Chinese Health Care Essay

This essay has a total of 1340 words and 6 pages.

Chinese Health Care

Between five and six thousand years ago, the Hmong people lived in today's Hebei province,
said Professors Wu and Yang. Their leader at the time was the legendary Chiyou, and his
people were known as the Jiuli tribes. The ancestors of the Han Chinese, ruled by leaders
Huang Di and Yan Di, lived to the northwest of the Jiuli Kingdom. As Chinese population
grew, they expanded southward into Hmong territory. A major war broke out between the two
sides on the northwestern part of modern-day Beijing. Professors Wu and Yang cited that
according to legends and folk songs, "the Hmong won nine battles but lost on the tenth."

After their defeat, the Hmong emigrated southward into the lower reaches of the Yellow
River where they re-established a new kingdom approximately four thousand years ago. The
San-Miao Kingdom and its people were led by Tao Tie and Huan Tuo. Unfortunately, history
repeated itself; the Han Chinese expanded, encroaching and taking over on what had become
Hmong land. In the ensuing war the San-Miao Kingdom was defeated and "largely
exterminated" by Yu the Great at about 2200 B. C., wrote Jenks. The Hmong then became
disintegrated and lived dispersely in China's south and southwest corners. "After
San-Miao," Professor Wu said, "the Hmong people could never be united again, and be strong
as a nation."

After the destruction of San-Miao, the Hmong continued to migrate southward into today's
Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces. Much was talked about their living in the Dongting
Lake and Poyang Lake areas, where the Chu Kingdom during the Eastern Zhou and Qin
Dynasties encompassed. Many scholars, both Hmong and non-Hmong, argue that the state of
Chu was a Hmong kingdom. If it was not Hmong, it certainly was not Chinese. Conrad
Schirokauer, a published scholar of Chinese history, referred to the Chu state as a
"semi-Chinese." Many researchers, including our Xiangtan professors, argue that the intact
female corpse (died and buried during the Chu Kingdom and excavated from a highly
elaborate tomb in 1972 in Changsa, Hunan) was Hmong because the drawings on her caskets
and on the piece of silk covering her coffin are designs unique to the Hmong.

Based on the seal unearthed, this female corpse was named Xin Zhui, the wife of Li Cang
who was the Marquis of Dai. Even after more than two thousand years, her body was well
preserved and protected from decay by a set of four coffins carefully arranged inside one

Along with her body, over 1,400 cultural and funerary objects were buried inside the tomb,
ranging from agricultural seeds, combs, mittens, stockings, shoes, gowns, wooden dolls,
food and wine containers to zither-like stringed and reed-pipe instruments.

On top of the innermost coffin, there laid a splendid and exquisite T-shaped painting on
silk. The painting details a person's three souls - one which remains to watch over the
body, the second which goes in search of the ancestors and the third which just wanders.
This belief in three separate souls and their duties upon death exist today. Having
published a paper on this unique piece of painting, Professor Yang believes this old
pictorial lends even greater evidence to the claim that the corpse and the Chu Kingdom
could be Hmong. He argued that except for a few minor illustrations on the top left, the
rest of the intricate illustrations coincided with legends and folk stories of the Hmong.
Pointing to the wooden dolls, a tour guide of the museum mentioned that many visiting
scholars argue that they are dressed in Hmong-style clothing.

Throughout history, if the Hmong people found any kind of peace, it never lasted long.
They have been forced to emigrate from northeastern China into the country's southwestern
corner. During the Qing Dynasty, several major wars further pushed hundreds of thousands
of Hmong into Southeast Asian countries of Vietnam, Laos, Burma and Thailand.

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