of Canaan," which is present day Israel, in 1250 B.C.. King Solomon ruled the Israelites and the land of Israel from 961-922 B.C.. Following his reign, Israel
  • A Critical Evaluation Of Charles De Gaulles Handli
    A Critical Evaluation Of Charles De Gaulles Handling Of The Algerian The 1950s was not a particularly good decade for France. The Fourth Republic, which had been established in the aftermath of the Second World War, remained unstable and lurched from crisis to crisis. Between 1946 and 1954, there had been a war in French Indo-China, between a nationalist force under Ho Chi Minh and the French. The war was long and bitter and towards the end, the French suffered the ignominy of losing the major f
  • Gender Stereotypes in Magazines
    Gender Stereotypes in Magazines The conflict and controversy surrounding events in India during the British occupation helped give rise to many conflicting ideas about British rule. Although they varied in degree, the ultimate ideas would question the authority of British dominance, overall. Interpretation of Rebellious events during the nineteenth century between British and Nationalist writers, expose the differing opinion of the two groups. The British naturally aspired to downplay any acts o
  • Five Imporant Events Of The 19
    Five Imporant Events Of The 19 Five Important Events of the 1960s Assassinations During the 1960s the world was hit with four different assassinations of some of the leaders in the world who were out to change the way things were. Although some disagreed to the changes that they were trying to do and even threatened them, they still continued to pursue their idea of change. Ngo Dinh Diem became the first president of South Vietnam in 1956 he was a catholic who opposed Communism and sought for an
  • Saddam Hussein
    Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Saddam) Saddam Hussein Enlarge Saddam Hussein Sadd #257;m Hussein #699;Abd al-Majid al-Tikr #299;t #299; (Often spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic #1589; #1583; #1575; #1605; #1581; #1587; #1610; #1606; #1593; #1576; #1583; #1575; #1604; #1605; #1580; #1610; #1583; #1575; #1604; #1578; #1603; #1585; #1610; #1578; #1610;; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. A rising star in the revolut
  • Black nationalism
    black nationalism The Title: DuBois and Black Nationalism The Epigraph: "The colored people are coming to face the fact quite calmly that most white Americans do not like them, and are planning neither for their survival, nor their definite future" W.E.B. DuBois "A Negro Nation within the Nation" The Premise: Black Nationalism is a pragmatic solution for the success and survival of the oppressed African Americans. The Argument: Black Nationalism is defined by Karenga, as the political belief and
  • Morrocco
    morrocco Officially KINGDOM OF MOROCCO, this country of northwestern North Africa lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. It borders Algeria to the east and southeast; Western Sahara is to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. There form of government now is a constitutional Monarchy with two legislative houses. Morocco\'s offici
  • Imperialism in the middle east
    Imperialism in the middle east http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mckay/western_society/7e/students/outlines/ch26.html Western penetration of Egypt Muhammad Ali built a modern state in Turkish held Egypt that attracted European traders. He drafted the peasants, reformed the government, and improved communications. The peasants lost out because the land was converted from self-sufficient farms to large, private landholdings to grow cash crops for export. Ismail continued the modernization of Eg
  • Censorship In Europe
    Censorship In Europe Americans think of Europeans as essentially like themselves. They believe European societies are like their own-rooted in the rule of law, freedom of religion, democratic government, market competition, and an unfettered press. In recent years, however, Europeans have given up an essential liberty: freedom of speech. It is true that in the United States prevailing orthodoxies on some questions are ruthlessly enforced but it is still legal to say just about anything. Not so i
  • Chinese-Middle East foreign policy
    Chinese-Middle East foreign policy Karl Schroeder Policy Update: China-Persian Gulf China\'s biggest issue in the Middle East is securing the oil and gas that they will need with their continued economic growth. China has attempted to cultivate domestic oil production, but their demand for oil has continued to increase exponentially and it is clear that China will continue to need more and more Middle Eastern oil. China has made a number of big moves to help secure oil in the future. In Septembe
  • Fundamentalist Islam
    Fundamentalist Islam The key issue in the Middle East, increasingly, has less to do with the Arab-Israeli conflict and more to do with fundamentalist Islam. What is fundamentalist Islam? On the one hand, it manifests itself as a new religious conviction, reaffirming faith in an awe-inspiring God. On the other hand, it appears as a militant ideology, demanding political action now. One day its spokesmen call for a jihad (sacred war) against the West, evoking the deepest historic resentments. Anot
  • PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization
    PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization History Palestinian Liberation Organization 1. Can the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) justifiably claim to be \'the sole, legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.\'? The PLO was set up in 1964 by an Arab League decision in response to growing signs of Palestinian unrest. The Palestinians desired to reclaim the lands occupied by Israel, which they felt belonged to them, as said in the Bible. In 1964 the Arab states created the Palestine
  • Israel and Palestine
    Israel and Palestine The Arab-Israel conflict is a story which has taken place over a century. In order to understand the conflict between these two cultures their collective histories must be taken into consideration. It was a long and hard path for the Jewish population to get a piece of land they can call their own. A land free of religious persecution. I think that history has shown that these two states can not and will not be able to sustain peace over any period of time. The story between
  • A Critical Evaluation of Charles De Gaulle's Handl
    A Critical Evaluation of Charles De Gaulle\'s Handling of the Algerian Insurrection The 1950s was not a particularly good decade for France. The Fourth Republic, which had been established in the aftermath of the Second World War, remained unstable and lurched from crisis to crisis. Between 1946 and 1954, there had been a war in French Indo-China, between a nationalist force under Ho Chi Minh and the French. The war was long and bitter and towards the end, the French suffered the ignominy of los
  • Japanese Imperialism (and other countries) in the
    Japanese Imperialism (and other countries) in the 1920s After World War I, Japan began watching China with interest. Japanís military leaders hoped to gain some of Chinaís lands and resources if it should become weak. Soon, problems overseas such as the Great Depression and poor trade helped put that plan into action. Other countries at the same time were also experiencing the kinds of changes that Japan was. Nationalism and imperialism were becoming important ideas in the East. In the 1920s, Ja