Blitzkrieg

This essay has a total of 866 words and 5 pages.


Blitzkrieg




The foundation of mobile warfare has its roots in Ancient and Medieval World. The German
Army late in World War I initially developed basic tactics that eventually evolved into
modern mobile warfare. Germans developed those tactics in an attempt to overcome the
static trench warfare on the Western Front. Elite "Sturmtruppen" infantry units were
created to attack enemy positions using the momentum of speed and surpass but eventually
failed because of the lack of mobility and support needed in order to continue advancing
further into enemy controlled territory. During 1920s, British military philosophers
Captain Sir Basil Liddell Hart, General J.F.C. Fuller and General Martell further
developed tactics of mobile warfare. They all postulated that tanks could not only seize
ground by brute strength, but could also be the central factor in a new strategy of
warfare. If moved rapidly enough, of tanks could smash through enemy lines and into the
enemy's rear, destroying supplies and artillery positions and decreasing the enemy's will
to resist. All of them found tank to be an ultimate weapon able to penetrate deep into
enemy territory while followed by infantry and supported by artillery and airfare. In late
1920s and early 1930s, Charles De Gaulle, Hans von Seekt, Heinz Guderian and many others
became interested in the concept of mobile warfare and tried to implement it in an
organizational structure of their armies. Heinz Guderian organized Panzers into
self-contained Panzer Divisions working with the close support of infantry, motorized
infantry, artillery and airfare. From 1933 to 1939, Germany was on a quest to fully
mechanize their army for an upcoming conflict.


German High Command used Spanish Civil War (1936-38) as a testing ground for Blitzkrieg
tactics, which proved to be a formidable combination of land and air action. In September
of 1939, Germany invaded Poland using mechanized ground force (Wehrmacht) working with the
close support of the airfare (Luftwaffe) to breakthrough and penetrate deep behind Polish
lines of defense – Polish Campaign. In May of 1940, during the invasion of the Low
Countries and France, the Germans once again used same tactics (including the use of
Fallschirmjaeger - paratroops) to shock and disorganize the defenders. From October of
1940 to March of 1941, Germans conquered Balkans using the same proven tactics. When in
June of 1941, Germany invaded Russia; tactics of Blitzkrieg allowed them to reach the
outskirts of Moscow in December of 1941. Erwin Rommel in North Africa (1941-1943) also
implemented tactics of Blitzkrieg with great success. Since late 1942, outnumbered German
Army was fighting a defensive war on two fronts and was unable to launch any major
offensives with exception of Kursk (June of 1943) and Ardennes (December of 1944)
offensive. Overall, tactics of Blitzkrieg were the main contributor of early German
victories (1939-1942), when German supply base and logistics were able to maintain the
speed of the advancing units. This was not the case on the Eastern Front and in the North
Africa, when limited German supply base and logistics were unable to cope with
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