Athens rome Essay

This essay has a total of 972 words and 6 pages.

athens rome

Athens:
 Democracy-rule by the people
 Power in Council
 Leading the Council was oligarchy (small group of rulers who controlled the
judicial, military, civil and religious functions of government)

 Oligarchy became powerful and passed laws for its benefit
 Farmers and merchants revolted
 Nobles saw the danger in the future, so they distributed land of the wealthy to
the poor and it gave Assembly power to pass laws and elect gov't officials

 Direct democracy developed-more people had a say in gov't
 Beliefs: Majority rule (law making process and jury trials), all citizens equal
 Women, slaves and foreigners were not citizens- unable to be in gov't, poor could
not afford education and there were lotteries rather than elections.


Rome:
 Republic-representative democracy, one citizen represents a number of others
 Social structure: patricians (upper, landowners) and plebians (lower, farmers)
 Each had lawmaking body, but only patrician Senate could pass laws
 Plebians wanted greater role in gov't-they were allowed to hold gov't posts
 Beliefs: lawmaking bodies on state and local levels, all free men have equal
rights, innocent until proven guilty, certain rights can never be taken away

 Contributions: system of laws- patrician judges made unfair decisions, therefore,
laws were written down to handle similar cases similarly


English Traditions:
 "cultural baggage"-brought traditions of England to America
 Common Law-judicial decisions standardized-judges look back on past similar cases
 Precedents-previous decisions and local customs of people-same decisions applied
for all- this is today's basic legal procedure-cite past cases to prove theirs

 Magna Carta (1215)-king not above law, trial by jury (peers), speedy trial, protections from unjust punishment
 Parliament-English lawmaking and rep. Body. Parliament grew in power because
monarchs need money-this idea was that of limiting power within gov't through three
branches

 Bill of Rights (1689)-monarch must have consent of people, through their rep. in
parliament , in order to tax and change laws


European Philosophers:
 John Locke-natural rights (people were born with life, liberty, and property),
when gov't established, there is a social contract btwn. the people and gov't, if the
gov't does not meet needs of people, people can form new gov't.-ideas incorporated in DI

 Montesquieu-French-no one person was allowed to make, enforce or interpret laws
in England's gov't. Believed division of power prevented abuse- ideas in Constitution for
separation of power

 Rousseau-French-people had right to determine how they should be governed and not some tyrant

Colonial Influence:
 Mercantilism-nation trying to export more than import-solely for benefit of
mother country. This would help mother country strengthen treasury and build military. In
return, colonies got protection.

 House of Burgesses (1619)-king instructed colonies to setup own assembly-helped
with two foundation of American gov't, (1) rep. were elected from own community and (2)
Americans had chance to experience rep. gov't. and solved own problems

 Mayflower Compact-by the pilgrims-Americans live under a gov't of their choosing,
Continues for 3 more pages >>




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