Comparing and Contrast of Vietnam WAr Essay

This essay has a total of 3215 words and 12 pages.


Comparing and Contrast of Vietnam WAr




A quarter of a century after the Fall of Saigon, Vietnam continues to exercise a powerful
hold of the American psyche. No deployment of American troops abroad is considered
without the infusion of the Vietnam question. No formulation of strategic policy can be
completed without weighing the possibility of Vietnanization. Even the politics of a
person cannot be discussed without taking into account his opinion on the Vietnam Ware.
This national obsession with Vietnam is perfectly national when viewed from a far. It was
the only war that the United States has ever lost. It defined an era of American history
that must rank with the depression as one of this nation’s most traumatic. It concluded
with Watergate and led many to believe that the United States was in decline. Even with
the sobering effect of time, passions concerning American policy and behavior in Southeast
Asia reach a level normally associated with sensitive social issues. To understand why,
one must look at Vietnam in the proper context. American involvement occurred in the
middle of, and was the most visible engagement, of the defining paradign of the post World
War II era, the Cold War. Only through this prism can the Vietnam experience be defined.

One of the seven global powers entering World War II; the United States emerged as an
undisputed “superpower.” Her economic and military night was overwhelming in a world
ravaged by five years of total war. The only adversary of comparable power was a notion
at the opposite end of the ideological spectrum, the Soviet Union. As the vanguard of the
communist world, the U.S.S.R.’s raison d’etve was the facilitate the overthrow of the
global capitalist system and replace it with a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Thus
the explicit mission of American Foreign policy after 1945 was opposition to communist
advancement anywhere in the world. This took many forms and was backed by key assumption.

Central among then was the avoidance of a direct military confrontation between the Unites
States and the Soviet Union. With the U.S.S.R. achieving nuclear capability in 1947 and
both sides expanding their armed forces, a full out war was deemed unacceptable. The
result of such a war was seen to be catastrophic to the survival of the planet. The
lesson of the Korean War only reinforced this assumption. The infusion of Chinese troops
quickly escalated the conflict and some American generals advocated the nuclear option
against China. Wisely, President Truman rejected this and avoided drawing in the U.S.S.R.
as active participants.

Avoiding a head on clash with the Soviets meant that the Cold War would have to be fought
indirectly and on the peripheries. This strategy involved a positive and negative thirst.
Positive in that the United States would actively support friendly states and allies.
This support would encompass economic, military, and diplomatic aid. The most famous
example is the Marshall Plan. By generously helping Western Europe rebuild after the war,
the United States was able to effectively quash any Soviet designs in that part of the
continent. It is sometimes forgotten how much popularity far-left parties had in certain
countries. (France and Italy especially) immediately after the war, American involvement
in Greece was another prime example. The United States provided a significant amount of
support and material to help the Greek government suppresses a communist backed rebellion.
Also, to a lesser extent, the Unites States supported the Shah of Iran in helping drive
out Soviet troops who were reluctant to leave. Combined with the invasion of South Korea
by the north. American policy makers forged another key assumption. On that would prove
central to the Vietnam question. The U.S.S.R. was seen as an expansionist for that had to
be countered at every turn possible. There could be no end the United States vigilance.
A peaceful and calm co-existence was not viewed as being possible. One can view this
version of strategic policy as the zero-sum game. In a zero sum world, every action has a
good or bad effect, and your enemy’s gain, no matter how trivial, is a loss for you.
Thus, any Soviet advancement comes at the direct expense of American prestige and
position. Closely related to this worldview was what became famously known as the domino
theory. If the United States allowed even a small and strategically unimportant state to
fall into communist hands, she would be gravely damaged. This was because the communists
would then use the country as a spring board to dominate the neighboring county and so and
so on. Soon, all the countries of that region would fall into the soviet camp and the
United States would become slowly encircled by communist states. Also the abandonment of
an ally by the Unites States would shatter confidence of other countries in the
determination of America to fight communism and could cause those countries to warm to the
Soviet block.

Another assumption that American policy makers held was that the colonial system was
obsolete and would have to be scrapped. They had both idealistic and pragmatic roots.
The Unites States had always viewed itself as a beacon of freedom and democracy to other
peoples and nations. As such, the majority of this nations elite always viewed
colonialism with disdain. Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points reinforced this after the end
of World War I. The self-determination of peoples was a main foundation of that vision.
The Unites States thus sympathized with the nationalistic aspirations of people in the
post-war world.

The final assumption made by American policy makers (military mostly) was that if the U.S.
did find itself engaged in an armed conflict, superior America firepower would ultimately
win out. No on challenged the premise that the Unites States was the most technologically
advanced country in the world and that this transferred easily to the military. Only the
U.S. boasted a fleet of nuclear-powered mega carries. Only the U.S. possessed long-range
strategic bombers. American jets and submarines were unchallenged as the finest in the
world. Given American economic might, her military leaders had no doubt that the United
States would simply grind down and wear out opponents in a drawn-out conventional war.

As applied to Vietnam, these assumptions were transformed from beneficial guide points of
sound policy to dogmatic assertions that precluded American leaders from carrying out a
strategy suited to the unique situation of Vietnam.

Following World War II, France and her nationalist leader, Charles de Gaulle, was eager to
regain control of her overseas colonies. This applied particularly to Vietnam. (Which
had been taken over by the Japanese during the war) This was the first dilemma faced by
American leadership. Roosevelt loathes de Gaulle and felt that a return to the status quo
ante-bellum was unacceptable. However, as the prospect of a struggle with the Soviet
Union began to loom ever longer, “Roosevelt retreated sharply from his earlier forth night
stand…At Valta in February 1945, the President endorsed a proposal under which colonies
would be placed in trusteeship only with the approval of the other country. In view of
France’s announced intention to return to its former colony, this plan implicitly
precluded a trusteeship for Indochina.” (p.14) This shift coincided with the growing
fear of the Soviet Union and its global designs. “American skepticism about French policy
in Asia continued to be outweighed by European concerns. In the spring of 1947, the
Unites States formally committed itself to the containment of the Soviet expansion in
Europe.” (p. 70) Because France was seen as an essential component of this strategy,
American support for French designs in Vietnam was to become policy. As France was
dragged deeper and deeper into war with nationalist rebels in Vietnam, American support
grew more and more overt. The Unites States committed $133 Million in aid to the French
in 1950. By 1952, the Unites States was now bearing more than 40 percent of the cost of
the war and had established a stake in the outcome. The Geneva Conference proved to be a
key landmark in American involvement in Vietnam. The Americans still clung to the fantasy
that the French could hold on militarily. In fact, France was not willing to sacrifice
what was needed to keep Vietnam. Also, in what was to become a reoccurring theme, the
United States was unwilling and unable to separate nationalistic from communist
aspirations. What many Vietnamese saw as a struggle to kick out the French colonizers and
regain independence, the policy makers in Washington saw a sinister plot emanating from
the corridors of Moscow and Beijing. “The only freedom that most Vietnamese wanted was
not from Communism, about which they knew little and understood less, but from France and
Communist-dominated though it was, the Vietnam was the only force in the country fighting
for an independence which the France were persistently unwilling to grant.” (p. 47) This
was perhaps the most damaging assumption that Washington made and found difficult the
change. The White House and the Pentagon saw Ho Chih Migh was nothing more than a puppet
of China and the U.S.S.R. They felt he was merely a minion doing the bidding of his
masters in Beijing. The U.S. repeatedly rejected overtures by Ito, whose main goal was to
eject the French. As it became more apparent that the French would be unable to hold on,
American strategy shifted in 1955. American policy makers decided to build their
assumptions around Ngo Dinh Dien. President Eisenhower was steadfast in his support of
Dian and felt that there was no other option. He “never wavered in his conviction that
the survival of an independent, non-communist government in South Vietnam was a vital
strategic imperative for the United States.” (p.33)

When asked the reasons for America’s loss in Vietnam, many people reply that the military
was never given a chance to truly win the war. Their hands were tied behind their backs.
The leaders in Washington never gave the armed forces a green light to win. This argument
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • 1960 establishment
    1960 establishment ÿThe Establishment in the 1960\'s The nineteen sixties were times of great change. Many people went from moderates to radicals because of the environment around them. That environment was called the establishment. It included all of the events going on in the nineteen sixties. Some of the main events taking place were the Vietnam War, the government, the Democratic National Convention and the culture (*). Many protested things that they did not believe in or thought was wrong
  • Civil Rights Movement Timeline
    Civil Rights Movement Timeline Civil Rights Movement: 1890-1900 1890: The state of Mississippi adopts poll taxes and literacy tests to discourage black voters. 1895: Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta Exposition speech, which accepts segregation of the races. 1896: The Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson the separate but equal treatment of the races is constitutional. 1900-1910 1900-1915: Over one thousand blacks are lynched in the states of the former Confederacy. 1905: The Niagara
  • Dreaming in the 1960s
    Dreaming in the 1960s Dreaming in the 1960s In 1962, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said his most famous words: "I have a dream." He was not the only one who felt this way. For many, the 1960s was a decade in which their dreams about America might be fulfilled. For Martin Luther King Jr., this was a dream of a truly equal America; for John F. Kennedy, it was a dream of a young vigorous nation that would put a man on the moon; and for the hippy movement, it was one of love, peace, and freedom. The 1
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President, therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. Kennedy was especially admir
  • John F Kennedy in Vietnam
    John F Kennedy in Vietnam JOHN F. KENNEDY IN VIETNAM There are many critical questions surrounding United States involvement in Vietnam. American entry to Vietnam was a series of many choices made by five successive presidents during these years of 1945-1975. The policies of John F. Kennedy during the years of 1961-1963 were ones of military action, diplomacy, and liberalism. Each of his decision was on its merits at the time the decision was made. The belief that Vietnam was a test of the Ameri
  • Presidential Travel
    Presidential Travel Through the course of our country’s history many things have changed such as the presidents and their form of transportation. Civilization has broadened the types transportation through the decades. The use of transportation has furthered our country’s ability to communicate with each other and many other countries. The president’s travel started out with an uncomfortable horsedrawn carriage and has escalated to a giant Boeing 747 jumbo jet with all the amenities of the White
  • CompareContrast Kennedy and Nixon
    CompareContrast Kennedy and Nixon John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon have shaped our country in different ways. They each had very separate lives, yet they always seemed to cross each other’s paths. They both had several similarities and many differences. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brooklyn, Massachusetts on May 29, 1917 to a very wealthy family. His father was a well-off businessman and ambassador. His father taught him self-confidence and passion for competition. His family’s wealth
  • Imperal Presidentsy
    Imperal Presidentsy War, or even the threat of it, has always seemed to give the president more power. In times of war Americans often readily give more power to the president, but once the crisis is over the public then becomes concerned with whether they have created an office that has become imperial. The office of the president has become increasingly more powerful over the last 50-60 years. Even though the power to declare war and send US troops into war belonged to Congress there have many
  • On Friday, November 22nd, 1963 the 35th President
    jfk On Friday, November 22nd, 1963 the 35th President of the United States of America, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated. This unfortunate tragedy has created more controversy than any other single event. Today, the people of the United States of America are asking the same questions that the people who witnessed this tragic event. Who did it? Why did they do it? Was there a cover up? In this essay I will try to show who had a motive to assassinate President John F. Kennedy. When Presiden
  • Supreme courts reactivity to popular will in moder
    supreme courts reactivity to popular will in modern times The Supreme Court safeguards much of its power by creating walls to separate its power from public opinion and political pandering. And while impartiality is undoubtedly the preeminent characteristic desirable in a justice, it is impossible to nominate a human being that is not at least partially fallible and swayed by the society around him. The Warren Court of 1953 to 1969 perfectly illustrates the concurrent philosophies of the Court w
  • Containment
    Containment During the Truman administration, a containment policy was developed. The policy eventually became the central concept defining U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War. To contain Soviet Communism, President Harry Truman used American military and financial resources to help rebuild Western Europe after World War II. Under the Truman Doctrine, President Truman requested Congress for funds to build up Turkey and Greece, two countries that came under pressure from the Soviet Union. Truman
  • JFK History
    JFK History John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic ever elected to the presidency. Rich, handsome, elegant, and articulate, he aroused great admiration at home and abroad. His term of office as president was too short, however, to say what his place in history might have been Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. His father, Joseph P. Kennedy was a businessman who became a multimillionair
  • JFK3
    JFK3 On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, apparently by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. *From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time to author several best-selling novels from his e
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson
    LBJ Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973) Johnson was born on Aug. 27, 1908, near Johnson City, Tex., the eldest son of Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr., and Rebekah Baines Johnson. His father, a struggling farmer and cattle speculator in the hill country of Texas, provided only an uncertain income for his family. Politically active, Sam Johnson served five terms in the Texas legislature. His mother had varied cultural interests and placed high value on education; she was fiercely ambitious for her children. J
  • Lyndon B Johnson and Richard M Nixon
    Lyndon B Johnson and Richard M Nixon Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard M. Nixon were presidents during one of the most turbulent periods in American history. Both grappled with significant social unrest and the question of whether to continue involvement in the Vietnam War. Although these two presidents faced similar problems during their presidency, their presidential style and approach to these problems was fundamentally different. However, Johnson and Nixon shared a willingness to mislead the pub
  • Strong government
    strong government Why is it Important for a Country to have a Strong National Government? Looking at governments of countries that are or were weak and what happened to those countries can best emphasize the importance of a strong national government. For example, because the government of Germany was weak after World War I, there was an opportunity for the Nazis to take control. A madman like Adolph Hitler and the other members of the dictatorship he established were easily able to take over th
  • Vietnam War1
    Vietnam War1 The Vietnam War is one of the most disgraceful periods in American history. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by an almost third-world nation, but we lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or even prevented in the first place. The United States could have and should have won this war, with a combination of better weapons usage, better tactics, and better support from their home country. Before the War Even years before the war, Vietnam was a hot
  • Vietnam4
    Vietnam4 Vietnam: The War We Should Have Won Essay written by Chris Styduhar The Vietnam War is one of the most disgraceful periods in American history. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by an almost third-world nation, but we lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or even prevented in the first place. The United States could have and should have won this war, with a combination of better weapons usage, better tactics, and better support from their home coun
  • Who killed JFK
    Who killed JFK On Friday, November 22nd, 1963 the 35th President of the United States of America, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated. This unfortunate tragedy has created more controversy than any other single event. Today, the people of the United States of America are asking the same questions that the people who witnessed this tragic event. Who did it? Why did they do it? Was there a cover up? In this essay I will try to show who had a motive to assassinate President John F. Kennedy. Wh
  • Antiwar movement
    antiwar movement Anti-Vietnam Movement in the U.S. The antiwar movement against Vietnam in the US from 1965-1971 was the most significant movement of its kind in the nation\'s history. The United States first became directly involved in Vietnam in 1950 when President Harry Truman started to underwrite the costs of France\'s war against the Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased the US\'s political, economic, and military commitments steadily through
  • Assasiination of jfk
    assasiination of jfk The Warren Commission: And the Assassination of JFK The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been one of the most controversial cases in history. There are many theories to what really happened on that tragic day. What theory is the right Theory? Well, that depends on what evidence you believe is the “Best evidence”.(Lifton) The following presentation will address the Warren Commission and who they and how they involved in the investigation of the case. It will als
  • Democratice partys
    democratice partys Republic (government) (Latin res publica, literally "the public thing"), form of state based on the concept that sovereignty resides in the people, who delegate the power to rule in their behalf to elected representatives and officials. In practice, however, this concept has been variously stretched, distorted, and corrupted, making any precise definition of the term republic difficult. It is important, to begin with, to distinguish between a republic and a democracy. In the t
  • Dwight D Eisenhower
    Dwight D Eisenhower He was born in a small town called Deniso in western Texas in the year 1890 (Hargrove 22).Then he and his family moved to a railroad town called Abilene in the state of Kansas. Here Dwight Eisenhower grew upwith his 13 other family members. (Hargrove 19). Dwight David Eisenhower is one of Americas greatest heroes with his military career to his two terms as President of the United States. Dwight Eisenhower had many accomplishments to and from West Point through World War One.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the Unit
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president w
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the Unit
    JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th president of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president. Therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. Young people especially liked him. No other president w
  • John F Kennedy
    John F Kennedy JFK\'s Life JFK: His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, apparently by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. *From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time t
  • John F Kennedy
    John F Kennedy JFK\'s Life JFK: His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot dead, apparently by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. The world had not only lost a common man, but a great leader of men. *From his heroic actions in World War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the time t
  • LBJ and Vietnam
    LBJ and Vietnam ¡°Lyndon B. Johnson¡¯s Decision Not to Declare War in Vietnam¡± The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States or by any country. It was never officially declared a war. It had no official beginning or an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. It is a classic story of good guys versus bad, communism versus freedom, and a constant struggle for stability. America¡¯s attempt to aid the cause of freedo
  • NIXON
    NIXON RICHARD M. NIXON. The first president of the United States to resign from office was Richard M. Nixon. Before his mid-term retirement in 1974, he had been only the second president to face impeachment. In 1968, in a political comeback unprecedented in American history, Nixon was elected the 37th president of the United States. This victory followed two major political defeats. In his first bid for the presidency in 1960, the Democratic candidate, John F. Kennedy, defeated him. Two years la
  • Polarization in the Political System
    Polarization in the Political System On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, in what has been perceived as the years biggest non-event, the federal government shut down all "non-essential" services due to what was, for all intents and purposes, a game of national "chicken" between the House Speaker and the President. And, at an estimated cost of 200 million dollars a day, this dubious battle of dueling egos did not come cheap (Bradsher, 1995, p.16). Why do politicians find it almost congenitally impossib
  • Spanish revolution
    spanish revolution John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic ever elected to the presidency. Rich, handsome, elegant, and articulate, he aroused great admiration at home and abroad. His term of office as president was too short, however, to say what his place in history might have been Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. His father, Joseph P. Kennedy was a businessman who became a multimil
  • Vietnam
    vietnam The Vietnam War is one of the most disgraceful periods in American history. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by an almost third-world nation, but we lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or even prevented in the first place. The United States could have and should have won this war, with a combination of better weapons usage, better tactics, and better support from their home country. Before the War Even years before the war, Vietnam was a hotly di
  • Vietnam War2
    Vietnam War2 Vietnam War was fought in Vietnam from 1959 to 1975. The war was between North Vietnamese and the National Liberation Front (NLF) versus the United States and the South Vietnamese army. It eventually divided into two parts, North and South Vietnam. The United States was incorporated with the south. The United States became involved in the Vietnam war because it believed that if all the country fell under the Communist government, Communism would spread throughout Southeast Asia and
  • Vietnam
    vietnam The Vietnam War is one of the most disgraceful periods in American history. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by an almost third-world nation, but we lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or even prevented in the first place. The United States could have and should have won this war, with a combination of better weapons usage, better tactics, and better support from their home country. Before the War Even years before the war, Vietnam was a hotly di
  • Affirmative Action4
    Affirmative Action4 Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise ha
  • AntiVietnam Movement In US
    AntiVietnam Movement In US Anti-Vietnam Movement in the U.S. The antiwar movement against Vietnam in the US from 1965-1971 was the most significant movement of its kind in the nation\'s history. The United States first became directly involved in Vietnam in 1950 when President Harry Truman started to underwrite the costs of France\'s war against the Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased the US\'s political, economic, and military commitments steadi
  • Lyndon Johnsons Effect of AMerican Foriegn Policy
    Lyndon Johnsons Effect of AMerican Foriegn Policy Towards Isreal The following is a discussion of American foreign policy towards Israel, and the Middle East. In it I will show that Lyndon Johnson changed the regional position and opinion of the United Stated by adapting a pro Israeli stance, categorized by excusing many unadvised forceful actions taken by Israel. It will be shown how Johnson’s response to the outbreak of the 1967 War was the major factor in the change. These changes took the fi
  • Politics and Society
    Politics and Society Politics and Society Media, money, and the First Amendment are three key influences in a successful political run. Media coverage is important to familiarize the public with the candidate and to show where he stands on certain issues. Money is needed to buy television and radio time. The First Amendment guarantees everyone the freedom of speech, but how can this be reasonably defined. One possible solution would be restrictions on the amount of money that individuals can don
  • Powers of presidency
    Powers of presidency The Power of the Presidency * I believe that most significant of the powers at the hands of the President are those that are considered “informal”, especially those that allow him to persuade and gain loyalty of many people. The Presidency of the United States is said to be the most powerful office in the world. Taking a closer look at this statement presents the questions of how and why the president so powerful. It might shock some people to learn that a significant amount
  • Presidential Power and rthe Modern Presidents A Cr
    Presidential Power and rthe Modern Presidents A Critical Review Presidential Leadership Many scholars and academics have claimed that Richard Neustadt\'s book Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents, a brilliant and insightful commentary on not only the workings of the office of the president but also the pitfalls any president can encounter as well as the way personality and leadership fit into the making of a president. In short, Neustadt almost gives us a model for what a president must
  • Affirmative action
    affirmative action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise hav
  • John F Kennedy vs Lynden B Johnson
    John F Kennedy vs Lynden B Johnson The question I am about to answer can not be answered in brief. To fully comprehend the similarities and differences between John F. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” and Lyndon B. Johnson’s “Great Society” you must understand their intentions first. John F. Kennedy was not an ordinary President. He was one with a certain “charisma”, as some put it. He was very blunt and knew how to get what he wanted. During his rain as President, he created the reform program know as
  • Welafre
    Welafre In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest man ever elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was not elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to death in Dallas, Tex., the fourth United States president to die by an assassin\'s bullet. Kennedy was the nation\'s first Roman Catholic president. He was inaugurated in January 1961, succeeding Repub
  • JFK IN VIETNAM
    JFK IN VIETNAM JFK IN VIETNAM From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina, which also included Cambodia and Laos. The country was under the formal control of an emperor, Bao Dai. From 1946 until 1954, the Vietnamese struggled for their independence from France during the first Indochina War. At the end of this war, the country was temporarily divided into North and South Vietnam. North Vietnam came under the control of the Vietnamese Communists who had
  • Kennedy
    Kennedy Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as President therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented the United States from entering into another world war. The younger peop
  • Ulysses S Grant
    Ulysses S Grant Although Ulysses S. Grant\'s contemporaries placed him in the highest position of great Americans along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, the twentieth century has seen him fade. His presidency has been almost universally condemned, and he is consistently ranked second to rock bottom Warren G. Harding in polls of historians to rate the presidents. Although his military reputation has declined as well, it nevertheless continues to win him a steady following. Even his mo
  • Vietnam and LbJ
    Vietnam and LbJ To many, the 1960\'s could definately be considered one of the most controversial decades of this century. It was a time in which many mistakes were made evolving around the Vietnam War which resulted in the immense suffering of two nations. The war had many casualties; along with the death of soldiers and civilians, LBJ\'s presidency and the \'Great Society\' also were killed by the war. The US\'s fear of the domino theory led them in an attempt to control the spread of communi
  • Vietnam War
    Vietnam War Anti-Vietnam Movement in the U.S. The antiwar movement against Vietnam in the US from 1965-1971 was the most significant movement of its kind in the nation\'s history. The United States first became directly involved in Vietnam in 1950 when President Harry Truman started to underwrite the costs of France\'s war against the Viet Minh. Later, the presidencies of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy increased the US\'s political, economic, and military commitments steadily throughout
  • Vietnam War vs American Society
    Vietnam War vs American Society Vietnam War vs. Great Society Anonymous: "[Johnson] had miscalculated: Even the richest and most powerful nation in the world could not do it all" (qtd. in Turbulent Years: The 60s 36). Lyndon Baines Johnson is a president torn to pieces by war. He glows in the passage of bills benefiting American society. He is someone who has suffered through an entire generation of rebellious teens. What impact did LBJ\'s foreign policies concerning Vietnam War have on America
  • Watergate scandal
    Watergate scandal The Watergate Scandal and crisis that rocked the United States began on the early morning of June 17, 1972 with a small-scale burglary and it ended August 9, 1974 with the resignation of Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon. At approximately 2:30 in the morning of June 17, 1972, five burglars were discovered inside the Democratic National Headquarters in the Watergate office building in Washington DC. The burglars, who had been attempting to tap the headquarters phone w