Cloning Book Report

This essay has a total of 1245 words and 6 pages.

Cloning




Since the late seventies scientists have been cloning mammals using cells taken from
embryos. In July 1996, medical history was made when a sheep named Dolly was cloned. The
only thing that set Dolly the sheep apart from the other clones was that she was cloned
from an adult sheep cell. Before Dolly was cloned, scientists thought adult cell cloning
was impossible. A clone is defined as a group of genetically identical cells. The goals
and purposes for cloning range from making copies of those that have deceased to better
engineering the offspring in humans and animals. Cloning could also offer a means of
curing diseases. Cloning has many benefits that could be used as an aid to the human
race, but there is also the ethical debate over cloning. Many people believe it will do
damage to mankind. Some feel it is against God’s will, while others fear deformity and
emotional stress in the human clone. Despite the ongoing debate, cloning produces many
advances for the human race.

Cloning has already made advances from the cloning animals. Embryo splitting was
developed in the eighties and is used by ranchers and livestock breeders. Through this
process, farmers can twin their best animals and plants for better production. “The
Future of Cloning” states that “Mammalian cloning research would allow genetic
manipulation to produce animals that are disease resistant” (1). Cloning techniques are
also being used in agriculture. It is used to produce higher yield, better quality fruits
and vegetables. “Ethical Concerns” states that, “Transgenic animals (animals engineered
to carry genes from species other than their own) can be made to produce a wide variety of
protein that could be sold as drugs, as well as proteins, called enzymes, that can be used
to speed up chemical reactions.”(1). Animals could be mass produced to provide a much
faster and leaner species using cloning technologies. They can also provide for much
needed drug substances using transgenic animals. Transgenic animals are also much cheaper
than using bioengineering methods. Cloning animals has proved to have many benefits also
for humans.

The cloning of animals could also take many creatures off of the endangered species list.
By cloning the endangered animals, they could be saved from destruction and increase their
population. “Medical Benefits of Cloning” said that many animals are also being bred to
provide organs for organ transplant patients. They are bred using the transgenic
technique, to minimize the risk of rejection by the patient’s body. Pig’s hearts are
often being transplanted in place of a human’s diseased heart. Donor pigs with human DNA
could provide stronger hearts for humans in need of a transplant (1). Breeding these
animals could aid in the small number of organs that are available today. The same
procedures used to clone animals could also be used to clone humans.

Cloning humans could also provide many benefits like animals would. “The Uses of Cloning”
believes that infertile couples could use cloning to have children. Infertility
treatments are only successful about ten percent of the time. It causes great emotional
stress and many couples run out of time and money. Cloning would make it possible for the
couples to have a better chance of producing a child. Many couples do not prefer
adopting, so cloning would be their best chance to have a child that was biologically
related to them (2). Women who are single could also use cloning instead of in-vitro
fertilization or artificial insemination. Cloning would also allow the mother to produce
a disease free baby. Many diseases are caused by a flaw in the gene. If the mother could
carry the unflawed gene for one of these disorders, she could have a healthy child by
giving the nucleus of her cell to the fetus. A child’s damaged tissues and organs could
also be saved by cloning.

Tissues and organs could be cloned by using embryonic stem cells to take place of the
damaged tissues and organs. human skin is already being grown in laboratories to use on
people who have been severely burned. The damaged skin can be replaced by a human’s
healthy skin to provide a skin graft. There is no risk of the patient’s immune system
rejecting the skin. Scientists can grow skin more easily than other tissues and organs
because skin cells are able to divide and produce new cells better than others.
Researchers are attempting to solve this problem by “reprogramming” cells to help them
divide easier. They would then be able provide nerve cells for spinal injury victims or
muscle cells for heart attack patients. “Benefits of Human Cloning” says that cancer
could also be cured through the cloning technique.

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