Confidence in Organized Labor Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 2426 words and 17 pages.

Confidence in Organized Labor


Statement of problem

People have opinions and thoughts about many issues relating to the work force. They
wonder what is the best occupation to get in, how much money they can make in certain
fields, who the best employers might be.

Some of the big concerns people have when thinking about employment is benefits. What can
a company provide to the potential employee in terms of insurance, vacations, advancement,
and all the extras associated with the perks of certain companies? At the time do these
people wonder about the organizations that may have a say in those benefits they so covet.
The labor unions

Through my research I have found very little information that deals with confidence in
organized labor. Most of the data that I have obtained is more closely related to unions
in general than to the people who have confidence in them; and I will attempt to ascertain
whether people have confidence in organized labor, not whether they approve or disapprove
of labor unions.

With the little information that I was able to obtain in this quest, I suggest that this
research would be beneficial to sociology by presenting more information on the topic of
confidence in organized labor and giving sociologists a platform from which to proceed
with further research in this area.


One objective of this paper is to determine whether there is confidence in organized
labor. Another objective is to ascertain whether there is an association between certain
independent variables relating to the level of confidence in organized labor.


The topic of confidence in organized labor is an expansive subject which can be studied
from the perspectives of many different variables. What I want to know is what others have
written about confidence in organized labor, how the different variables of my research
react to unions, whether there are any reasons they feel this way, what the unions are
doing to gain confidence, and whom they are likely to target for membership. I have read
that education may affect the way people feel toward unions (Sares, 1991). Meikasins and
Smith's (1993) article about how professionals are not as unionized as their industrious
counterparts tend to show an association about income and confidence. (Most professionals
earn more than industry workers.) One of the areas of my research is race (Wilson, 1989):
does this variable have any association with confidence in organized labor? Another focus
of in my research is whether sex can attribute to one's view on labor unions (Sares). Do
men or women have the greater confidence in organized labor? What has been done by the
labor unions to gain people's confidence, and what groups have they targeted most (Cosco)?
Are there any factors, such as the economy, that contribute to a person's confidence in
labor unions (Dalesio)? The research that I have reviewed will be used to assist me in
determining how confidence in organized labor is associated with the independent variables
that I will be using.


In 1972, the General Social Survey (GSS) began collecting data from a random national
sample of adults 18 and older. The people interviewed had participated in National Opinion
Research Center (NORC) national samples. All of the participants were English-speaking and
lived in non-institutional settings within the United States.

The general purpose of GSS is to collect information on society and use this data to
observe and explain any trends or changes in behaviors. For a modest fee and within a
reasonable time period, the results are made accessible to people wishing to use the

In 2000 the GSS interviewed nearly 3,000 non-institutionalize d adults. The sample was
chosen by using a multistage, stratified probability sampling design. This method was
chosen so that each participant in the target area would have an equal probability of
being chosen. The data gathered from these approximately ninety-minute in-person
interviews will be used to assist in this research. Seventy percent of the samples
contacted by the GSS responded.

The data used in this research was obtained from the GSS. It came from the spring of 2001
survey. The code book was used to select the dependent variable and independent variables
for this research.

Analytic Strategy

Data gathered from this research was analyzed using SPSS. With the SPSS program the
dependent variable, confidence in organized labor, was recoded as were the independent
variables; income level, amount of education, and race. The independent variable sex was
not recoded. After the variables were recoded frequencies were made using SPSS.

SPSS was used for crosstabulazation between the recoded dependent variable and the recoded
independent variables and the non-recoded independent variable, sex. A Chi-square test was
also run to determine the association between the dependent variable and the independent
variables.using be analyzed using frequencies, chi-square, and recoding where deemed



The dependent variable in this research is confidence in organized labor. This is an
ordinal level of measurement. The original values for this variable were

0 = NAP, 1 = A GREAT DEAL, 2 = ONLY SOME, 3 = HARDLY ANY, 8 = DK, 9 = NA

This variable was recoded with the new values 1 = A GREAT DEAL, 2 = ONLY SOME, 3 = HARDLY ANY, 999 = ALL OTHER VALUES.

The independent variables to be used are the following:

• sex, a nominal level of measurement with the values of
1 = MALE, 2 = FEMALE.

This variable was not recoded. This variable was used to see if males have more confidence
in organized labor or if females have more confidence in organized labor. It was also used
to see if there was any association between sex and confidence in organized labor.

• amount of education, an ordinal level of measurement with the original values of 0

7 = NAP, 8 = DK, 9 = NA.

This variable was recoded with the new values 1 = HIGH SCHOOL, 2 = JUNIOR COLLEGE. 3 =

This variable was used to see which level of education had the most confidence in
organized labor and to see if there was any association between education and confidence
in organized labor.

• income level, an interval level of measurement with the original values of
0 = NAP, 1 = LT $1000, 2 = $1000 TO 2999, 3 = $3000 TO 3999,
4 = $4000 TO 4999, 5 = $5000 TO 5999, 6 = $6000 TO 6999,
7 = $7000 TO 7999, 8 = $8000 TO 9999, 9 = $10000 TO 14999,
10 = $15000 TO 19999, 11 = $20000 TO 24999, 12 = $25000 OR
MORE, 13 = REFUSED, 98 = DK, 99 = NA.

This variable was recoded with the new values 1 = LESS THAN $25000, 2 = $25000 OR MORE, 999 = ALL OTHER VALUES.

This variable was used to see which value had the most confidence in organized labor and
to determine if there was any association between income and confidence in organized

• race, a nominal level of measurement with the original values of 0 = NAP,
98 = DK, 99 = NA.

This variable was recoded with the values of 1 = WHITE, 2 = BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN, 3 =

This variable was used to see if one race had more confidence in organized labor, and to
determine whether there was any association between race and confidence in organized

All of these variables are subject to recoding.

Continues for 9 more pages >>

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