Canada Health Act

This essay has a total of 4270 words and 23 pages.

Canada Health Act













The Undermining of the Canada Health Act
Samantha Descoteaux
University of Alberta
Nurs 395










Abstract






















In the past, Canada's government-funded, universally accessible, health care system has
been praised and admired both at home and abroad as one of the finest in the world. A
great source of pride and comfort for many Canadians is that it is based on five
fundamental principles. Principles that are a reflection of the values held by Canadian
citizens since the formation of Medicare in 1966. These principles were reinforced in the
Canada Health Act, (CHA), of 1984 and state that the Canadian system is universal,
accessible, portable, comprehensive and non-profit.

With increasing concerns of debts and deficits, Canada's publicly funded health care
system has recently become the target of fiscal attack. Efforts to reform and restructure
the system have produced few results. Currently, some governments throughout the country
are looking towards a more radical approach. An approach that would see not only the
reform and restructuring of the method of operation of the current system, but that would
change the system entirely. The proposed idea? In Alberta, it is to increase the role of
the private sector in the current system.

On December 29th, 1999, Nancy MacBeth leader of the Alberta liberal party was cited in the
Edmonton Journal as saying: " There's ‘ample evidence' that the Alberta government's
plan to expand the role of private health-care will contravene the Canada Health Act."
This is the strongest argument against privatization. It reflects the fears of many
Albertans and Canadians; the fear that a two-tier system similar to that of the United
States will develop. The fear that the system which was built upon values reflected in
five principles will be eroded and replaced and that they will be the ones left to suffer
the consequences. Privatization of health care would undermine the principles of the
Canada Health Act and as such would undermine the integrity of the health care system.

The evolution of Health Care
In 1966 one of Canada's most prided achievements to date was introduced to the Canadian
Health Care system. Medicare was a daring and innovative concept pioneered by Canadians
for Canadians. It revolutionized health care. Canadians overwhelmingly supported the new
system as it reflected their values and the import they placed on universality and equal
access to health.

Now, in the dawn of the millennium, the ideals of the same system are in jeopardy.
Albertans are at present feeling the effects of restructuring. Accessibility and quality
are being threatened due to cutbacks coupled with a lack of funding. There is a consensus
now between medical professionals, the public, and the government that the health care
system is deteriorating. It is failing to provide the quality of care promised in the CHA
and prided by so many Canadians.

Yet the strings on the public purse continue to tighten. Transfer payments from the
federal government continue to decrease as provincial debt loads increase. And, although
the minister of health and the premier assured them that the costs of health care were
doubling or even tripling, Albertans have witnessed a steady decline in government
spending on health care. The proportion of gross domestic product, (GDP), which Alberta
allocates to health care is ranked last among the ten provinces, (Taft, 1997). Albertans
now find themselves with a struggling health care system and a waiting list.

The proposed solution from current Alberta government would see the health care system
incorporate the private sector. The government Most of all the government is looking to
decrease cost, increase accessibility and efficiency. *****

.
Universality and Accessibility vs. Choice
Universality and accessibility go hand in hand. They are the principles that assure that
each Canadian regardless of financial situation, will have equal opportunity to access the
same level of care. The lack of a private market in the current system, some will argue,
limits the individual's freedom of choice. Supporters of privatization maintain that these
principles conflict with Canadians' right to choose; the patient's autonomy to choose to
pay privately, and the physician's choice to provide preferential treatments to those
payers ( Dirnfeld, 1996; Gordon, Mintz & Chen, 1998). Increasing choice in this manner
would lead only to such detrimental practices as "cream skimming", (Dirnfeld, 1996).
Insurance companies would want only to provide coverage for those who meet certain
"low-risk" physical criteria; physicians could care for those who could pay or for those
who diagnosis proved to be the most profitable. This would be leading Canadians to take
giant leaps backward in health care; moving towards the medical model of old that focused
on disease and cure rather than health promotion and disease prevention.

With privatization comes private insurance, which can then delegate the what, whom, where
and when health care services are accessed, in turn greatly limiting the individual's
choice (Armstrong & Fegan, 1998). Utilization of a private for-profit system will be
restricted to those who have adequate insurance coverage or the ability to pay out of
pocket. Accessing services could also become dependent on hours of operation and rights to
different facilities as dictated by private business owners and restrictions imposed by
insurance plans.

Accessibility will also be affected when for-profit hospitals determine where to be
established. Many Albertans live in rural areas too sparsely populated to encourage
free-market competition. As more populated areas are bombarded with a barrage of health
care competitors vying for their money, rural communities will be abandoned. Businesses
and employees will be lured away by the prospect of fatter pocket books as profit is
exchanged for people.

Decreasing Cost vs. Non-profit
One of the driving forces behind privatization is that it will cut and control increasing
health care costs. There is a belief that a private for-profit market will create
competition between health care providers. This would then reduce cost to the consumer as
the different companies compete to obtain business. There have been however, many
instances that have shown the effects of privatization to be just the opposite. For
example, in order to remain competitive, money will have to be invested in advertising and
marketing, a cost that is not present in the system as it stands, (Wilson, 1995).

Health care is not a place for the free-market competition. As a consumer one is driven to
shop around for the best product for the best price. It is simply not feasible for an
individual to wait for a medical service to go on sale or to exchange the same if not 100%
satisfied. Nor is it consistent with the principles of the CHA that explicitly state that
the provision of medically necessary services shall not be for profit and shall be
publicly funded, (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1996). It explicitly contradicts a value on which
Canadians founded their beliefs of what constitutes Health Care in Canada.

Simply the operation of a private system will likely lead to increased costs. Less
bureaucracy in a public system eliminates the extra expenses often attributed to the
higher overhead and increased operating rates, (Armstrong & Fegan, 1998). These costs are
incurred from the paperwork and administration necessary to regulate a private system. In
Canada's single-payer system it is not necessary to make an itemized list of the equipment
used per individual patient in order to draw up a bill for services. In a single-payer
system it is also not necessary to keep records of each individual's insurance plan and
their payment and treatment options. In fact, in the past, when Canada has moved to
de-insure medical services, (i.e.: eye exams, prescriptions), it has actually indicated
increased cost for the consumer, (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1996).

In all, increasing privatization will likely do little to reduce operating costs of the
health care system; rather it will simply shift the burden of cost. With increasing
privatization, the responsibility for payment will no longer fall on the public purse but
will instead become the responsibility of the individual, (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1996).

Efficiency and Quality
The increasing competitiveness that comes along with for-profit markets, many believe,
will reduce waste and increase efficiency. Because the private market is more concerned
with controlling costs in order to increase profit many believe that there would be more
efficient waste management and less abuse or misuse of health care resources. However,
there is little solid evidence that the current system is abused or subject to overuse,
(Armstrong & Fegan, 1998; Wilson, 1995). In fact, if the private sector allows money to
govern health care administration the possibility exists that business will diagnose and
treat simply for the sake of profit.

Both those who support and those who oppose private health care recognize that the quality
of care is suffering. Supporters of privatization believe that it is the "tyranny of a
single-payer, which has led to rationing through the use of queues, to decreasing
accessibility and to diminishing quality", (Dirnfeld, 1996, p.409). They believe that a
private option in health care would decrease waiting lists for public facilities. This, in
turn, would improve access for those using the public system. Evidence shows that an
introduction of the private sector would not reduce waiting lists, rather it would alter
the way waiting list are structured and prioritized. Instead of greatest necessity being
moved to the top of the list, those who could pay would jump the list and receive the care
they required.

Implications for nursing practice
Nursing is a profession based on ethical principles. One of these principles states that
nurses must be accountable for their actions and the care they provide. If there is an
influx of the private for- profit sector into the health care system accountability is
threatened as hospitals decrease standards in order to increase profit. Nurses are also
ethically responsible for assuring that clients are provided with safe, competent, quality
care (CAN, 1997). As previously stated, a decrease in quality is inevitable as money
becomes the driving force behind health care provision. The ethics of fairness and
equitable distribution dictate that health care should be based on need rather than
ability to pay. This belief is reinforced by the AARN who, in their position statement on
privatization, affirms its loyalty to the maintenance of the principles of the CHA
(AARN,1995).

Nursing also prides itself as a profession that takes a holistic approach to providing
care for the individual. As the medical model and profit align to affirm their position of
authority in health care it is the client who would suffer. There would be an urge to
focus on a quota of parts to be fixed in a specified time frame rather than to focus on
the individual and their specific needs.(Armstrong & Armstrong, 1996). Neglecting the
principles of the CHA in order to incorporate privatization will have detrimental effects
on the integrity of nursing practice.

Conclusion
All of this is by no means meant to indicate that the current Canadian Health Care system
is ideal. Nor does it stand to say that radical restructuring is not necessary in the
evolution of Canada's Health Care system. Rather that the restructuring necessary for the
system to thrive needs to be undertaken as a holistic approach, not simply focused on
cutting costs for the public sector. Cutbacks and downsizing are not the means by which to
rejuvenate an ailing health care system. Nor is the introduction of investor-owned
hospitals that strive to maximize profits, not to decrease costs. Reform and restructuring
need to start at the bottom; fundamental changes need to be made in the way we view health
and health care. The focus needs to continue to move away from the medical model of the
past to one that promotes health and prevents illness, accommodating the needs of a
changing population, while maintaining the fundamental principles of the Canada Health
Act.





References
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses. (1995). Position Statement on Privatization. Edmonton: Author.
Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (1996). Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health
Care. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Armstrong & Fegan. (1998). Universal Health Care. New York: New York Press.
Canadian Nurses Association. (1997). Code of ethics for registered nurses. Ottawa: Author.
Dirnfeld, V. (1996). The benefits of privatization. Canadian Medical Association,155 (4), 407-410.
Gordon, M., Mintz, J., & Chen, D. (1998). Funding Canada's health care system: A tax based
alternative to privatization. Canadian Medical Association, 159 (5), 493-496.

National Advisory Council on Aging. (1997). The NACA position on the privatization of health care. Ottawa: Author.
Taft, K. (1997). Shredding the Public Interest: Ralph Klein and 25 Years of One-Party
Government. Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press and Parkland Institute.

Wilson, D. (1995). Myths and facts about paying privately for health care. AARN,51(10), 9-10.
Continues for 12 more pages >>




  • Cold war
    cold war Major Sources of Discord between the Bolsheviks and European States: 1917 to 1921 There were several major sources that created discord between the Bolsheviks and western states in Europe from 1917 to 1921. Conflicting ideologies that each attacked the very fabric of the other’s respective society led to the notion that capitalism and communism could not coexist. The attempts of both actors to hold control of their own political system and to expand their political ideas internationally
  • Cold war
    cold war Major Sources of Discord between the Bolsheviks and European States: 1917 to 1921 There were several major sources that created discord between the Bolsheviks and western states in Europe from 1917 to 1921. Conflicting ideologies that each attacked the very fabric of the other’s respective society led to the notion that capitalism and communism could not coexist. The attempts of both actors to hold control of their own political system and to expand their political ideas internationally
  • The Transatlantic Slave
    The Transatlantic Slave Transatlantic Slave Trade From the 1520s to the 1860s an estimated 11 to 12 million African men, women, and children were forcibly embarked on European vessels for a life of slavery in the Western Hemisphere. Many more Africans were captured or purchased in the interior of the continent but a large number died before reaching the coast. About 9 to 10 million Africans survived the Atlantic crossing to be purchased by planters and traders in the New World, where they worked
  • A cross cultural perspective of polygyny
    A cross cultural perspective of polygyny A Cross Cultural Perspective of Polygyny As an institution, polygyny, the social arrangement that permits a man to have more than one wife at the same time, exists in all parts of the world. From our present knowledge, there are very few primitive tribes in which a man is not allowed to enter into more than one union. In fact, ethologists now believe that only one to two percent of all species may be monogamous (Tucker). None of the simian species are str
  • Corporate Downsizing
    Corporate Downsizing Corporate Downsizing Organizations in every segment of business, industry, government, and education are downsizing. Downsizing is and has been a controversial phenomenon in the last few years. The controversy that surrounds downsizing may be better described as a debate in organizational theory about whether change is adaptive or disruptive. The issues which establish the outcome of the controversy include why the downsizing is taking affect, how it is implemented, and what
  • Ecommerce companies and stock valuations
    ecommerce companies and stock valuations eCommerce Companies and Stock Valuations 1. Introduction A hot topic in today’s business culture is eCommerce. Experts argue about whether eCommerce will change business, whether or not it is a fad, and what viable strategies there are in a business world that is changing at the speed of idea generation. One thing that nobody argues about is the fact that eCommerce oriented companies have stock prices and market capitalizations that are enormous. Based on
  • Entrepreneurship
    Entrepreneurship \'A Balanced Economic State\' Two main economic systems have been developed since the Industrial Revolution, these are Capitalism and Socialism. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages, this essay will explain these, and also give my proposals for a mixed system for the whole society of the United Kingdom. Capitalism Capitalism generally started as an economic system in the United Kingdom at the time of the Industrial Revolution. The basic explanation of Capitalism would
  • Intrnational MKT research Canada
    Intrnational MKT research Canada TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Introduction Canada -- USA\'s Largest Trading Partner NAFTA Introduction Exporting Guidelines Incentives Customs Contacts Trade Contacts Company Specific -- Massasoit Machine, Inc. Manufacturers\' Representative Recommendations Appendices A Country Data B Canadian Domestic Economy C Canadian Trade Statistics D Canada - New England Trade Summary, 1997 E NAFTA: A Partnership at Work F (SIC-3081) - Machine Shop Industry G List of Major Indu
  • Shopping with a Social Conscience The Business Pra
    Shopping with a Social Conscience The Business Practices of Nike Do most consumers shop with a “social conscience?” (Think about it. Are you aware of where the products you purchase are made and under what conditions they are manufactured?) When consumers buy products, without knowledge of their origins, they could easily be breaching their own code of ethics. This is clearly seen in an assortment of industries. Each year hundreds of companies employ foreign labor for low wages and in terrible w
  • Waste
    waste Environmental pollution encompasses the different ways that the human activity damages the natural environment. It can be in the form of an open garbage dump or as simple as a burning house. Pollution can also be invisible, odourless, and tasteless, thus, making environmental pollution one of the most serious and insidious problems facing humanity and other life forms today. One of the chief sources and most visible forms of environmental pollution is solid waste. In order to reduce solid
  • Legalization of marijuana
    Legalization of marijuana Legalization of Marijuana In a day in time where alcohol and tobacco products, although restricted by age, are available to millions, one has to wonder why there is such controversy about the proposal to legalize marijuana. Of course, there are many arguments or both sides of this hotly debated issue. Nonetheless, marijuana is no more harmful than alcohol and tobacco products and in some cases, marijuana has already proven to be medicinally helpful. Marijuana, a plant w
  • Asian Fall
    Asian Fall East Asian Economy A large economic downturn in East Asia threatens to end its nearly 30-year run of high growth rates. The crisis has caused Asian currencies to fall 50-60%, stock markets to decline 40%, banks to close, and property values to drop. The crisis was brought on by currency devaluations, bad banking practices high foreign debt, loose government regulation, and corruption. Due to East Asia’s large impact on the world economy, the panic in Thailand, Indonesia, Korea, and ot
  • Brazil An Economy Recovering From Chaos
    Brazil An Economy Recovering From Chaos Brazil earned the reputation of being a “miracle economy” in the late 1960s when double-digit annual growth rates were recorded and the structure of the economy underwent rapid change. Since 1981, however, Brazil’s economic performance has been poor in comparison to its potential. The country’s dramatic reduction in output growth, which averaged an annual GDP growth of only 1.5 percent over 1980-93, reflected its inability to respond to the events of the l
  • Buddhist Economics
    Buddhist Economics Buddhist Economics Most people think that religion and economics don’t mix. So you would think the same in the case with Buddhism and economics. But actually the there is a set of rules that go along with our modern day economics that have their own meanings. Buddhists believe that spiritual health and well being go hand in hand. They use the fundamentals of practical ecnomics and mix it with the values and morals of Buddhism. The Buddhist point of view takes the function of w
  • Canadas depreciating dollar
    Canadas depreciating dollar Scott December 10, 1999 Economics 335 Section 01 Final Paper The Depreciation of the Canadian Dollar Canada has been increasing its prestige as a high-tech, industrial, society since the end of World War II. In many ways it resembles very closely its southern North American cousin, the United States. Some of those similarities are residing in its market-orientated system, pattern of production, and its high standard of living. Most years following the war up to the pr
  • Confusion economics
    confusion economics The Chinese Economy, Culture & Society The social values and history have shaped and formed the economical developments and the current environment of business in the People\'s Republic of China. They have determined the patterns for negotiation and the Chinese perceptions of business, and their feelings towards westerners. The implicit and explicit rules that the Chinese society has on the development of businesses, and the economy in general, are very important issues for a
  • Economic growth
    economic growth Economic growth refers to the rate of increase in the total production of goods and services within an economy. Economic growth increases the productivity capacity of an economy, thereby allowing more wants to be satisfied. A growing economy increases employment opportunities, stimulates business enterprise and innovation. A sustained economic growth is fundamental to any nation wishing to raise its standard of living and provide a greater well being for all. Gross domestic produ
  • Economic Indicators
    Economic Indicators Principle Economic Indicators The million (or should we say \'billion\' now) dollar question is whether or not the United States\' economy will stay in it\'s record 107 month expansion (according to the index of leading indicators) or come out of the boom and take a downturn into a recession. Nobody, including the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan has a crystal ball to provide insight as to what will happen if interest rates are raised, lowered, or left alone. H
  • Economic regulations
    economic regulations The U.S and the world economy like everything else have its ups and downs. The government plays a crucial role in deciding how the economy will set over time. An Economist by the name of John Maynard Keynes felt that if either inflation or unemployment got out of hand, the government could adjust the business cycle to balance the economy. Keynes was more geared toward the bigger picture and focused on macroeconomics. His work led to the government and many economists believi
  • Economics of healthcare in the uk
    economics of healthcare in the uk Economics & The Welfare State Essay Healthcare Good health is an important factor to an individual’s welfare. It is an essential prerequisite for the enjoyment of life. For this reason the importance of healthcare to governments is great and vast amounts of resources are allocated to healthcare, for example in the UK healthcare equates for 6% of GNP. Some argue that Healthcare is a social issue rather than economic but the allocation of scarce resources and the
  • Fall of russian communism
    fall of russian communism The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let\'s not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics a
  • Government Spending
    Government Spending Government Spending & Budget As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that calle
  • Labor Economics and Labor relations
    Labor Economics and Labor relations John Kerrington Economics 330 Reaction Paper #3 Reaction Paper # 3 is based on the Article, “Labor Economics and Labor Relations”, by Loyd Reynolds, Stanley Masters, & Colletta Moser. This article offers a number of economical viewpoints, which although justifiable and scientifically proven, are still subject to debate. The first disagreeable point made by the author’s was their belief that an employee seeks an overall “employment package”, apart from wage, in
  • Lifestyle
    lifestyle Peter Calabrese Economics 101 Dr. Maglione March 22, 2000 How has your life changed since 1991? Have you noticed: an increase of material goods around your house, a new car in your driveway, or a little bit bigger gut due to eating more prime rib and filet mignon. If you have answered yes to any of these questions you are among the millions that have benefited from the economic boom. The economic boom refers to the period of economic expansion that started in March of 1991 and is still
  • Nafta
    nafta Mexico and the United States along with Canada have entered into a trilateral free trade agreement called the North American Free Trade Agreement otherwise known as NAFTA. NAFTA has got to be the largest trading agreement in history; the agreement creates a single market of 370 million consumers. The people of NAFTA talk about potential gains from increased free trade between Mexico and the U.S. as the two countries remove tariffs, other trade barriers and restrictions on investment so tha
  • Nafta
    nafta Mexico and the United States along with Canada have entered into a trilateral free trade agreement called the North American Free Trade Agreement otherwise known as NAFTA. NAFTA has got to be the largest trading agreement in history; the agreement creates a single market of 370 million consumers. The people of NAFTA talk about potential gains from increased free trade between Mexico and the U.S. as the two countries remove tariffs, other trade barriers and restrictions on investment so tha
  • NAFTAs Deceit
    NAFTAs Deceit On January 1, 1994, Canada, Mexico and the United States passed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Promoted to Congress by the Clinton administration, with the assurance that it would give rise to more jobs - exactly how many though, is not precisely known. Yet, according to the Journal of Commerce, the U.S. went from having a .5 billion trade surplus with Mexico before NAFTA, to having a massive billion trade deficit today. At the same time, it is estimated tha
  • None Provided1
    None Provided1 Principle Economic Indicators The million (or should we say \'billion\' now) dollar question is whether or not the United States\' economy will stay in it\'s record 107 month expansion (according to the index of leading indicators) or come out of the boom and take a downturn into a recession. Nobody, including the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan has a crystal ball to provide insight as to what will happen if interest rates are raised, lowered, or left alone. Howeve
  • None Provided6
    None Provided6 As many Federal departments and agencies lurch into an era of running without funds, the leaders of both parties of Congress are spending less and less time searching for a compromise to balance the budget, and more and more time deciding how to use it to their advantage on the campaign trail. Meanwhile money is easily borrowed to pay for government overhead. In an attempt to change this, on June 29, Congress voted in favor of HConRes67 that called for a 7 year plan to balance the
  • Pakistan
    Pakistan A Portrait of the Death of an Economy My topic deals with Pakistan, its relationship with the IMF and World Bank, and its internal problems that are causing unemployment, poverty, economic crisis and hunger. I shall be analyzing the situation using the neo-classical theory, as it is what the economists of the Pakistan government and the IMF are using to alleviate the economic instability of the country. Situated in the sub-continent, Pakistan is a low-income country, with great promise
  • Paul a samuelson
    paul a samuelson BIG ECONOMIC ISSUES Samuelson has offered the world many economic theories. One area he is widely known for is his views on the spending multiplier. Samuelson has presented a way through his aggregate demand model to demonstrate how the spending multiplier affects individual types of spending. There are several components of aggregate demand. The basis for understanding this model is as follows: Ø An increase in prices causes a drop in household assets, thus causing consumers to
  • Reaganomics
    Reaganomics Reganomics The election of the Regan-Bush Republican ticket of 1984 brought many unprecedented and controversial policies to the US economy. Many of these policies,including Reganomics still affect our economy as a whole and are still major points of debates today. Reganomics was not solely based on economics, but rather the included a sense of having moral foundations. Government intervention and regulation of the economy were seen as economically harmful and furthermore morally wro
  • The Balance Sheet
    The Balance Sheet The Balance Sheet Although the balance sheet was first implemented just a couple of centuries ago, it has quckly developed and sophisticated to become nowadays a widely used and powerful tool in the hands of professional users, well known and popular even among the mass public. In spite of its prominence, or may be because of it, the balance sheet can not be easily and fully described in a few words, but still, if we leave aside its various functions and forms and any other sub
  • Treatise
    treatise Daekwon the chef and Rza Shogun, Sergio Suarez, Sylvia Lin, Anne-Sophie Young Economics Final Report A Treatise on the Value of Economic Indicators The US Economy and Economic Indicators The United States economy is the strongest and the most affluent in the world. Besides having the highest GDP (Gross Domestic Product), the United States has a complex system of regulating economic policy and controlling the money supply. The system also regulates banks and financial institutions, and e
  • Civil Engineering
    Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Why do I want to be a civil engineer? Until recently, I did not know the answer to this question myself. I was lost when choosing a career. Then, I read about civil engineering, an occupation involving the construction of buildings, roads, and bridges. As I looked farther into civil engineering, I liked many of the other aspects involved with the career. Although the education will be difficult, I have determined that civil engineering is the career that I wan
  • Reflective essay legalization of marijuana
    reflective essay legalization of marijuana Legalization of marijuana Legalization of Marijuana (Cannabis) is highly logical in a day where alcohol and tobacco products, (although restricted by age) are available to millions of people every day. Someone has to wonder why there is such controversy about the proposal to legalize marijuana. Cannabis would benefit the economy enabling new jobs in the U.S. The sale of Cannibas would benefit the government as well with a tax. Being an illegal drug Cann
  • Reflective essay legalization of marijuana1
    reflective essay legalization of marijuana1 Legalization of marijuana Legalization of Marijuana (Cannabis) is highly logical in a day where alcohol and tobacco products, (although restricted by age) are available to millions of people every day. Someone has to wonder why there is such controversy about the proposal to legalize marijuana. Cannabis would benefit the economy enabling new jobs in the U.S. The sale of Cannibas would benefit the government as well with a tax. Being an illegal drug Can
  • Weed
    weed Marijuana is a relatively harmless drug that governments around the world have made illegal. If legalized, marijuana can be beneficial to society in a number of ways: whether it be for medical, economic, or public safety reasons. Marijuana has been proven to treat several life debilitating, and even life threatening diseases. Although it is not a cure, marijuana can ease the pain and suffering of a dying person. Another benefit of legalization is the financial gains that governments will ac
  • Asias Sleeping Giants
    Asias Sleeping Giants China and Japan: Asia’s Sleeping Giants Of all regions in the world aiming for a bright future, none is closer to that goal than Asia. Asia, also known as the “sleeping giant” accounts for over sixty percent of the earth’s population with China holding a large amount of the sixty percent. Economically, Japan is in the forefront of the world with only the United States leading them in the category of Gross National Product (GNP). Both Japan and China are looked upon by a gre
  • CitySuburban Dichotomy
    CitySuburban Dichotomy After LAPD officers Laurence Powell, Theodor Briseno, and Timoty Wind, supervised Sgt. Stacey Koon, were found "not guilty" of beating citizen King, the Los Angeles riots erupted. Why did the riots occur? The rebellion was an outcome of the fiscal and social troubles which conffroting America\'s city and now. To understand riots, one must understand the causes of social rage, ussually said to be racism, poverty, lack of economic opportunity, and why people who experience t
  • Executive Orders
    Executive Orders Orders Issued by President Bill Clinton What are Executive Orders? Executive Orders are official documents, Executive numbered consecutively, through which the President of the United States manages the operations of the Federal Government. Some Executive Orders in the past have created new commissions, councils, task forces and committees; issued and allocated bonds; authorized permit issuance; etc. 40 Executive Orders issued by President Clinton Date Document Titles 1. 2000-12
  • Globalization Threat to the Environment
    Globalization Threat to the Environment Global change has become a popular word in scientific debates on long-range structural change in the earth’s ecology. Globalization has in the past played a major role in the controversial environmental debates. Many problems resulted in this area of discussion, in regard to the intricate linkages between globalization, government, trade and transport, and environmental decay. The current debate on the environmental effects of globalization is particularly
  • Great Depression gds
    Great Depression gds Effects of the Great Depression on Canada During the Great Depression of the 1930\'s, Canada\'s Prairie provincessuffered more than any other area in Canada. This time frame brought forthe farmers many years of droughts and grasshopper plagues, as each yeargot worse without any rainfall whatsoever. The impact of the GreatDepression on the Prairie provinces was devastating and it\'s impact on theregion was social, political and economical. During this periodunemployment reach
  • Moving Through Change
    Moving Through Change Brandon Spelling May 12, 2000 Essay for Exam III Moving Through Change Common people have been through many changes in history such as technological change, economic change, and political change. Common people define history as a period of change. Technology will always change history for the common people as time goes on. Technological advancements in medicine have contributed to change. Many diseases such as smallpox, measles, cholera, plague and influenza were fatal. The
  • Progressive education
    Progressive education To meet the needs of an increasing industrialized Canadian society in the late 1930’s, the elementary curriculum was revised. This essay will explore the changes BC curriculum endured as a result of the progressive movement within the Greater Victoria area by way of the Greater Victoria Survey of Schools of 1937-38 and the Curriculum Guide: The New Programme of Studies 1936-7. The new system is commonly known as progressive education or the “new education”. Jean Barman desc
  • Prohibition1
    Prohibition1 As under a spell, the people had suffered this act to be brought to its fatal conclusion, but with the first touch of cold reality the charm was undone, and the law appeared in its true aspect. Brought about by the Eighteenth Amendment and enforced through the Volstead Act, lasted for over a decade. Despite a growing lack of public support for both Prohibition and restraint itself, the ban on alcohol continued throughout the United States—at least in the law books. In practice, howe
  • Russian communism
    Russian communism RUSSIAN communisiunm By: mike Introduction The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful interaction and fusion between politics and economics that characterized the state socialist system created a situation that was unique for the successor states of the Soviet Union. The penetration of the Communist regime into every facet of life left the Russian people with little democratic traditions. Russia faces the seemingly impract
  • None Provided1
    None Provided1 Feminism And Gender Equality In The 1990\'s Overall, the rights and status of women have improved considerably in the last century; however, gender equality has recently been threatened within the last decade. Blatantly sexist laws and practices are slowly being eliminated while social perceptions of "women\'s roles" continue to stagnate and even degrade back to traditional ideals. It is these social perceptions that challenge the evolution of women as equal on all levels. In this
  • Anti Abortion
    Anti Abortion Anti Abortion By: Atif Malik Since the Darwinian Revolution of the 19th century our society has turned upside down. Everything under the sun had become questionable, the origin of life, how we came to be, where are we headed and what to do in the here all became questions in life. But one of the greatest impacts of this new age thinking is its effect on our Old World values. Western societies values, morals and ethics became debatable, with some people striving for change and other
  • Legalize prostitution misc10
    Legalize prostitution misc10 Prostitution: Prostitution might appear to be an odd topic for historical inquiry. As "the world\'s oldest profession," concerned with buying and selling something as "natural" and "unchanging" as sex, it might seem to have no history. However, prostitution is subject to historical change and is shaped by the society in which it exists. In the United States, over the last couple hundred years, the nature of prostitution and the experiences of people working as prosti