Campus Unrest Essay

This essay has a total of 2640 words and 12 pages.


Campus Unrest




In response to great opposition to United States’ involvement in the Vietnam War, the
antiwar movement of the 1960s sprung forth. A vast majority of involvement in this
movement was represented on college campuses across the nation. Many college students
wholeheartedly believed that the war in Vietnam served no point. America was simply once
again sticking its nose in business that was not our own. As a result of the war,
universities nationwide in the sixties were in uproar as students attempted to express
their opinions through both violent and nonviolent means.

Anti-Vietnam protests were first displayed through teach-ins that took
place during the fall and spring semesters (“Campus Unrest” 1). These events were large
discussions held on college campuses where students, faculty and administration met to
openly learn about and discuss issues relating to the war. Teach-ins were efforts for
Americans in relation to universities to voice their opinions and get the attention of
government officials with the prayer that United States involvement in the war would not
continue to increase at such a rapid rate. They stressed the importance of peace, not
violence. Such teach-ins first took place in March of 1965 at the University of Michigan.
This set a precedent for other colleges and universities as these rallies began to take
place more and more frequently (“Campus Unrest 1).

One example of a teach-in that occurred during the anti-Vietnam war movement was discussed
in the Rutgers Daily TARGUM. In April of 1965, students and faculty at Rutgers in New
Jersey staged a “Teach-in on Vietnam”. Professors William Fitzpatrick, Lloyd Gardner, and
Warren Susman had taken the podium to debate their stances on the war in Vietnam. Gardner
felt that “[w]estern civilization was greatest when isolated to the size of Greek
city-states, and failed most miserable when it reached out to take lands it was not
entitled to take” (Hochman 1). Fitzpatrick on the other hand expressed a very different
opinion: “We are fighting in Vietnam not to save our ‘little brown brother,’ but to save
ourselves...we live in a world today of civilizational struggle” (Hochman 1).The third
professor, Susman, suddenly became extremely angry and bolted towards the two, banging on
the podium when he approached. The crowd witnessing the event went wild and stood to
applaud Susman, and the remainder of the teach-in proved to be just as out of control.
Eleven speeches were given in all discussing U.S. involvement in Vietnam and other
pertinent issues. This teach-in at Rutgers was similar to many others nationwide that took
place on college campuses in opposition to the war (Hochman 2).

Another teach-in took place at the University of California Berkely. It was the largest
teach-in yet and it lasted for thirty-six hours and over thirty thousand people
participated in it. There were also marches on Washington Avenue in which twenty-five
thousand people attended. These marches became popular when the college students went
home for the summer (Wells 25).

Also, in the early 1960s drastic social change was being pushed from another direction at
universities. An organization known as Students for a Democratic Society sprung forth in
order to instigate this type of reform (“Vietnam” 2). Leaders of the SDS realized that
many college students were becoming restless with the way many aspects of society were
operating, especially the United States’ action in the Vietnam War. They were sick of
sitting back indifferently while the aspects of society they valued were falling apart
(“Port” 8). The SDS believed that colleges and universities were the ideal places to
initiate such social transitions in America. There were four main reasons these students
felt convicted in this way. One was because these schools were places of education that
had great influences on the opinions of students attending. A second reason was because
colleges were the most principal establishments for utilizing information.

Another was the way skills of persuasion and exploitation learned in classes could be
used. A fourth reason was the great socioeconomic diversity present on every college
campus. Universities were optimal locations for nearly every thought and opinion from
across the country to be expressed (“Port” 12).

For these grounds, Students for a Democratic Society came together to ensure that
universities stepped out of the shadows and straight into the political involvement they
had for so long left up to their predecessors. They stated: As students for a democratic
society, we are committed to stimulating this kind of social movement, this kind of
visionand program in campus and community across the country. If we appear to seek the
unattainable, as it has been said, then let it be known that we do so to avoid the
unimaginable (“Port” 14).

The University of California at Berkeley is yet another example of a college campus in
turmoil during the 1960s. Before the war in Vietnam, students had already begun to
organize nonviolent demonstrations to protest the administration’s recent request for
political activism on campus to end. Students saw this requirement as a violation of their
freedom, and as a result they formed the “Free Speech Movement,” holding numerous public
objections (“Berkeley” 1)

In 1969, the university planned to construct new dormitories on a recently purchased piece
of property. Students saw this idea as yet another opportunity for them to rebel, and they
soon flooded the area in order to prevent building from beginning. In the end, the head of
the university saw that the only way to end this hazardous ordeal was to cancel the plans,
and so he did (“Berkeley” 1-2).

Many American students were convinced that the colleges and universities they attended
were failing to educate them on the world around them. Learning how to do industrial labor
or desk work was hardly going to be effective in getting involved in political change. A
group of students formed the May 2nd Movement which was a protest in 1964 organized by
students who felt that their universities were not providing a proper education. They
wanted to learn vital skills and information necessary to be active in the political
aspects of their nation.

The main goal of the May 2nd Movement of 1964 was to form a way to
counteract the actions of the “imperialistic” United States government, but in order to do
so they knew their claims had to be well researched and backed. Students suspected that
the U.S. invasion of Vietnam served no purpose but to gain more power and repress the
Vietnamese people (“What” 2-4).

In order to ensure that from this point forward students were no longer being poorly
educated, they began to organize their own universities, the first being F.U.N.Y. (the
Free University of New York). These schools were run and attended by those active in the
May 2nd Movement. Efforts to spread their beliefs throughout the nation were made in two
main ways. First was a publication known as the “Free Student” that documented student
occurrences dealing with the war and the anti-war movement. This magazine was made readily
available on nearly every college campus across the country. Second was through study
groups where students met voluntarily to discuss and inform themselves about how to
instigate political reform (“What” 5).

These young people expressed great opposition to the war in Vietnam because they believed
that it was not what was best for the United States as it affected everyone in one way or
another. Students were affected through their education, laborers in the steel mills were
affected as the government prevented them from walking out on the job in order to maintain
production, and the entire country was damaged as billions of dollars were removed from
the national budget in order to fund the efforts overseas(“What” 4-5).

A turning point of the anti-war movement occurred in November of 1969. The New
Mobilization to End the War, otherwise know as the “Mobe”, proved to have a turnout of
nearly a 500,000 people, the biggest crowd ever to gather in the United States in order to
“ignite a political shift” (Wells 334). In an article entitled “The Mobe: High Noon for
the Anti-War Movement”, a student at the University of Chicago recounted his experience as
an active participant in this infamous protest. His words represented the thoughts and
actions of many young adults in the American home front during the Vietnam War (“Mobe”
3-4). He described his arrival, along with countless other students, on a bus to
Washington D.C. as absolutely unbelievable. People packed the streets forming a crowd that
appeared as if it went on for miles and miles. He soon learned that one group had recently
been pacing back and forth at Arlington Cemetery, bearing candles and screaming out the
names of United States soldiers who had lost their lives so far in battle (Wells 391).

A second group known as the Weathermen was a part of the Students for a Democratic
Society. These protesters made the decision to incorporate acts of violence in their
demonstrations. They illegally stampeded the embassy of South Vietnam and upon doing so
were sprayed with tear gas by police officials. In response to the halt of their actions,
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Oedipas search of Tristero in Crying of Lot 49 by
    Oedipas search of Tristero in Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon Thomas Pynchon is an American novelist known for his experimental writing techniques. His works involve extremely complicated plots and themes, and mix black humor with imagination and fantasy to describe human isolation and alienation in a chaotic society. Among his books, The Crying of Lot 49, is the most commonly read, in either literature courses or simply for pleasure. As the reading progresses, the definite and symbolic meani
  • Despite the negative portrayal in mainstream 1960s
    LSD Despite the negative portrayal in mainstream 1960s media, justifications expressed by counterculture activists for further investigation, education and experimentation under government control of LSD were rational and valid arguments. Sex, drugs, protests, war, political upheaval, cultural chaos, and social rebellion; the many comforts TV dinner eating, republican voting, church going, suburbia conformists tried to escape through conservative ideals, town meetings, and The Andy Williams Fami
  • The 1960s
    The 1960s 1 The 1960’s were a time of great change in American society characterized by ethnic consciousness and civil rights, women’s rights and female liberalism, anti-war demonstrations, student protests, and the genesis of the counterculture. A noted speaker once said, “The Cold War, conformity, and consumerism provided the background for the social protests movement of the 1960’s. The cause of the protest movements were much more deeply rooted in U.S. institutions and history.” Although the
  • The Sixties
    The Sixties The Sixties split the skies. Only Civil and two world wars so neatly divided our history into a Before and After. And the Sixties were more divisive than World War II, which drew more people for the war effort. The Sixties drove people apart – husbands from wives, children from parents, students from teachers, citizens from their government. Authority was strengthened by World War II. It was challenged by the sixties. Relatively few Americans in 1960 would have predicted that the dec
  • 1960s
    1960s The 1960’s were a time of major political and social change. These changes were primarily fuelled by the youth of the time. Their parents had come from life in both the great depression of the 1930’s as well as World War II, and were on a whole more conservative than their children, a fact the younger generation did not like. In the early 60’s the electronic media (Television and radio) became an important communication tool, as opposed to the largely print based media of previous decades.
  • Political and social effects that shaped the 60s g
    Political and social effects that shaped the 60s generation Massive black rebellions, constant strikes, gigantic anti-war demonstrations, draft resistance, Cuba, Vietnam, Algeria, a cultural revolution of seven hundred million Chinese, occupations, red power, the rising of women, disobedience and sabotage, communes & marijuana: amongst this chaos, there was a generation of youths looking to set their own standard - to fight against the establishment, which was oppressing them, and leave their ma
  • The Politics and Culture of the 1960s Hippie Movem
    The Politics and Culture of the 1960s Hippie Movement The Politics and Culture of the 1960s Hippie Movement As the nineteen fifties turned into the early sixties, the United States remained the same patriotic, harmonious society of the previous decade; often a teen\'s most difficult decision was choosing what color lipstick to wear to the prom. Yet after 1963, a dramatic change slowly developed in the cultural, social, and political beliefs of America, particularly the youth. The death of Presid
  • Central Park
    Central Park Central Park was the first landscaped public park in the United States. Advocates of creating the park – primarily wealthy merchants and landowners – admired the public grounds of London and Paris and urged that New York needed a comparable facility to establish its international reputation. A public park, they argued, would offer their own families an attractive setting for carriage rides and provide working-class New Yorkers with a healthy alternative to the saloon. After three y
  • The Role of the Hippie in American Culture
    The Role of the Hippie in American Culture American society and culture experienced an awakening during the 1960s as a result of the diverse civil rights, economic, and political issues it was faced with. At the center of this revolution was the American hippie, the most peculiar and highly influential figure of the time period. Hippies were vital to the American counterculture, fueling a movement to expand awareness and stretch accepted values. The hippies’ solutions to the problems of institu
  • Woodstock
    Woodstock Woodstock: Three days of peace and music. By: Vanessa ******* Woodstock Woodstock was a rock music festival that took place near Woodstock, New York in a town called Bethel. The festival took place over three days, August 15, 16, and 17, 1969. The original plan for Woodstock was an outdoor rock festival, "three days of peace and music" in the Catskill village of Woodstock. The festival was expected to attract 50,000 to 100,000 people. It was estimated that an unexpected 400,000 or mor
  • Rock and Roll
    Rock and Roll Britannica.com Sounds of the Psychedelic Sixties by Lucy O\'Brien In 1967 the Beatles were in Abbey Road Studios putting the finishing touches on their album Sgt. Pepper\'s Lonely Hearts Club Band. At one point Paul McCartney wandered down the corridor and heard what was then a new young band called Pink Floyd working on their hypnotic debut, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. He listened for a moment, then came rushing back. "Hey guys," he reputedly said, "There\'s a new band in the
  • The American Hippie
    The American Hippie The Role of the Hippie in American Culture American society and culture experienced an awakening during the 1960s as a result of the diverse civil rights, economic, and political issues it was faced with. At the center of this revolution was the American hippie, the most peculiar and highly influential figure of the time period. Hippies were vital to the American counterculture, fueling a movement to expand awareness and stretch accepted values. The hippies solutions to the
  • Ravers
    Ravers Degeneration X: The Artifacts and Lexicon of the Rave Subculture The dizzying laser lights flashed in synchronicity with the pulsating bass of the music that bounced off the psychedelic warehouse walls. As my boyfriend and I mentally attempted to organize the chaos surrounding us, we pushed our way through the crowd of spasmodic lunatics who contorted their bodies in time with the music and lights. We located a couch in a room covered with cartoonesque, hyper-graphic graffiti. An androgy
  • Ploitical, And Social Effents That Shaped The 60s
    Ploitical, And Social Effents That Shaped The 60s Generation Massive black rebellions, constant strikes, gigantic anti-war demonstrations, draft resistance, Cuba, Vietnam, Algeria, a cultural revolution of seven hundred million Chinese, occupations, red power, the rising of women, disobedience and sabotage, communes marijuana: amongst this chaos, there was a generation of youths looking to set their own standard - to fight against the establishment, which was oppressing them, and leave their mar
  • George Carlin
    George Carlin Carlin, George 1938 -- Comedian, actor, writer. Born May 12, 1937, in the Bronx, New York. Carlin and his younger brother, Pat, were primarily raised by their mother in Manhattan\'s Morningside Heights section. Mary Carlin, a devout Irish Catholic, worked as a secretary to support her children after the death of her husband in 1940. Carlin attended parochial school and much of his negative religious sentiment stems from his experience as a Roman Catholic altar boy. Carlin completed
  • Hippie counterculture
    hippie counterculture The Hippie Counterculture The Hippie Movement changed the politics and the culture in America in the 1960s. When the nineteen fifties turned into the nineteen sixties, not much had changed, people were still extremely patriotic, the society of America seemed to work together, and the youth of America did not have much to worry about, except for how fast their car went or what kind of outfit they should wear to the Prom. After 1963, things started to slowly change in how Ame
  • Investigation Into Counter-culture
    Investigation Into Counter-culture ( synopsis), will it be the sixties the 20th century, U.S.A. protest movement that relied mainly on youth happened by society, the sport involved each field, such as society and politics, culture,etc., Influence it so far. Tentatively this resist movement movement against culture of referredding to as this text. This text pass give an oral account method of history, it combines documents and materials as much as a large amount of resist origin of sport probe in
  • Easy rider and the phenomenon of the 1960s counter
    Easy rider and the phenomenon of the 1960s counterculture teenpic In the following essay, I will attempt to highlight the phenomenon in cinema known as the "counterculture youth-pic." This trend in production started in the late 1960\'s as a result of the economic and cultural influences on the film industry of that time. The following essay looks at how those influences helped to shape a new genre in the film industry, sighting Easy Rider as a main example, and suggests some possible reasons fo
  • Neal Cassady
    Neal Cassady Neal Cassady: The Man Who Set The World Free Neal Cassady grew up as a quasi-homeless wayfaring boy with his alcoholic, unemployed father in the projects of Denver. His unconventional upbringing led to adolescence rife with theft, drug use, and extreme sexual awakening at a young age. Cassady grew up quite quickly and led an overexposed life, which foreshadows his death at the age of 42 of exposure, next to railroad tracks in Mexico. His life, however, seems to be regarded by many a
  • Lsd And Mainstream 1960s Media
    Lsd And Mainstream 1960s Media Despite the negative portrayal in mainstream 1960s media, justifications expressed by counterculture activists for further investigation, education and experimentation under government control of LSD were rational and valid arguments. Sex, drugs, protests, war, political upheaval, cultural chaos, and social rebellion; the many comforts TV dinner eating, republican voting, church going, suburbia conformists tried to escape through conservative ideals, town meetings,
  • The Hippies
    The Hippies American society and culture experienced an awakening during the 1960s as a result of the diverse civil rights, economic, and political issues it was faced with. At the center of this revolution was the American hippie, the most peculiar and highly influential figure of the time period. Hippies were vital to the American counterculture, fueling a movement to expand awareness and stretch accepted values. The hippies\' solutions to the problems of institutionalized American society wer
  • I Never Promised You a Rose Garden
    I Never Promised You a Rose Garden Schizophrenia has long been a devastating mental illness and only recently have we begun to see an improvement in our capabilities to treat this disorder. The development of neuroleptics such as, Haldol, Risperidal, and Zyprexa have given psychiatrists, psychologists and their patients great hope in the battle against this mental disease. However, during the 1960s, drugs were not available and psychologists relied upon psychotherapy in order to treat patients.
  • 1960s
    1960s The 1960\'s - an Era of Discord A young black man is brutally murdered for a harmless comment to a white woman. A mother distresses over the discovery of her son\'s rock and roll collection. A United States soldier sits in a trench in Vietnam contemplating the reason for his sitting knee-deep in mud. The 1960\'s was marked with confusion, insecurity and rebellion. It was a period of time when Americans stood up and took full advantage of liberalism in America and their God-given right to f
  • The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political
    The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political Changes The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political Changes Massive black rebellions, constant strikes, gigantic anti-war demonstrations, draft resistance, Cuba, Vietnam, Algeria, a cultural revolution of seven hundred million Chinese, occupations, red power, the rising of women, disobedience and sabotage, communes marijuana: amongst this chaos, there was a generation of youths looking to set their own standard - to fight against the esta
  • 1960s
    1960s The 1960\'s - an Era of Discord A young black man is brutally murdered for a harmless comment to a white woman. A mother distresses over the discovery of her son\'s rock and roll collection. A United States soldier sits in a trench in Vietnam contemplating the reason for his sitting knee-deep in mud. The 1960\'s was marked with confusion, insecurity and rebellion. It was a period of time when Americans stood up and took full advantage of liberalism in America and their God-given right to f
  • Issues in U.S during 20th century
    Issues in U.S during 20th century I feel the three most important issues or developments in US history and culture in the last century were the U.S involvement in WWII, the civil rights movements, and Vietnam War. An important issue in US history and culture in the last century was the United States entering WW II in 1941. Restricted from direct military involvement by the Neutrality Laws of 1937, 1938, and 1939, the United States remained officially neutral, content to serve as the arsenal of d
  • Civil Rights
    Civil Rights The 1960\'s were one of the most significant decades in the twentieth century. The sixties were filled with new music, clothes, and an overall change in the way people acted, but most importantly it was a decade filled with civil rights movements. On February 1, 1960, four black freshmen from North Carolina Agriculture and Technical College in Greensboro went to a Woolworth\'s lunch counter and sat down politely and asked for service. The waitress refused to serve them and the stude
  • Expectancies As A Predictor Of Adolescent Alcohol
    Expectancies As A Predictor Of Adolescent Alcohol Use INTRODUCTION This paper examines the use of an idea referred to as expectancy as a predictor of teen alcohol use. Expectancies are concepts that a society reinforces which go on to influence a person\'s behavior. Current clinical and field studies show that alcohol expectancies are reasonably accurate tools in estimating future drinking patterns. This paper sets out to determine the practical applications of this knowledge in the real classro
  • Hippies
    hippies "Old hippies don\'t die, they just lie low until the laughter stops and their time comes round again."(Stolley 238) Counterculture by definition is a culture, especially of young people, with values or lifestyles in opposition to those of the established culture. Counterculture way of life in the 1960s featured the ideas of, peace, love, music, drug use, freedom of sexuality, and much more, these ideas were mostly associated with the hippies. Hippies were mostly rebellious young people w
  • Lsd And Mainstream 1960s Media
    Lsd And Mainstream 1960s Media Despite the negative portrayal in mainstream 1960s media, justifications expressed by counterculture activists for further investigation, education and experimentation under government control of LSD were rational and valid arguments. Sex, drugs, protests, war, political upheaval, cultural chaos, and social rebellion; the many comforts TV dinner eating, republican voting, church going, suburbia conformists tried to escape through conservative ideals, town meetings,
  • How the hippies changed the world
    How the hippies changed the world "People today are still living off the table scraps of the sixties. They are still being passed around- the music and the ideas" - Bob Dylan (1992) From 1964 to 1968, there swelled a gigantic wave of cultural and political change that swept first the city of San Francisco, then the whole United States, and then the world. The efforts of the pioneers in the Haight-Ashbury to create an enlightened community took about two years, from 1964-66, to reach the flashpoi
  • George Carlin
    George Carlin Carlin, George 1938 -- Comedian, actor, writer. Born May 12, 1937, in the Bronx, New York. Carlin and his younger brother, Pat, were primarily raised by their mother in Manhattan’s Morningside Heights section. Mary Carlin, a devout Irish Catholic, worked as a secretary to support her children after the death of her husband in 1940. Carlin attended parochial school and much of his negative religious sentiment stems from his experience as a Roman Catholic altar boy. Carlin completed