Beam-beam Effect Essay

This essay has a total of 894 words and 5 pages.

Beam-beam Effect


Beam-beam effect, or beam-beam interaction, is a recent research being conducted over many
areas throughout the world, from European laboratories to American Institutes. Basically
the issue involves the passing through of proton bunches which results in many different
types of effect, sometimes including the unexpected. Aside from the shooting of particles
across one another, usually the collision rate of the protons generates a certain amount
of energy. Today, the issue is to focus on modifying new colliders to enhance the
effectiveness of the machines.


The study of the beam-beam effect involves particle colliders which determines the
collision rate of protons. One of the commonly used collider is the LHC, which stands for
Large Hadron Collider. The LHC is an accelerator which brings protons and ions into
collisions at higher energies than ever achieved before. This will allow scientists to
penetrate still further into the structure of matter and recreate the conditions
prevailing in the early universe, just after the "big bang". It is represented by a thick
gaussian lens, and the ring is described by a 9th-order Taylor map. At the single-particle
level we compare the dynamic aperture with and without the beam-beam effect. At the
multiparticle level, using a "strong-strong" description of the beam-beam interaction, we
compare the collision rate with a linear lattice map and with the full nonlinear map. The
LHC is being used at CERN, the world's largest physics center for particle physics
exploring what matter is made of, and what forces hold it together.


Many different models for this effect have been conducted before, but most of them often
ignored longitudinal motions of the particles, meaning that they only look for
steady-state solutions, or assumed one beam contained a larger number of particles. These
are usually known as "weak-strong" simulations. The LHC being developed is a
"strong-strong" simulation in that it treats both beams equally and allows them to have
arbitrary relative strengths. It is dynamic in that it models the motion on a turn-by-turn
basis looking for coherent oscillations in the beam shape. It uses a variety of methods
for computing the electric fields so that it can run as quickly as possible in each
situation it encounters.


Inside the LHC, usually there is a storage ring acting as accelerator that collide the
bunches of particles repeatedly by storing the bunches in the collider throughout a
certain amount of time. When shooting out the particles, the collider aims for a very high
collision rate, or luminosity. Inside the collider ring, the counter-rotating beams are
able to "sense" the electromagnetic effects of each other before the particles collide. On
the other hand, each time the bunches pass through each other at the interaction point,
only a small fraction of the particles collide producing high energy effect, while the
rest of the proton particles are simply influenced by the fields of the opposing field. As
Continues for 3 more pages >>




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