Cold War

This essay has a total of 2041 words and 7 pages.

Cold War


The conflict in ideologies between capitalism and communism resulted in one of the
greatest conflicts of the twentieth century. The belief that freedom and democracy would
die under communist rule caused the United States to start a conflict that would last for
decades. The decisions made by the United States in W.W.II caused tensions to rise between
the U. S. and the Soviet Union. Fear of Communism in capitalist nations, caused the United
states government to use propaganda to raise Cold War anxieties. Furthermore, the American
media influenced the attitudes of Americans, making a hatred of communism spread though
the nation. Thus, the United States caused the conflict known as the Cold War, through its
political policy and propaganda. The political relations going on in Europe during and
directly after World War II had an enormous effect on laying the foundation for the Cold
War. War time conferences such as Yalta and Terhran harshened the relationship between the
communists and the capitalists. At the end of W.W.II American policy towards the Soviets
changed drastically. The change in president in 1945 caused relations with Russia to
worsen. Furthermore, other political contributions to the Cold War entailed the Truman
Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. The division of Europe between the west and east drew
physical borders which outlined that the war of misinformation that had began. Also
treaties of the post war world further separated the two super powers of the world for the
decades to follow. The waging of hot wars through other countries also strengthened Cold
War hatred.(1) The first of the cold war tensions arose out of W.W.II conferences between
the Soviet Union, America and, Great Britain. Tehran, the first major conference which
lead America to start the Cold War, included all three of these nations. At this
conference the reshaping of post-war Europe was discussed (2) Later in February of 1945,
the big three met again at Yalta. At this conference European boundaries, German
reparations, and Polish elections were agreed upon.(3) Stalin, the Russian leader, agreed
to hold free and fair elections. Later after Roosevelt, who attended these conferences,
died Truman became president. He accused the Soviet leader, Stalin, of not holding up to
his agreements at Yalta.(4) Stalin wanted to use Poland as a buffer zone to prevent any
future invasions from happening through this area. During W.W.II the Soviets had lost 27
million, and Stalin made it clear that in no way would he allow this to happen again.(5)
Stalin responded to Truman's accusation with the following words, "I am ready to fulfill
your request and do everything possible to reach a harmonious solution. But you demand too
much of me. In other words, you demand that I renounce the interests of security of the
Soviet Union, but I cannot turn against my country."(6) On the other hand, American
General Lucius Clay, who was stationed in post war Germany commented " we must have the
courage to proceed quickly with the establishment of a government for western Germany...42
million Germans in the British and American zones represent today the strongest outpost
against Communist penetration that exists anywhere."(7) At this response Truman changed
his attitude toward the Soviets with the words, " there isn't any difference between the
totalitarian Russian government and the Hitler government."(8) Furthermore, America
decided to keep Stalin out of the loop about the Manhattan project, which furthered
distrust, because Stalin learn about the bomb through espionage. Truman's change in
attitude toward Stalin, from that of FDR's negotiation with "Uncle Joe" to one committed
to stopping the Soviet cause, led to the creation of a new American anti-Soviet political
policy. The Truman Doctrine, the name given to the policy established by Truman, would
soon arise in American foreign policy. This Truman Doctrine came out of a speech the
Truman gave to a joint session of congress. It was the response Truman gave to Britain,
which delcared that they no longer could give military and economic aid to Greece.(9) In
this speech Truman finally gave the Cold War official status, by stating the threat that
the Soviet government had on national security. In Truman's actual words he said, "I
believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are
resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."(10)
Congress, knowing that Great Britain would no longer give aid the Turkey and Greece,
realized that these nations would soon turn to communism. Thus, they decided to
appropriate four hundred million dollars to help in the aid of Turkey and Greece.(11). To
support Truman's policy Senator Author Vandenburg stated " its time to scare the hell out
of the American people with tales of communism on the march."(12) Thus, America was
further contributed to cold war issues by committing to stop the spread of communism in
areas of the world very remote from them. America's next political actions further caused
the Cold War to escalate. In 1947, George C. Marshall the Secretary of the state at the
time gave a speech at Harvard university which reveled his plans for the an after war
economy. Marshall asked that all of the countries of Europe communists and capitalists
alike to draw up a plan for economic recovery from the war.(13) The Soviets refused to
participate, because they saw it as America using money to buy its way into good terms
with Europe. In the words of the Soviet foreign minister Molotov, the Marshall plan was
Continues for 4 more pages >>