Book Report on Comets

This essay has a total of 2390 words and 10 pages.

Comets


The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and
Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events
that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what
they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases,
and dust.


They have also been given the names "dirty snowballs" or "icy mud balls." The typical
comet is less than 10 kilometers across. They spend most of their time frozen solid in the
outer parts of our solar system.


Comets are composed of five parts: the nucleus, coma, hydrogen cloud, dust tail, and ion
tail. The nucleus is pretty solid and stable, composed mostly of ice and gas with a small
amount of dust and other solids. The surface of the nucleus is best described as a black
crust. Comet nuclei can range from 1 kilometer to about 50 kilometers across. The black
crust on the surface of the nuclei helps the comet to absorb heat, which causes some of
the ices under the crust to turn to a gas. Pressure builds up underneath the crust and
causes the surface to bubble up in some places. Eventually, the weak spots of the crust
break open from the pressure, and the gas shoots outward; astronomers refer this to as a
jet.


Dust that had been mixed in with the gas is also pushed out, and as more jets appear, a
small gas and dust shell forms around the nucleus, and this is called the coma. The coma,
also called the head, is a dense cloud of water, carbon dioxide and other gases and comes
off of the nucleus. They can be several thousand kilometers in diameter, depending on the
comet's distance from the sun and the size of the nucleus. The size of the nucleus is
important because since large nuclei have a greater surface area facing the sun, which is
the side that is the warmest, hence the side where most of the jets are coming from, it
means more jets and greater amounts of gas and dust go into the coma. Even though the coma
can get to be very large, its size can actually decrease about the time it crosses the
orbit of Mars. At this distance the particles that drift out from the sun act as a
powerful wind which blows the gas and dust particles away from the nucleus and coma. This
is the process, which makes the comet's tail. The hydrogen cloud is very large at millions
of kilometers in diameter. But it is only a very sparse body of neutral hydrogen. It was
discovered from spectroscopy that was carried out by satellites in 1970.


Hydrogen was discovered in comets Tago-Sato-Kosaka and Bennett. It is ionized hydrogen
that forms the light that goes past the coma. The reason why the hydrogen cloud was not
discovered for a long time is because it is not visible from Earth. Atomic hydrogen emits
in the ultraviolet, but the ozone layer stops the waves from entering. The hydrogen cloud
can only be observed from space, with satellites. The dust tail is usually up to 10
million kilometers long, and is composed of smoke-sized dust particles that come off the
nucleus by escaping gases. The dust tail is also the most visible part of a comet to the
naked eye. The tail has a potential to be long when it enters the orbit of Earth. The
record for the longest tail is the length of the Great Comet of 1843; its tail extended
more than 250 million kilometers. The ion tail, known as type I or plasma, is made up of
ions. It can be up to 100 million kilometers long and 100,000 kilometers wide. The tail is
straight and always is opposed to the direction of the Sun. The color of it, through a
spectrum, is mostly blue. The reason why the tail is ionized is because of solar wind.
Solar wind, which flows at about 400 kilometers per second, is filled with charged
particles that are around the solar magnetic field. The gases in the tail are ionized by
the process of "photo ionization of the neutral molecules under the action of the solar
ultraviolet radiation", or "under the action of the solar wind by a phenomenon where a
proton removes an electron from an atom." The speed at which the ions are moving is what
causes the tail to be straight. The light from the tail is emitted by "fluorescence,"
which is a particle of solar wind that excites an electron of the atom or molecule
concerned. This electron reaches a level at which it is stable, goes down again and
releases its energy in the form of a photon, a particle of light, of a well determined
energy and thus, of a specific color.


When our solar system began, it was just a vast cloud of gas and dust. Several billion
years ago, the cloud slowly rotated around the sun, which was very young, and particles
within the cloud collided with one each other. During this time some objects were
shattered by these collisions, while others grew in size and were to later become the
planets. Throughout this early period, comets probably filled the solar system. Their
collisions with the early planets played a major part in the growth and evolution of each
of the planets.


The ice that makes up comets seems to have been what formed the first atmospheres of the
planets, and scientists now very strongly believe that it was the collisions of comets
that brought water to our world, and made life able to begin. Over the years, comets
actually became more rare within our solar system. They do not fill our skies as they did
about 4 billion years ago. Also today, a comet that can be seen with the naked eye can be
expected only about once in a whole decade. Astronomers with powerful telescopes can see
many more comets, but even in this case it is still not common for as many as 15 or 20
comets to be able to be seen in the sky at one time. Today, most comets are located
outside of our solar system in part of the original cloud of dust and gas that has stayed
pretty much untouched for billions of years. These regions are called the Oort Cloud and
the Kuiper Belt. The Dutch astronomer Jan Oort first proposed the theory of the Oort Cloud
in 1950. His study of the orbits of comets with very long orbital periods made him believe
that a large cloud of comets existed far outside the solar system, possibly within the
range of 5-8 trillion kilometers (or more) from the sun. The total number of comets within
this belt was estimated as a trillion. It is thought that objects within this cloud are
occasionally ejected either by collision with one another, or by the gravitational forces
of stars. Many of the ejected objects probably never cross the paths of the planets, and
still more do not come close enough to be seen with even the largest telescopes. However,
a few do manage to travel into the inner solar system and are subsequently seen from
Earth. This cloud remains a theory only, as it has never been directly detected. The
Kuiper Belt is a region that was first proposed by the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard
Kuiper in 1951. Seeing that Oort's cloud of comets did not really explain the reason for
the population of comets with short orbital periods (making complete orbits around the sun
in less than 200 years), Kuiper thought that a belt of comets probably existed outside the
orbit of Neptune within the range of 30 to 50 astronomical units (2.8 to 4.6 billion
miles) from the sun. Collisions and perturbations by the planets of our solar system are
believed to be the reasons for the ejection of bodies from this belt. Around 1988,
astronomers David Jewitt (University of Hawaii) and Jane Luu (University of California at
Berkeley) began searching for members of the Kuiper belt using modern electronic cameras
attached to a large telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The equipment was capable of detecting
extremely faint objects. After nearly 5 years of systematic searching they found a
distinct image on 1992 August 30, which was subsequently designated 1992 QB1. The object
was moving very slowly, and calculations eventually revealed the object took 291 years to
orbit the sun at an average distance of 43 AU. Since, the discoveries of that object over
three dozen additional objects had been found as of the end of 1996. Some astronomers
Continues for 5 more pages >>




  • Against UFOs
    Against UFOs UFOs: Neither Here nor There Throughout the past, the existence of unidentified flying objects and aliens has been disputed over and over. Many different platforms and viewpoints have been taken in order to support the respective sides of the issue. The main argument against intelligent life existing somewhere other than Earth is that of where they derive. The truth of the matter is there is no place in the universe that UFOs and aliens could exist. Skeptics are faced with the fact
  • Comets
    Comets Before the seventeenth century, comets were considered portents-warning shots fired at a sinful Earth from the right hand of an avenging God. However, in the post-Newtonian era, when their paths were understood to intersect that of the Earth, they were considered actual agents of destruction. Experts have described comets as the carriers of both life-seeds to the early Earth and horrific missiles that will one day snuff out life as we know it. At one time or another, people have blamed co
  • Native american astronomy
    native american astronomy For many years astronomers and people alike have constantly heard about the observations and records of the Chinese and Europeans. No other culture can provide as much information as that gathered by the Chinese and Europeans, but there are many other cultures that observed and recorded the night sky, one of those being the Native Americans. During the last fifteen to twenty years archaeoastronomers have uncovered much concerning the beliefs and records of Native Americ
  • Origin of Solar System
    Origin of Solar System The Origin of the Solar System One of the most intriguing questions in astronomy today is the how our solar system formed. Not only does the answer add insight to other similarly forming systems, but also helps to satisfy our curiosity about the origin of our species. Although it is highly unlikely that astronomers will ever know with absolute scientific certainty how our system originated, they can construct similar theoretical models with the hopes gaining a better under
  • The solar system
    The solar system Assignment 1: The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids). The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars: The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus, though all except Mercury and Pluto are very nearly circular. The orbits of the pla
  • Tycho Brahe
    Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe Tyge (Latinized as Tycho) Brahe was born on 14 December 1546 in Skane, then in Denmark, now in Sweden. He was the eldest son of Otto Brahe and Beatte Bille, both from families in the high nobility of Denmark. He was brought up by his paternal uncle Jörgen Brahe and became his heir. He attended the universities of Copenhagen and Leipzig, and then traveled through the German region, studying further at the universities of Wittenberg, Rostock, and Basel. During this period h
  • Adrienne richs Revision
    Adrienne richs Revision Revision In Adrienne Rich\'s essay "When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-vision", the author writes about her personal experience as a woman writer in a male dominated society. Her essay consists of poems, which she had written throughout different times in her life, to demonstrate the transformation in her writing. As a woman writer in a male dominated society, Rich begins writing in the traditional style, "the man\'s way," but as she continues writing, Rich breaks from th
  • Astronomy
    astronomy AstronomersPart OneBrief Descriptions of the Following Astronomers:Walter Baade : Baade was a German-born American, whose work gave new estimates for the age and size of the universe. During the wartime, blackouts aided his observatons and allowed him to indentify and classify stars in a new and useful way, and led him to increase and improve Hubble\'s values for the size and age of the universe (to the great relief of geologists.) He also worked on supernovae and radiostars.Milton Hum
  • Galoleo
    Galoleo The seventeenth century marked the beginning of spectacular changes in science that to this day flourish. However, during these times, science and faith would clash, and in their terrible conflict, the two were severed, to continue in divergent directions and to lose their common ground that continues at the present. The Aristotelian point of view that the Earth was the center of the universe was a universal, Biblical belief that no one dared to question. However, one man’s discoveries w
  • Leonhard Euler
    leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler\'s father was Paul Euler. Paul Euler had studied theology at the University of Basel and had attended Jacob Bernoulli\'s lectures there. In fact Paul Euler and Johann Bernoulli had both lived in Jacob Bernoulli\'s house while undergraduates at Basel. Paul Euler became a Protestant minister and married Margaret Brucker, the daughter of another Protestant minister. Their son Leonhard Euler was born in Basel, but the family moved to Riehen when he was one year old and
  • Leonhard Euler
    leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler\'s father was Paul Euler. Paul Euler had studied theology at the University of Basel and had attended Jacob Bernoulli\'s lectures there. In fact Paul Euler and Johann Bernoulli had both lived in Jacob Bernoulli\'s house while undergraduates at Basel. Paul Euler became a Protestant minister and married Margaret Brucker, the daughter of another Protestant minister. Their son Leonhard Euler was born in Basel, but the family moved to Riehen when he was one year old and
  • Medieval people
    medieval people Martin Galas HIS 231 What was expected in year 1000? People who lived thousand years ago viewed Earth as the center of a cosmos. Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle mapped the cosmos and placed the earth in the center of it. Christians and Jews claimed that Earth was round and flat. Another thought was that the terrestrial region was composed of four parts. Those four parts were earth, water, air and fire. Medieval people were also very interested in studies of the earth\
  • Nemesis
    nemesis Nemesis Origin of the theory The "Nemesis Theory" was an outgrowth of the discovery of Alvarez et al., that the impact of a large (10 km diameter) comet or asteroid was responsible for the great mass extinction that took place 65 million years ago. Studies of the fossil record by Dave Raup and Jack Sepkoski shows that this was not an isolated event, but one of several mass extinctions that appear to occur on a regular 26 million year cycle. Their original paper analyzed marine fossil fam
  • New Technologies on Spacecraft
    New Technologies on Spacecraft I n this ERA of tight space budgets and infrequent deep-space missions, solar system researchers have pushed to squeeze more science from existing interplanetary spacecraft. By drastically altering their orbital paths using gravity-assisted maneuvers combined with relatively brief rocket firings, veteran probes can be sent on productive extended missions. This technique was successfully employed by the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISSE 3) spacecraft to accom
  • The Calendar
    The Calendar Kara Byers 1CH tutor: Dr. Gerard McCartan Our View of the Universe ‘It took several thousand years to establish a satisfactory calendar. Even in this century not all the countries in Europe kept the same calendar. Why was it so difficult? Do we really need an accurate means of recording civil time? Astronomy originated earlier in human history than the other natural sciences. In the earliest civilisations, the divine or occult was used to explain the movement of the stars and the Su
  • The Solar System
    The Solar System Our understanding and our modern perception of our solar system, the Milky Way, has been drastically reshaped from the corresponding perception of only a few hundred years ago. Our Solar System, the Milky Way is probably about 4-5 billion years old. Only in the last 400 years or so have we realized that the earth is not the "center", and that in the Universe alone there is an immense 200 billion "Suns" in a galaxy like our own. Although the origin of the solar system is uncertai
  • The Solar System1
    The Solar System1 Assignment 1: The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids). The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars: The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus, though all except Mercury and Pluto are very nearly circular. The orbits of the pl
  • Vincent Van Goghs Starry Night
    Vincent Van Goghs Starry Night Starry Night Vincent Van Gogh\'s Starry Night is a marvelous painting in which Van Gogh paints a picture that is colorful and descriptive. This painting can be described as mysterious and intriguing. It can signify a variety of moods, objects, and atmosphere. Van Gogh portrays a small French town located in the countryside. This town is characterized by rolling mountains, big starry sky, small houses, green fields, a large tree, and a church. He uses these details
  • Life and Times of Sir Isaac Newton
    Life and Times of Sir Isaac Newton Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727), mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time. Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he went to school, he began to attend Cambridge University in 1661; he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667, and a Lucasian mathematics professor in 1669. He stayed at the university, lecturing most of the years, until 1696. During these Cambridge years, in which Newton was at the
  • Comets
    comets The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases, and dust. They have also been given the names “dirty snowballs” or “icy mud balls.” The typical comet is less than 10 kilometers across. Th
  • Commets
    Commets Comets have fascinated people for millions of years, but until 1994 no one had ever had the chance to witness firsthand the destructive power of these wanderers. From July 16 to 22, fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 smashed into Jupiter, creating a series of fireballs in the giant planet\'s atmosphere. The string of explosions was awesome, yet the discovery that comets can wreak havoc would not have come as a surprise to our distant ancestors. People of widely different cultures have l
  • Earth
    earth EARTH The Earth, man\'s home, is a planet. The Earth has special characteristics, and these are important to man. It is the only planet known to have the right temperature and the right atmosphere to support the kind of environments and natural resources in which plants and man and other animals can survive. This fact is so important to man that he has developed a special science called ecology, which deals with the dependence of all living things will continue to survive on the planet. Ma
  • Life on other planets
    Life on other planets Life On Other Planets Life exists on other planets. Out of the billions of solar systems, there has to be a chance that a least a couple planets have the ability to support life. Life may have developed on the planets like life developed here, but it may have developed differently also. Are they more intelligent than we are or are they single-celled organisms? Do they have broadcast capabilities, so they can contact us? "It goes back to how life on Earth started. In the ear
  • The PlanetsSolar System
    The PlanetsSolar System The earth is only one small planet in an extremely large system of planets, satellites, asteroids, meteors and comets that revolve around the sun. This system is referred to as the solar system. A planet is defined as a “celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light " (Grolier,1992). The only planetary system known to our civilization is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets that differ greatly size and physical character
  • The Solar System
    The Solar System The Solar System consists of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites; the comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust and gas. It is composed of two systems, the inner solar system and the outer solar system. The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The outer solar system contains Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The inner planets are relatively small and made primarily of rock and iron. The asteroids orbit the sun in
  • Mark Twain
    Mark Twain MARK TWAIN Mark Twain also known as Samuel Clemens. He was born in Florida, Missouri on Nov 30,1835, the sixth child of John and Jane Clemens. Several years later, in 1839, the family moved to nearby Hannibal, where Clemens spent his boyhood years. Clemens boyhood dream was to become a steamboatman on the river. Clemens\' newspaper career began while still a boy in Hannibal. In 1848, a year after his father death, he was apprentice to printer Joseph Ament, who published the Missouri
  • The origin of life
    the origin of life The origin of Life There are many theories where life came from, but none of them is proven to be the right one. The obvious theory that life originated on earth is not accepted by everyone. One reason of disbelief in this theory that life originated on earth is a lack of time. It was an early belief that life originated through a slow and long process (many scientists do not share this belief though), probably too short and too long for the time life had on our planet. Life
  • Comets
    comets Cometography is a four-volume project I have been working on since the mid-1970s. Jump-started by comet Kohoutek of 1973-1974, I began researching comets and immediately found myself becoming more and more intrigued by them. It was fascinating to read about comets that unexpectedly split, brightened, or faded. There were also interesting stories concerning the discovery circumstances of some comets, as well as tales about how comets affected cultures. As I continued reading I found that,
  • Extraterrestrials
    Extraterrestrials Can the Earth be the only place in the Universe that harbors life? Most astronomers don\'t believe this is true. Certain statistics in the Universe provide evidence that living beings may be common place through out the universe, on planets of other stars besides the sun. In this paper I plan to discuss the various viewpoints of those that believe that extraterrestrials exist and have even been visiting Earth, and the viewpoints of skpetics that believe that aliens don\'t exis
  • Is there another earth out there
    Is there another earth out there Is There Another Earth Out There? (adopted from an article by Guillermo Gonzalez, Donald Brownlee and Peter D. Ward, Refugees for Life in a Hostile Universe, Scientific American, October 2001) Is there life on other planets? Science has been trying to answer this question for a long time. In the article, the authors argue that it is highly improbable that complex life forms exist in our galaxy. To quote the authors: Researchers are now casting a skeptical eye o
  • Native american astronomy
    Native american astronomy For many years astronomers and people alike have constantly heard about the observations and records of the Chinese and Europeans. No other culture can provide as much information as that gathered by the Chinese and Europeans, but there are many other cultures that observed and recorded the night sky, one of those being the Native Americans. During the last fifteen to twenty years archaeoastronomers have uncovered much concerning the beliefs and records of Native Ameri
  • The solar system
    The solar system Assignment 1: The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun; the nine planets, 67 satellites of the planets and a large number of small bodies (comets and asteroids). The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars: The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus, though all except Mercury and Pluto are very nearly circular. The orbits of the pl
  • Mark twain
    Mark twain MARK TWAIN Mark Twain also known as Samuel Clemens. He was born in Florida, Missouri on Nov 30,1835, the sixth child of John and Jane Clemens. Several years later, in 1839, the family moved to nearby Hannibal, where Clemens spent his boyhood years. Clemens boyhood dream was to become a steamboatman on the river. Clemens\' newspaper career began while still a boy in Hannibal. In 1848, a year after his father death, he was apprentice to printer Joseph Ament, who published the Missouri
  • Mark twain
    Mark twain MARK TWAIN Mark Twain also known as Samuel Clemens. He was born in Florida, Missouri on Nov 30,1835, the sixth child of John and Jane Clemens. Several years later, in 1839, the family moved to nearby Hannibal, where Clemens spent his boyhood years. Clemens boyhood dream was to become a steamboatman on the river. Clemens\' newspaper career began while still a boy in Hannibal. In 1848, a year after his father death, he was apprentice to printer Joseph Ament, who published the Missouri
  • Superstition In Shakespeares The Tragedy of Julius
    Superstition In Shakespeares The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Superstition has been around almost since people first inhabited the earth. For this reason, it has played a main role in many classical pieces of literature. One of Shakespeares tragedies, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, is full of superstition and the supernatural. It contained so much superstition in order to foreshadow key events in the plot, to further develop characters, and to thrill and relate to the Elizabethan audience for whom
  • Sir Issac Newton
    Sir Issac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) Isaac Newton was born in Lincolnshire, on December 25, 1642. He was educated at Trinity College in Cambridge, and resided there from 1661 to 1696 during which time he produced the majority of his work in mathematics. During this time New ton developed several theories, such as his fundamental principles of gravitation, his theory on optics otherwise known as the Lectiones Opticae, and his work with the Binomial Theorem. This is only a few theories
  • Kepler
    Kepler Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler is now remembered for discovering the three laws of planetary motion, and writing about them in books that were published in 1609 and 1619. He also did important work in optics, discovered two new regular polyhedra, gave the first mathematical treatment of close packing of equal spheres, gave the first proof of how logarithms worked, and devised a method of finding the volumes of solids of revolution. This can be seen as contributing to the development of
  • Comet Crash
    Comet Crash MISHAPS AND HUMAN FACTORS OF THREE MAJOR ACCIDENTS Introduction There are many airplane accidents a year. On an average, 70 –80% are human error. Though there are many other factors, such as design factors, management, and weather factors, human error is the largest. Each one of these factors played a certain role in the three articles of accidents. The BOAC Comet, the PSA crashes in San Diego, and the Air Florida crash in Washington D.C., were analyzed differently, taking into cons
  • Culture and Music
    Culture and Music George Gershwin once said, “True music must repeat the thought and inspirations of the people and the time. My people are Americans and my time is today.” Over the years, no form of art has attached itself to humanity more than music. Music has been creating and destroying cultures in the Twentieth Century at a very rapid rate. Fads come and go, but true music and the heart behind it never dies. The story of subcultures in and through modern music has to start in the 1920’s Am
  • Societies realization of Rock
    Societies realization of Rock Societies realization of Rock by Karen The cultural establishment of the "50\'s was one of prosperity and rules. Authority figures were respected. There was a "right" and "wrong". There were accepted ways of doing things and white people did what was "expected" of their "class". Children and teenagers of the early \'50\'s followed these rules obediently and unquestioningly. Then the middle \'50\'s changed lives of Americans forever. They invented rock\'n\'roll. The
  • Fireworks
    fireworks The Physics of Fireworks What are fireworks like? she had asked. They are like the Aurora Borealis said the King, only much more natural. I prefer them to stars myself, as you always know when they are going to appear& -Oscar Wilde The Remarkable Rocket Why did we choose the topic of fireworks? Fireworks have been a traditional means of celebration in Hawaii for generations. They are fun to watch and even more fun to set off. Most of all, we chose this topic because we like to b
  • Peter Hawking
    Peter Hawking A Documentation of Steven Hawking And his Lifes Great Work A Brief History of Time In order to truly understand Steven Hawking and all his crazy theories and pure genius that makes anyone who tries or has tried to figure out what he is talking about, feel like someone who hasnt passed 1st grade. First a brief biography on his life and then I will, with the help of Mr. Hawking himself (actually his online website), try to explain some of his mind-boggling theories in my own wor
  • Is Evolution a theory to be taken as fact
    Is Evolution a theory to be taken as fact A fact is something that exists beyond question. It is an actuality, an objective reality. It is established by solid evidence. A theory is something unproved but at times assumed true for the sake of argument. It has yet to be proved as factual. Nonetheless, sometimes something is declared to be a fact that is only a theory. In a September 30, 1986 article of the New York Times there was an published article by a New York University professor, Irving K
  • Comets
    comets The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases, and dust. They have also been given the names “dirty snowballs” or “icy mud balls.” The typical comet is less than 10 kilometers across. T
  • Earth8217s Next 8220Big Bang8221 Asteroid Impact
    Earth8217s Next 8220Big Bang8221 Asteroid Impact Asteroids sling through space, celestial debris of diverse origins, leftovers from the formation of the solar system, broken offshoots of parental asteroids or comets that have lost their glow. But if an asteroid were to smash into Earth, the result would mean a global catastrophe and life on our Planet could come to an end. The explosion would approach that of a million megatons of TNT- sixteen hundred times greater than the most powerful nuclea
  • From the Big Bang to Life On Earth
    From the Big Bang to Life On Earth From the Big Bang to Life on Earth Should we as humans expect to find intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe? There are many reasons for and against this concept, but first we should trace just how our terrestrial life started. The beginning of time and the universe began with the Big Bang. This was an explosion that started the expansion of the universe. In the most basic sense, the standard model is simply the idea that every bit of the matter and energy
  • Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, England. Newton is clearly the most influential scientist who ever lived. His accomplishments in mathematics, optics, and physics laid the foundations for modern science and revolutionized the world. Newton studied at Cambridge and was professor there from 1669 to 1701, succeeding his teacher Isaac Barrow as Lucasian professor of mathematics. His most important discoveries were made during
  • Life on Mars
    Life on Mars I was at home minding my own business when all of a sudden and my bag got sucked back in time. I dont know or I cant explain really what occurred, but I found my self at the beginning of time itself. So I decided to make down my own thoughts and what I saw. Here is my journal entry. Date: No sure when (around 4.5 billion years ago) Time: Dont ask. There were volcanoes everywhere, there was lava pouring out from the earth in large quantities. Ash was flying around my very own hea
  • Life on Other Planets
    Life on Other Planets Life on Other Planets As the future proceeds and life begins getting more technical, Earth may not be the only place where the human race resides. There is already talk that some day Mars will be inhabited by humans. Jupiters moon Europa may be the next after that. Two space missions have already studied Mars. The Pathfinder, which landed on the surface of Mars was one of the missions, and the Global Surveyor, which is a satellite, is the other mission. Although Europa has
  • Pig Studies
    Pig Studies Biological Science * The effect of sound on plants * Plants in different environments (light intensity, colour) * The effect of nicotine, air, yeast on mold growth * Factors affecting the strength of hair, the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast * Experiment with Hydroponics * Use seedlings started from seed with three types of soil and different rates of fertilizer * The effectiveness of antiseptics and soaps on household bacteria * The effect of air pollution on algae, protozoa, fi