Ba Of Pigs

This essay has a total of 4087 words and 25 pages.

ba of pigs




Outline

A. Introduction

1. Topic

2. Topic question
- Give evidence
- Give examples of other ideas
3. Thesis

B. Batista/Castro Government
1. Before Castro’s reign
- conservative at first
- turned communist
2. USSR stayed ally with Castro

C. U-2 Spy Plane Incident

1. Francis Gary Powers
- USA’s excuse
- 1958 incident
2. Note to the US government
- air space violation
- Cuba 90 miles off the cost of Florida
3. Rejection of open skies’ proposal
- Eisenhower left for the summit conference
- no more U2 flights over the USSR
4. Powers tried and convicted of espionage by the supreme court of the USSR
- Castro seized all American-owned properties
- oil refineries
- sugar mills
- electric utilities
- USA very angry

D. Summary of The Inspector General's Survey of The Cuban Operation

1. Freedom of Information Act to the National Security Archives
-group that publishes declassified government documents
-the porpoise of document
2. A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime
- Cuban exile organization
- propaganda offense
- clandestine intelligence
- paramilitary force

E. The CIA's Plan of Invasion

1. The bay of Pigs
- Cuban exile organization
- propaganda offense
- clandestine intelligence
- paramilitary force
2. Budget approved
- Political action
- propaganda
- paramilitary
- intelligence collection

F. What Went Wrong In The Bay of Pigs Invasion

1. The actual Plan
2. The Inspector General’s conclusions
- The Central Intelligence Agency
- failures with the project and agency

G. What Actually Happened In The Bay of Pigs Invasion

H. Conclusion




















The invasion at the Bay of Pigs has raised many questions and many interesting
things have come out of it. What people want to know is, why it happened, or what
caused it, but the most important question that is not commonly asked is what was the
main affect of the invasion? Some say that the affects are not many. People believed
for a while that there was no way that the united states could suffer from the invasion on
Cuba, they were wrong. The main affect was that Cuban leaders feared another direct
US invasion, and so they allowed the USSR to place nuclear missiles in Cuba, aimed at
the United States, this is called the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Union offered
military aid to Cuba, and Cuba agreed to let the Soviet Union send missiles and materials
to build launch sites. In October 1962, the United States learned that Cuba had nuclear
missiles in place that could be launched toward American cities. President John F.
Kennedy ordered a naval blockade to halt the further shipment of arms. He demanded
that the Soviet Union remove all missiles from the island and dismantle the remaining
missile bases. For several days, the world stood on the brink of nuclear war. Finally, the
Soviet Union removed the weapons under protest from Castro. The Soviet action came
after Kennedy privately agreed not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also agreed to remove U.S.
nuclear missiles from Turkey, which the Soviets considered to be a threat. All because of
the invasion on Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.

Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar became the dictator of Cuba in 1952. The United
States had been kind to Batista. Shortly after, Fidel Castro, became the leader of an
underground antigovernment group. After leading several failed uprisings, and being
arrested for leading those revolts, Castro finally lead a successful rebellion against
Batista. In 1959, Castro became the Premier. At first, Castro was very conservative, but
after he realized how much power he had gained, he started abusing it, being very hostile
to both the Cuban people, and the United States. The United States, who had been very
good to Cuba, but the U.S. started to get angry when, in 1960, Castro seized American oil
refineries, sugar mills, and electric utilities. In the early 60s, he also started to welcome
communism and formed close ties with the USSR.
In 1959, when Castro became premier, the Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA)
started planning an invasion near Guantánamo Bay, a US naval base in Cuba, in the Bay
of Pigs, in southern Cuba. The CIA set up a small sub-organization with the sole purpose
of planning the invasion. Despite the propaganda, intelligence planning, counter
intelligence planning, and paramilitary planning, the mission still failed.
In February 1962, the Inspector General wrote a document called "The Inspector
General's Survey of the Cuban Operation." This was deemed top secret until 1997. Inside
it tells many reasons for the failure. Why didn't the CIA think of these problems ahead of
time?

Before Castro's reign over Cuba, a man named Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar was
the Premier from 1952 to 1959. Castro was against Batista's ideas, so he joined an
underground anti-Batista group. Fidel Castro went up through the ranks of the group,
until he was the leader. He led several rebellions, and was arrested for them. Seven years
later, he led a rebellion that was successful, and overthrew the Batista administration.
Since he was the leader of the group, he became the new dictator of Cuba.
At First, he was a very conservative dictator. He was liked by the Cuban people,
and by other countries, including the United States of America. This did not last long,
when he soon realized how much power he had. He immediately seized American-owned
properties in Cuba. This made him lose the United States as an ally. However,
Khruschev's United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), stayed as an ally, and influenced
Castro to gradually change Cuba in to a communist state. This also scared the Pentagon,
because a communist country not far from the coast of Florida was created.

On February 21st, 1998, The New York Times reported that the Inspector
General's Survey of the Cuban Operation was released under the Freedom of Information
Act to the National Security Archives, a non-profit group that collects and publishes
declassified Government documents. Inside the article, it quoted several paragraphs of
The Inspector Generals Survey of the Cuban Operation.
The Inspector Generals Survey of the Cuban Operation was the internal document
inside the Central Intelligence Agency explaining the failure. The document was written
by the Inspector General of the Central Intelligence Agency, and was kept in his files in
the Agency's building in Washington. It was released under the Freedom of Information
Act on February 21st, 1998, to an organization on the World Wide Web called the
National Security Archives. This organization is a non-profit organization that through its
web page gives the public, such as myself, Government documents, some of which, used
to have been top secret.
As it says in the introduction of this document, "This is the Inspector General's
report on the Central Intelligence Agency's ill-fated attempt to implement national policy
by overthrowing the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba by means of a covert paramilitary
operation."1 It also says that the purpose of this document is "to describe weaknesses and
failures disclosed by the study, and to make recommendations for their correction and
avoidance in the future…It does not describe or analyze in detail the purely military
phase of the effort…In preparing the survey the Inspector General and his representatives
interviewed about 125 Agency employees of all levels and studied a large quantity of
documentary material."2
The Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation states that President
Dwight Eisenhower authorized the following by approving a paper entitled "A Program
of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime":

"a. Formation of a Cuban exile organization to attract Cuban loyalties, to direct
opposition activities, and to provide cover for Agency operations.
b. A propaganda offensive in the name of the opposition.
c. Creation inside Cuba of a clandestine intelligence collection and action apparatus to be
responsive to the direction of the exile organization
d. Development outside Cuba of a small paramilitary force to be introduced into Cuba to
organize, train and lead resistance groups."
The concept was for the Cuban exile council to serve as cover for the United
States Government by acting as a group of American businessmen. When the United
States Government went along to plan and doing actions making the actions themselves
publicly known, but since there was cover, "the hand of the U.S. Government would not
appear"3 because of the Cuban exile group, which would later form a group called FRD.
This document states that the reason for invasion of Cuba by the United States of
America was a way to stop communism from spreading to the Western Hemisphere, near
the United States, a world power and a Democracy. The United States Government felt it
was a danger to National Security, which eventually it was during the Cuban Missile
Crisis, which wouldn’t of even happened if the bay of pigs hadn’t happened.
The history of the Bay of Pigs, or for now the Cuban Operation, began in 1959,
shortly after Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar was overthrown by Fidel Castro. The Central
Intelligence Agency needed a way to accomplish a second revolution in Cuba, this time a
Democratic revolution. The Central Intelligence Agency developed a Branch of the
Western Hemisphere Division, a division of the Central Intelligence Agency, which
handled Intelligence efforts on the Western Hemisphere of the earth. This branch was
named Western Hemisphere Division Branch Four, or WH/4 as an abbreviation.
WH/4 was an expandable task force in charge of the Cuban Operation, and
involved in all the aspects as mentioned in the previous list. Each aspect of the operation
had a different area to work from. The recruiting center for the Cuban Exile group was in
Miami, with a second one in Cuba. The propaganda aspect was located in several
different areas across the continent. For example, there was one powerful "gray" radio
station in Massachusetts, there was another radio station posing as a legitimate
commercial station on Swan Island. A television show in Spanish was created in Miami,
and several written publications were created including a newspaper named Advance,
and even an Anti-Castro comic book!
Inside Cuba a clandestine intelligence group was created with the sole purpose of
being responsive to the Cuban exile group. Out side Cuba there was a small paramilitary
group with the plan to enter Cuba when deemed necessary to organize, train, and lead
resistance groups.

The Central Intelligence Agency decided they needed to capture the island to save
the United States of America from attacks by Communist nations. This plan was known
as The Bay of Pigs. In the internal CIA document, "The Inspector General's Survey of the
Cuban Operation", the Inspector General refers to the mission as "the Central Intelligence
Agency's ill-fated attempt to implement national policy by overthrowing the Fidel Castro
regime in Cuba by means of a covert paramilitary operation."4
The actual Bay of Pigs Invasion begins in the year 1959, and ends with the Cuban
victory on April 19, 1961. The Invasion became official on March 17, 1960, when
President Eisenhower authored a paper titled, "A Program of Covert Action Agency
Against the Castro Regime". This authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to
undertake the following (this paper affected many groups):
"a. Formation of a Cuban exile organization to attract Cuban loyalties, to direct
opposition activities, and to provide cover for Agency operations.
b. A propaganda offensive in the name of the opposition.
c. Creation inside Cuba of a clandestine intelligence collection and action apparatus to be
responsive to the direction of the exile organization.
d. Development outside Cuba of a small paramilitary force to be introduced into Cuba to
organize, train, and lead resistance groups."5
Eisenhower also approved the budget for the operation, which totaled
$4, 400,000. This included "Political action, $950,000; propaganda, $1,700,000;
paramilitary, $1,500,000; intelligence collection, $250,000."6
The plan was to train Cuban exiles, which would serve as a cover for action by
the Central Intelligence Agency, which became known by the public. All Central
Intelligence Agency personnel that had any contact with the Cuban public would have a
separate identity as an American businessman. This would hide all United States
Government involvement. In August 1959, the Chief of the Paramilitary Group attended
a meeting to discuss the creation of a paramilitary group, to be used in Latin American
crisis situations. He setup a small, proprietary airline for future use. At this time, Cuba
was only one of may possible targets.

During the Bay of Pigs Invasion, there were many problems with the actual plan,
and this is what caused the failure. Frankly, I feel that this plan was very good, and don't
know where the fatal mistake was if I hadn't read about it, because it wasn't very obvious.
The Inspector General suggested these conclusions on page 143 of the Inspector
General's Survey of the Cuban Operation:
"1.The Central Intelligence Agency, after starting to build up the resistance and guerrilla
forces inside Cuba, drastically concerted the project into what rapidly became an overt
military operation. The Agency failed to recognize that when the project advanced
beyond the stage of plausible denial it was going beyond the area of Agency
res

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