Business Reengineering Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 6807 words and 49 pages.

Business Reengineering


Functiona l tactics are the key, routine activities that must be undertaken in each
functional area that is human resource management, marketing, finance,
production/operation s and research and development to provide the business ‘s products
and services. Hence functional tactics translate thought (grand strategy) into action
designed to accomplish specific short- term objectives. Every value chain activity in a
company executes functional tactics that support the business’s strategy and help
accomplish strategic objectives.

1.1 Differences Between Business Strategies and Functional Tactics

Ø Functio nal tactics are different from business or corporate strategies in three fundamental ways:
i. Time horizon.
ii. Specif icity.
iii. Partici pants who develop them.

Time Horizon

Ø Functio nal tactics identify activities to be undertaken “now” or in the immediate
future. Business strategies focus on the firm’s posture three to five years out.

Ø The shorter time horizon of functional tactics is critical to the successful
implementation of a business strategy for two reasons.

i. First, it focuses the attention of functional managers on what needs to be done now to
make the business strategy work.

ii. Secondly, it allows functional managers to adjust to changing current conditions.

Spe cificity

Function al tactics are more specific than business strategies. Business strategies
provide general direction. Functional tactics identify the specific activities that are to
be undertaken in each functional area and thus allow operating managers to work out how
their unit is expected to pursue short-term objectives.

Spe cificity in functional tactics contributes to successful implementation by:

Ø Helping ensure that functional managers know what needs to be done and can focus on accomplishing results.
Ø Clarifyi ng for top management how functional managers intend to accomplish the business
strategy, which increases top management’s confidence in and sense of control over the
business strategy.

Ø Facilit ating coordination among operating units within the firm by clarifying areas of
interdependence and potential conflict.

Parti cipants

Different people participate in strategy development at the functional and business
levels. Business strategy is the responsibility of the general manager of a business unit.
That manager typically delegates the development of functional tactics to subordinates
charged with running the operating areas of the business. The manager of a business unit
must establish long- term objectives and a strategy that corporate management feels
contributes to corporate level goals. Similarly, key-operating managers must establish
short- term objectives and operating strategies that contribute to business level goals.
Just as business strategies and objectives are approved through negotiation between
corporate managers and business managers, so too, are short-term objectives and functional
tactics approved through negotiation between business managers and operating managers.

Involvi ng operating managers in the development of functional tactics improves their
understanding of what must be done to achieve long- term objectives and thus, contributes
to successful implementation. It also helps ensure that functional tactics reflect the
reality of the day-to-day operating situation. Most importantly it can increase the
commitment of operating managers to the strategies developed.

1.2 Functional Tactics in Human Resource Management (HRM)

HRM tactics aid long term success in the development of managerial talent and competent
employees; the creation of systems to manage compensation or regulatory concerns and
guiding the effective utilization of human resources to achieve both the firm’s short term
objectives and employees’ satisfaction and development.

The recruitment, selection, and orientation should establish the basic parameters for
bringing new people into a firm and adapting them to “the way things are done” in the
firm. The career development and training component should guide the action that personnel
takes to meet the future human resources needs of the overall business strategy. Current
trends in HRM’s “paradigm shift” involve looking at people expense as an investment in
human capital. This involves looking at the business’s value chain and the “value” of
human resource components along the various links in that chain. One of the results of
this shift in perspective has been the downsizing phenomenon of the late 1980s and 1990s.
While this has been traumatic for millions of employees in companies worldwide, its
underlying basis involves an effort to examine the use of human capital to create value in
ways that maximize the human contribution.

1.3 Functional Tactics in Marketing

The role of marketing function is to achieve the firm’s objectives by bringing about the
profitable sale of the business’s products/services in target markets. Marketing tactics
should guide sales and marketing managers in determining who will sell what, where, to
whom, in what quantity, and how. Marketing tactics at a minimum should address four
fundamental areas: products, price, place and promotion. The figure below highlights
typical questions marketing tactics should address.

Functional Tactic

Typical questions that the functional tactic should answer

Product (or service) Ø Which products do we emphasize?Ø Which products/services contribute
most to profitability?Ø What products/service image do we seek to project?Ø What consumer
needs does the product/service seek to meet?Ø What changes should be influencing our
customer orientation?

Price Ø Are we competing primarily on price?Ø Can we offer discounts or other pricing
modifications?Ø Are our pricing policy standards nationally, or is their regional
control? Ø What price segments are we targeting (high, medium, low)Ø What is the gross
profit margin?Ø Do we emphasis cost/demand or competition-oriented pricing?

Place Ø W hat level of marketing coverage is necessary?Ø Are there priority geographic
areas?Ø What are the key channels of distribution?Ø What are the channel objectives,
structure and management?Ø Should the marketing managers change their degree of reliance
on distributors, sales reps and direct selling?Ø Is the sales force organized around
territory, market or product?

Promotion Ø What are the key promotion priorities and approaches?Ø Which advertising/
communication priorities and approaches are linked to different products, markets and
territories?Ø Which media would be most consistent with the total marketing strategy?

In addition to the basic issues raised above marketing tactics today must guide managers
addressing the impact of the communication revolution and the increased diversity among
market niches worldwide. The Internet and the accelerating blend of computers and
telecommunications has facilitated instantaneous access to several places around world.
Diversity has accelerated because of communication technology, logistical capability
worldwide and advancements in flexible manufacturing systems.

1.4 Functional Tactics in Accounting And Finance

Financial tactics with longer time perspective guide financial managers in long term
capital investment, debt financing, dividend allocation and leveraging. Financial tactics
designed to manage working capital and short-term assets have a more immediate focus.
Managerial accounting, where managers are responsible for keeping records of costs and the
use of funds within their company, has taken on increased strategic significance in the
1990s these change has involved two tactical areas:

1. How to account for costs of creating and providing their business’s products and services.
2. Valuin g the business, particularly among publicly traded companies.

Anothe r area of concern is value that is whether or not business strategies and
management actions are creating real value for stockholders. The most prominent technique
that has guided tactical decisions for many companies during the last five years is
economic value added (EVA). EVA is simply a way of measuring an operation’s real
profitability. It takes into account the “true” cost of capital – after-tax operation
profit minus the total annual cost of capital. Incredibly most corporate groups have
looked at the cost of their borrowed capital, but the cost of equity capital that
shareholders have contributed appears nowhere in their financial statements. Until
managerial accounting this takes this into account so that managers know whether they are
covering all their costs and adding value to the company, company managers won’t achieve
the benefits that have accrued to several companies.

1.5 F unctional Tactics in Production/Operation s Management (POM)

POM is the core function of every organization. That function converts inputs (raw
materials, supplies, machines and people) into value enhanced output. The POM function is
most easily associated with manufacturing firms, but it also applies to all other types of
businesses. POM tactics must guide decisions regarding:

1. The basic nature of the firm’s POM system, seeking an optimum balance between
investment input and production/operation s output,

2. Location , facilities design, and process planning on a short-term basis.

Key Functional Strategies in POM

Functional Strategy - Typical questions that the functional strategy should answer

Faciliti es and Equipment Ø How centralized should the facilities be?Ø How integrated
should the separate process be?Ø To what extend should further mechanization or automation
be pursued? Ø Should size and capacity be oriented toward peak or normal operating levels?

Purchasing Ø How many sources are needed?Ø How should suppliers be selected, and how
should relationships with suppliers be managed over time?Ø What level of forward buying
(hedging) is appropriate?

Operat ions planning and Control Ø Should work be scheduled to order or to stock?Ø What
level of inventory is appropriate?Ø How should inventory be used (FIFO/LIFO), controlled
and replenished?Ø What are the key foci for control efforts (quality, labor cost,
downtime, and product use)?Ø Should maintenance efforts be oriented to prevention or to
breakdown?Ø What emphasis should be placed on job specialization? Plant safety? The use of

1.6 Functional Tactics in Research and Development (R & D)

With the increase rate of technological change in most competitive industries, R & D has
assumed a key strategic role in many firms. In the technology intensive computer and
pharmaceutical industries, for example, firms typically spend between 4 and 6 percent of
their sales dollars on R & D. In other industries, such as the hotel/motel and
construction industries, R & D spending is less than 1 percent of sales. Thus, functional
R & D tactics may be more critical instruments of the business strategy in some industries
than in others.

First R & D tactics should clarify whether basic research or product development research
will be emphasized. Several major oil companies now have solar energy subsidiaries in
which basic research is emphasized, while the smaller oil companies emphasize product
development research. The choice of emphasis between basic research and product
development also involves the time horizon for R & D efforts. Should these efforts be
focused on the near term or the long term? The solar energy subsidiaries of the major oil
companies have long- term perspectives, while the smaller oil companies focus on creating
products now in order to establish a competitive niche in the growing solar industry.

R & D tactics also involve organization of the R & D function. For example, should R & D
work be conducted solely within the firm, or should portions of that work be contracted
out? What emphasis should be placed on process R & D versus product R & D? If a firm’s
posture is offensive, as is true for small high-technology firms, the firm will emphasize
technological innovation and new product development as the basis for its future success.
This orientation entails high risks (and high payoffs) and demands considerable
technological skill, forecasting expertise, and the ability to quickly transform
innovations into commercial products. A defensive R & D posture emphasize product
modification and the ability to copy or acquire new technology. A converse shoe is a good
example of a firm with such an R & D posture. Faced with the massive R & D budgets of Nike
and Reebok, converse placed R & D emphasis on bolstering the product life cycle of its
prime products (particularly canvas shoes).

Large companies with some degree of technological leadership often use a combination of
offensive and defensive R & D strategy. General Electric in the electrical industry, IBM
in the computer industry, and Du Pont in the chemical industry all have a defensive R & D
posture for currently available products and an offensive R & D posture in basic, long
term research.


After strategies have been formulated, alternative strategies analyzed, and a particular
option with its long-term objectives, generic and grand strategies selected, the next
crucial stage is implementation.

T he implementation phase is referred to as the action phase of the strategic management
process, and involves three interrelated vital steps:

i. Setting up clear action plans and short-term objectives,
ii. Dev eloping specific functional tactics that create competitive advantage, and
iii. Empowering operating personnel through policies to guide decisions.

2.1 Ac tion Plans

Action plans are derived from long-term objectives, which are then translated into
current, short-term actions and targets. In other words, the personnel in an organization
that actually “do the work” must be guided precisely on what should be done in the
short-term, today and tomorrow, to ensure that the long-term objectives are achieved.
Action plans and short-term objectives provide more specific guidance for what is to be
done, and offer a clear break down of actions to be taken. They differ from long term
objectives in time frame, specificity, and measurement.

To be effective, the action plans must incorporate four elements:

Ø Ident ify functional tactics and actions to be done in the next week, month or quarter
as part of a business’s effort in building competitive advantage

Ø Have a clear time frame for completion, when the action will begin and when it will be accomplished.
Ø Ide ntify and assign individual responsibility for each action in the plan.
Ø Short-term objectives should be identified that “operationalise” long term objectives.
For instance, if company A intends to increase its market share by 30% over the next 5
years, what progressive increase in market share must it attain on a monthly or annual
basis? Short-term objectives are very vital to action plans.

Qualities of effective short-term objectives

a) M easurable

STOs should state what is to be accomplished, when it will be accomplished and how the
accomplishment will be measured. Measurable STOs reduce the possibility of
misunderstanding among interdependent managers who must implement action plans.

b) Priorities

Although all STOs are important, priority must be accorded to some either because of a
timing consideration or because of their impact on a strategy’s success. Priorities
should therefore be ranked to avoid assumptions regarding their relative importance.

There are various ways of setting priorities:

(i) A simple ranking may be based on discussion and negotiation during the planning
process. Such terms as primary, top or secondary may be used to indicate priority.

(ii) Assi gning percentage weights along a 0-100 continuum. Recognizing priorities is
vital in implementing value of STOs.

c) Linked to Long Term Objectives

To be effective in strategy implementation, STOs should be integrated and coordinated—they should be linked to LTOs.

Short-term objectives can add breadth and specificity in identifying what must be done to
achieve LTOs. As pointed out above, if a company aspires to obtain 30% market share is 5
years, that objective can be enhanced if specific short term objectives spell out what
must be accomplished each year to achieve the long term objectives. The qualities of LTOs
discussed in the previous presentation’ acceptable, flexible, suitable, motivating,
understandable and achievable also apply to STOs.

Value Added Benefits of Action Plans and STOs

1. Operating personnel attain a better understanding of their role in a firm’s overall Mission.

2. Meeti ngs to set action plans and STO provide a forum for raising and resolving
conflicts between strategic intentions and operating realities thereby enhancing strategic

3. Provide a basis for strategic control. They provide guidelines for developing
budgets, schedules and other mechanisms for controlling the implementation of strategy.

4. Act as a motivating factor in managerial performance especially when personal and group
roles in achieving the objectives are linked to the firms reward structure.

Note: Action plans and short term objectives should be reduced into a few pages with
minimal wording so that they can easily be reviewed, updated, and discussed at regular
management meetings.

2.2 The Role of Policies in Empowering Operating Personnel

For strategy to be implemented effectively, personnel at the operating level should be
empowered to make certain decisions or to act in order to fulfill client’s needs since
they are the first points of contact between a firm and its customers.

Methods of Empowerment

Ø Tra ining
Ø Instituting self-managed work groups
Ø Eliminatin g whole levels of management in organizations
Ø Agg ressive use of automation

It must be noted, however, that employee empowerment—allowing considerable discretion to
operating personnel—should be underpinned by the need to ensure that decision making is
consistent with the mission, strategy, and tactics of the business. One way operating
managers achieve this is through the use of policies.

Creating Policies That Empower

Policie s are directives designed to guide the thinking, decisions, and actions of
managers and their subordinates in implementing a firm’s strategy. In the past, policies
were referred to as standard operating procedures. Policies increase the effectiveness of
managers by:

Ø Standardizi ng many routine decisions, and
Ø Clarifying the discretion managers and subordinates are allowed to exercise in implementing functional tactics.

Policies achieve this in a number of ways:

1. Policies establish indirect control over independent action by clearly specifying how
action is to be taken now. In addition, by defining discretion, policies in effect control
decisions while empowering employees to act without direct intervention from top

2. Th ey promote uniform handling of similar activities hence facilitating the
coordination of tasks. This reduces antagonism arising from favoritism, discrimination,
and the diverse ways of handling common functions that often hampers operating personnel.

3. Ens ure quicker decisions by standardizing answers to previously answered questions
that would otherwise recur and waste a lot of top management’s time. The operating
personnel can thus take decisions without constant recourse to their managers.

4. Poli cies institutionalize basic aspects of organization behavior thereby minimizing
conflicting practices and establishing consistent patterns of action in implementing
strategy. This empowers operating personnel to act.

5. Reducing uncertainty in repetitive and day-to-day decision making. Operating staffs are
thus provided with the necessary foundation for coordinated and efficient efforts.

6. Polic ies check resistance to or rejection of chosen strategies by organization
members. When a major strategic change is done, precise operating policies clarify what is
accepted and facilitate acceptance, especially if the operating managers participate in
policy development.

7. Offer predetermined answers to routine problems hence speeding up handling of both simple and complicated problems.

8. Avai ling to managers a mechanism for avoiding hasty and ill-conceived decisions in changing operations.

Preva iling policy can always be cited for not accepting emotion-based, expedient or
seemingly valid arguments for altering laid down procedures and practices.

Forms of Policies

Ø Writte n and formal
Ø Unwritten and informal

The latter are usually associated with the strategic need for competitive secrecy.
Managers and employees often like the exercise of discretion offered by informal policies.
But unwritten policies may deviate from the long-term success of a strategy.

Advanta ges of Formal, Written Policies

1. Manag ers are required to think through the policy’s meaning, content, and intended use.

2. They reduce misunderstanding.

3. More likely to ensure equitable and consistent treatment of problems.

4. Ensu re unalterable transmission of policies.

5. They communicate the authorization or sanction of policies more clearly.

6. They offer a convenient and authoritative reference.

7. Sys tematically enhance indirect control and organizational coordination of the key purposes of policies.

Polic ies vary in strategic importance and origin. Some are internal routine procedures
such as staff Medicare refunds that are not linked to strategy implementation. Others are
virtually functional strategies as in the case of a company requiring its branches to
invest a given percentage of gross revenue to advertising. Policies can be internally
derived or externally imposed. For instance, equal employment practices are often
developed in compliance with government requirements. Policies regarding real estate
management may be influenced by tax regulations.

It must be pointed out that policies need periodical reviewing to ensure that they guide
and control operations in a manner consistent with current business and functional


3.1 Wh y should we consider structure?

Ø Stru cture is basically the best way to organize a firm in order to accomplish its objectives.

Ø It acts as the medium that facilitates the accomplishments of the organizational goals.

Ø It also helps to identify the key activities of the organizational processes and how they are coordinated.

Ø Su ccessful strategy implementation depends to a large extent on the firm’s primary organizational structure.

Ø A primary organizational structure comprises the firm’s major elements, components, or differentiated units.

Ø Other means of getting organized are through reward systems, coordination terms,
planning procedures, alliances, information, and budgetary systems.

Ø Howeve r, it is through the primary structure that strategists attempt to position the
firm to execute its strategy in a manner that balances internal efficiency and overall

3. 2 Primary Organizational Structures and their Strategy-Related Pros And Cons.

Primary structures can be classified under the following categories:

Ø Fun ctional Structure
Ø Geograp hic Structure
Ø Divisio nal Structure
Ø Strateg ic Business Units
Ø Matrix Organization

We will address each one of them.

3.2.1 Funct ional Structure:

Mainly occur in organizations with single or narrow product focus, require well-defined
skills and areas of specialization to build competitive advantage in providing their

Dividing work into functional specialties enables personnel to concentrate on only one
aspect of the necessary work. This allows use of latest technical skills and develops a
high level of efficiency.

Funct ional areas can be divided into engineering, production, human resource, finance and accounting and marketing.

Anothe r way of dividing could be: purchasing, receiving and inventory, order entry,
wholesales, retail sales, accounting, billing and customer service.

Example of this structure can be found in East Africa Breweries Limited, Barclays Bank of Kenya.

Advantages :

1. Achieves efficiency through specialization
2. H elps in developing of functional expertise
3. It involves differentiation and delegation of daily operating decisions.
5. Retai ns centralized control of strategic decision
6. It tightly links structure to strategy by designating key activities as separate units

Continues for 25 more pages >>

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