This essay has a total of 2275 words and 9 pages.


Before the portrayal of the human body can be critiqued, you must understand the artist's culture. As
man evolved over centuries, his views of the body also transformed. Our tour definitely showed the
drastic changes in different cultures' art. Each culture and era presents very distinct characteristics.
Through time and experimentation, we have expressed our views of the human body clearly with our

Egyptians were the first people to make a large impact on the world of art. Egyptians needed art for
their religious beliefs more than decoration or self-gratification. The most important aspect of Egyptian
life is the ka, the part of the human spirit that lives on after death. The ka needed a physical place to
occupy or it would disappear. Most of the important men of Egypt paid to have their body carved out of
stone. That was were the spirit would live after the man dies. They used stone because it was the
strongest material they could find. Longevity was very important. The bodies are always idealized and
clothed. Figures are very rigid, close-fisted, and are built on a vertical axis to show that the person is
grand or intimidating. Most of the figures were seen in the same: profile of the legs, frontal view of the
torso, and profile of the head. Like most civilizations, Egyptians put a lot of faith in gods. The sky god
Horus, a bird, is found in a great amount of Egyptian art. Little recognition was ever given to the artists.
The emphasis was on the patron.

Early Greek art was greatly influenced by the Egyptians. Geography permitted both cultures to exchange
their talents. The beginning of Greek art is marked by the Geometric phase. The most common art
during the Geometric phase was vase painting. After the vase was formed but before it was painted, the
artist applied a slip (dark pigment) to outside. Then the vase was fired and the artist would incise his
decorations into the hard shell. It was important to incise humans into the fired slip and not paint with
slip. The people in the pictures needed light colored skin, which was the color beneath the slip, because
Greeks wanted to make their art as realistic as possible. Much like Egyptian art, the Greeks idealized
the bodies of the people in their works.

As the Archaic Period evolved, Greek sculptures were almost identical to the Egyptians'. Unlike

Egyptians, the Greeks refined their techniques. Greeks used marble to construct their sculptures. It was
considered more valuable and beautiful than any material available. They softened the lines of the
body. Greek sculptors slowly perfected every contour in the human figure. Greek people viewed the
human body as something beautiful and so they depicted nude men. Women were eventually nude but
only when there was a reason, they needed to be bathing or something where they would be naked.
They people that are sculpted are always young and their bodies are still idealized. The Greeks invented
contrapposto, the relaxed natural stance of a sculpture. A figure that is standing in contrapposto
becomes a sculpture in the round, meaning that the emphasis is not only on a frontal view but also
from all angles.

The Hellenistic Period emerged as the Romans began to produce some of the finest art in history. This
new revolutionary style was incredible. Figures weren't confined to the unnatural or boring positions they
had for centuries. All body parts were in perfect proportion. These statues came alive as their limbs
reached out into space. Vacant stares evolved into human emotions, which were easily recognized on
their faces. I think this renaissance portrayed the way people were thinking. They were exploring
philosophy, religion, and politics. This was a time for rebirth.

Christian art was introduced during the middle of the second century. In many cases the only difference
between Christian art and Hellenistic art is the religious subject matter. After a slow start the Christians
introduced something new, the mosaic. Mosaics became a favorite medium for decorating churches. Man
was viewed in religious scenes due to the spread of Christianity.

Byzantine and medieval art was very representative. The artists' ability to produce lifelike figures had
regressed. The emphasis was not on man anymore. Their art was made to glorify God.

The fifteenth century marked the arrival of the Renaissance. Artists have finally recaptured the amazing
detail and realism that the Greeks and Romans perfected. Artists pushed the limits with new exciting
mediums and bright colors. Filippo Brunelleschi, allowed artists to determine the relative size of each
figure by inventing the vanishing point perspective. With that tool it was possible to put everything in
perfect proportion. Humans were not always idealized as they were in earlier centuries. Many elderly
people are found in the paintings.

Neoclassical paintings commonly showed contemporary garments and scenes. History painting became
very popular. A larger transition was made when color was used to set a mood or express inner feelings.
Nothing like this had ever been considered. Man viewed his experiences as important stepping stones.
To assure that experiences aren't forgotten they were preserved in artworks.

Humans are often used in modern art. Although the people may appear very large or important, they
are usually just vehicles used to convey a message to the audience. In Segal's Red Light, we saw a man
walking alone in front of n old truck. The man was not colored at all. He seemed to be sauntering across
a street at night. A feeling of depression or sadness surrounds the man. The human is not important
but the emotion is. Most of the modern art uses the human body to portray a feeling or emotion. Rarely
will you find any new art that displays a humans because they extraordinary.

Romantic landscaping is incredible. The idea of most of these pieces is to show how insignificant man is.
Before humans were always the center of attention but now here they are almost trivial. Artists like
Thomas Cole show us what is pure and simple. The paintings use a lot of color to create very natural,
unaffected scenes. It seems that we come upon these landscapes almost by accident. They depict ideal
settings that are unscathed by the injustices of the world. In my opinion, the beauty of these works is
unsurpassed by any other art.

Through the ages each culture had its own interpretation of what the human body means. I have briefly
explained a few of the broadest views of the human body. In order to explain one in great detail would
take volumes. I thoroughly enjoyed Mona's tour of the museum and I hope to see her there again.

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