Cuba and the Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

This essay has a total of 1492 words and 7 pages.


Cuba and the Cuban Missile Crisis




The year is 1959 and the place is Cuba. It is January 1st and Batista, the president of
Cuba has just fled the country fearing Fidel Castro, a Cuban revolutionary who mounted a
rebel force called the 26th of July Movement against Batista. Castro assumes power on the
16th of February and establishes a dictatorship.


Communist Rule In Cuba

So far, the Soviet leader, Khrushchev is in question of what political track Castro is
deciding to take. Russia themselves have only one connection with Fidel which is his
brother Raul who is no doubt a full communist. The Communist Party of Cuba at this time
has no contacts with Castro quite yet. Unfortunately, Raul never showed his true feelings
for communism to his brother, Fidel. This causes quite a predicament for the Soviet Union
to make them seen and heard by Cuba. Smartly, Russia sends Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan, who
held business contacts in the US, to the states as a guest of the Russian ambassador.
Fidel hears of Mikoyan’s arrival in the US and invites him to visit Cuba. Although
Mikoyan is traveling throughout the island, looking things over, Castro still has not
identified himself as a Communist quite yet. In May of 1960, diplomatic relations between
Russia and Cuba are established following Mikoyan’s visit to the island. One reason why
Cuba has turned to Russia is because the US had cut off their oil supplies and imposed an
economic embargo on the island because of the naturalization of US owned companies and
citizens by the Cuban government. This calls for a massive oil shipment from the Soviets
but unfortunately, Russia was unable to handle such a demand because of their limited
overseas shipping capabilities. Subsequently, Russia puts an order for extra oil tankers
from Italy, a capitalist country. When Italy agrees to the business proposition, the US is
infuriated that another capitalist country was willing to help a communist country. Italy
saw it as nothing more than an opportunity to make extra money, regardless of opposing
economic systems.

Back in Cuba, Castro has begun to make enemies for himself. The many policies he has
instilled angered many who fought beside him in the revolution to overthrow Batista and
many didn’t approve of the socialist reforms he made such as the naturalization of
businesses and his collectivization of agriculture. Castro felt he needed protection
against the United States and because Cuban forces mainly used small arms and guerrilla
warfare, Russia sent in tanks, artillery and attack planes as well as instructors on how
to use the new technologies. The former Russian ambassador in Cuba was then replaced after
Khrushchev soon realized that he worsened relations with Cuba instead of bettering them. A
journalist replaced him by the name of Alekseyev who was friendly with Fidel and his
brother, Raul. Alekseyev was seen to be much better suited for his position and worked
well with the Cuban government because he was already known and trusted by them. By the
early 1960’s, Castro has openly endorsed Communism with his many appointments of communist
leaders in key positions of the Cuban government. As time, went on, Cuba became
increasingly dependent on military and economic aid provided by the Soviet Union. Russia
made up much of the Cuban trade interactions including the purchase of sugar and nickel.
The American government became aware of Cuba’s growing success and began to wonder if Cuba
would act as an example of successful Socialism, persuade other countries in the Western
Hemisphere to revert to a socialist form of government or even serve as a base for
anti-American propaganda. The United States was more threatened than ever by this
socialist island nation on the rise.


The Cuban Missile Crisis

The date is October 14th, 1962. U.S. spy planes are making a pass over Cuba, particularly,
an area where much activity is spotted. A Soviet-managed construction site is visible and
photographs are taken of the site. It is soon confirmed that the first of many
medium/intermediate range ballistic missiles have been spotted. Frantically, President
Kennedy secretly meets with his advisory staff to question the approach. On October 22,
Kennedy announces a naval blockade aimed at preventing offensive missile weaponry into
Cuba on Russian ships. Inspections of ships in Cuba by U. S. personnel were also made.
The Russian strategy was to install missiles in Cuba without the Americans knowing it.
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