Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

This essay has a total of 1101 words and 5 pages.


Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt




Before the beginning of history, people from across the land gradually developed numerous
cultures, each unique in some ways while the same time having features in common.
Mesopotamia and Egypt are important to the history of the world because of religious,
social, political and economic development. Mesopotamia was the first civilization, which
was around 3000 B.C., and all other countries evolved from it. Mesopotamia emerged from
the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The soil was rich and agriculture was plentiful. The
Semitic nomads occupied the land around Akkad. The Sumerians established the city-states.
Villages became urban centers. Because of the formation of the city-states everything
flourished. However, Mesopotamian agriculture lacked stones; therefore mud brick became
their major building block. Their diet consisted of fish from the rivers. The rivers
were flooded frequently destroyed the cities. Mesopotamians made their living from crops
and pottery.

Mesopotamian society was stratified into classes and social differences. It was composed
of nobles, free clients of the nobility, commoners and slaves. Slave women participated
in the textile industry. Free women did exist, however, men dominated the women in
Mesopotamia. The nobles consisted of the king, his family, the chief priests, and high
palace officials. The king was a war leader elected by the citizens. He established an
army and led it into battle. Kingship was hereditary. Commoners were free citizens.

The school system of the Sumerians set the educational standards for Mesopotamia culture
and other cultures to follow. Their studies included mathematics, botany and linguistics.
Some students that were advanced studied and copied the classics of Sumerian literature.
The Mesopotamians developed such things as the concept of the place value. The knowledge
of geometry and trigonometry was used for the building of cities, palaces, temples and
canals.

Medicine in Mesopotamia was a combination of surgery, prescriptions and magic. They
believed that the cause of sickness were due to demons and evil spirits and they only way
to be delivered from it was to drive the spirits away by magic. Or the physician could
force the demon out by giving the patient bad tasting medicine. As time went on and the
knowledge of medicine grew, some medicines were found to work and some were not. It was
very dangerous to practice medicine because the penalties for failure were severe. If a
physician made a mistake and caused the death of his patient, his hands would be chopped
off.

Religion played a big part of the Mesopotamians. They believed in many gods and the gods
had different jobs to perform. They did not consider the gods to be equal. People
offered sacrifices to their gods to please them. If they did not offer sacrifices, they
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