D Caries Essay

This essay has a total of 4839 words and 21 pages.

D Caries



Introduction
Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem
for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest
prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such
pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the
influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium
is the common name for tooth decay. It is a local disease, which is characterized by an
irreversible and permanent destruction of the tooth hard tissue, enamel. Thus spreads the
destruction to the rest of the tooth and, and possibly leading to tooth loss and possibly
infections in other areas, more specifically through the maxillary or mandibular areas.

Also I have included some other defects that are import and not only to the observation of
caries but overall pathologies and their implications for the individuals affected. In
this paper I will attempt to outline the causes of this disease and some of the numerous
factors that cause it, as many have a hand in the process. Also I will show how these
changes were brought about and how these affected the individuals with caries.


Systemic Disturbance
To begin I will introduce the reader he to other defects that affect the same area and
should be considered when any analysis of the area is to be understood. Any disturbance,
such as severe infection can disrupt enamel formation. That disruption of enamel formation
will leave an enduring record as a disorientation of enamel prisms. Because the human
dental growth sequence is known, the age at which the enamel disturbance occurred can be
determined from the location of the disturbance within the enamel. A standard chart for
dental development can be consulted for this purpose. There is extensive literature (now
in excess of 500 articles) on the epidemiology and etiology of enamel defects. Many of
which have been investigations using laboratory animals

There are two types of enamel developmental disturbance of interest to the
paleopathologist (1) Microdefects are histological structures known as Wilson bands. These
are accentuated brown striae of Retzius. The most celebrated of these is the neontal line,
reported by Schour in 1936 If the disturbance is short in duration and the enamel
formation resumes, that disturbance is recorded as a narrow band seen in the section of
enamel under a light microscope. That evidence of enamel formation disruption and recovery
is called a Wilson band. Wilson bands are thin layers of abnormally structured enamel
marking the position of the active ameoloblasts at the time of insult. Wilson bands are
sometimes called'pathological brown striae' in the literature. This descriptive term is a
nice way to describe the bands, which contain 'sudden changes in prism direction
associated with atypical rod forms.' Wide neonatal lines are associated with traumatic
births. Wilson bands appear to represent brief periods of stress lasting from one to five
days.

The examination of teeth for histological disturbance is destructive; therefore, this
technique is not used of rare ancient hominid teeth. 2) Macrodefects are defects visible
on the tooth surface. They are known as hypoplasias. These can vary in appearance from
small pits or furrows to large, deep grooves or even large areas of missing enamel.
Typically these defects are horizontal grooves that are called chronological or linear
(enamel hypoplasias. They seem to reflect impairment of enamel formation for weeks or
months, while Wilson lines record events limited to one or a few days. If the enamel
formation does not resume, the defect can be viewed macroscopically as a transverse area
of depressed enamel, this is known as enamel hypoplasia, Enamel hypoplasias show a
predilection for anterior teeth and for the cervical and middle thirds of tooth crowns.
Investigators have shown statistical associations between enamel hypoplasias and a variety
of clinical conditions of which we will only mention a few here: premature birth,
malnutrition, fluorosis, high fever, localized trauma and systemic metabolic distress such
as gastrointestinal disorders.


Dental plaque
Dental plaque is a mixed microbial biofilm growing on teeth and is the prime aetiological
agent of the two main oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease. The microbial
composition of plaque varies between individuals and the location on the tooth and
generally reflects the complex nature of the ecology of the mouth.

In common with other biofilms, the microbial composition of dental plaque is capable of
change in response to changes in the environment, notably the diet. These responses are
modulated by homeostatic mechanisms inherent in the plaque in ways, which are as yet
poorly understood.

The major sites of plaque accumulation are in the fissures of molar teeth, in the area
bounded by margin of the gum and the tooth and between adjacent the teeth. In addition,
plaque can cause gingival inflammation, which may result in loss of epithelial attachment
to the tooth leading to the formation of sub-gingival pockets (Frayer 1989). These pockets
may also harbor dental plaque which is significantly different from supra-gingival plaque
in a number of important respects in particular a much lower redox potential which selects
for a variety of anaerobic bacterial species.

Although dental plaque varies considerably in composition, it has been possible to piece
together a sequence of events, which lead to its establishment. The consensus view of
plaque development begins with a clean tooth surface covered by a conditioning film of
salivary proteins and glycoproteins, called the tooth pellicle, being colonized by
so-called "pioneer species"(Larson 1995). These multiply forming first a monolayer and,
subsequently, palisades of cells perpendicular to the tooth surface. During and after this
outgrowth period secondary colonization by a variety of Gram positive and negative species
occurs leading to a large increase in the species diversity. Foremost among the events
contributing to this secondary colonization is the process known as co-aggregation whereby
colonizing microbes attach to cells already part of the developing biofilm(Moore and
Colbett, 1983:140). This allows species which can not attach, or can attach only poorly,
to the tooth pellicle to participate in the biofilm. At 24 hours the maturing dental
plaque contains a wide variety of bacteria and it is possible to detect easily
identifiable inter-species associations such as the well
documented"corn-cob-configurations"(Frayer, 1989), although a wide variety of other
inter-species associations will be present.

Further colonization and growth of established bacteria takes place as the plaque matures
to form a stable, climax community. This pattern of development leading to a climax
community has been termed "bacterial succession". The resulting community consists of
individual microbes and microcolonies acting in complex consortia, which can convey a
range of beneficial properties. These include feeding synergies, improved antibiotic
resistance and a host of cooperative mechanisms, which are the subject of much current
research.



The Carious process
As mentioned before dental plaque is a deposit on the teeth consisting of food debris
together with various components derived from the saliva. Within this plaque dwell
bacteria, when these bacteria metabolize carbohydrates they produce acid waste products.
It is the dissolution of the dental hard tissues by these acids that cause carries.
Dietary sucrose changes both the thickness and the chemical nature of plaque. Mutans
streptococci and some other plaque bacteria use the monosaccharide components (glucose and
fructose) and the energy of the disaccharide bond of sucrose to assemble extracellular
polysaccharides. These increase the thickness of plaque substantially, and also change the
chemical nature of its extracellular space from liquid to gel. The gel limits movement of
some ions. Thick gel-plaque allows the development of an acid environment against the
tooth surface, protected from salivary buffering. Plaque, which has not had contact with
sucrose, is both thinner and better buffered. A diet with a high proportion of sucrose
therefore increases caries risk. Thicker plaque occurs in pits and fissures, just beneath
the contact area and, in patients with poor oral hygiene, near the gingival margin. The
initial area of lesion in caries consists of first, a softened, which then progresses into
a small hole or caries in the enamel surface. As this process continues there is a
widening of this deterioration and a caries is formed.

When this reaches the dento enamel surface the destruction tends to spread latterly due to
a typical increase in organic material within the affected area, which is to be expected
as living individuals would undoubtedly continue to consume food and thus continue to
produce saliva. This process will eventually undermine the enamel crown leaving a fragile
hollow cavity which can collapse due to the stresses that are present, weather they be
from eating, use as a tool or any other type of trauma that would place stress upon the
subject teeth (Shafer 1983:432)

In this way caries may lead to a complete destruction of an enamel crown. Due to this
destruction infection of the pulp may occur, either through direct exposure to the oral
environment or via opened exposed dentinal tubules (Hilson 1986: 316) This infection in
the pulp cavity may lead to the formation of a dental abbess at the tooth socket by way of
the root canal. Thus the presence of a dental abbess on skeletal remains and the
interpretation for those situations where the tooth may not be present in the burial
environment there can still be some extrapolation of carious evidence.

Also it is important to mention that untreated caries ca give rise to potentially lethal
complications (Mays 1998:148) Advanced caries of a maxillary tooth can lead to and cause
complications, including infections that can spread to vital organs, and possibly lead to
death. Each time that plaque bacteria come into contact with food or drink containing
simple sugars (monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, and disaccharides such as
sucrose, lactose and maltose) they use them for their metabolic needs, making organic
acids as a metabolic by-product. If these acids are not buffered by saliva they dissolve
the surface of the apatite crystals of adjacent tooth structure. This is called
demineralization. In thick gel-plaque the pH falls within seconds of contact with dietary
sugars, and it can stay low for up to 2 hours. When the pH is neutral the same crystals
can re-grow, using calcium, phosphate and fluoride from saliva. This is called
remineralization. Caries begins and progresses when demineralization outweighs
remineralization. Caries therefore depends on the balance between demineralization and
remineralization, i.e. on the frequency of eating (and on the microbial composition of the
plaque and its chemical nature and thickness, on the local fluoride concentration and on
the buffering capacity of saliva). A frequent pattern of eating therefore increases caries
risk.


Diet and Environment.

The breakdown of enamel by the bacterial processes mentioned earlier is most commonly
associated with that of carbohydrate food residue present within the mouth. Foods such as
fats oils and meats including fish, are non- cariogenic (Shaw: 1954) and the protean
residues responsible for caries (Becks et al. 1944; Dreizen and Spies 1948) are in some
cases inhibited by a diet made up mainly of these foods. Whereas a diet consisting mainly
of carbohydrates will significantly increase the incidence of dental caries.
(Pederson:1947)

The most cariogenic carbohydrates are those of a low molecular weight such as sugars,
these are very readily metabolized by bacteria to produce acid by-products. Thus there
would be a correlation between sweet sugary foods and the incidence of dental caries, this
has been shown in the archaeological record. One of the most profound changes to occur
with the foraging to farming transition was the widespread decline in oral health, which
was almost certainly tied to increased consumption of plant carbohydrates. Especially
obvious is the remarkable increase in dental caries wherever and whenever the transition
occurred. Dental caries is a disease process characterized by focal demineralization of
dental hard tissues by organic acids produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary
carbohydrates, especially sugars (Larsen, 1997). Dental caries are manifested as pits (or
cavities) in teeth, ranging in size from barely discernible discoloration of enamel to
large cavitations or substantial loss of crown matter (Figure 1).

Comparisons of foragers and farmers globally reveal a consistent pattern of increase in
frequency of carious lesions (Larsen, 1995). Eastern North America offers an important
perspective on the impact of increased carbohydrate consumption on humans, especially
because so many dental samples have been studied in this region. Figure 2 shows the
comparison of prehistoric populations lacking maize (Archaic, Early Woodland), some use of
maize (Middle Woodland), and dependence on maize (Late Woodland, Mississippian, Contact)
for the region. The contrast between foragers and farmers is striking.

One of the important indicators of periodontal disease in skeletal remains is antemortem
tooth loss (Figure 3). Periodontal disease results in a weakening of the alveolar bone
supporting the dental structures, and as the bone resorbs, teeth loosen and are
exfoliated. Although the evidence is not as overwhelming as dental caries, there is a
pattern of increase in antemortem loss that corresponds with cariogenesis in agricultural
populations from diverse settings, such as Nubia, eastern North America, western Europe,
and south Asia (reviewed in Larsen, 1995).

Another example, in Britain there were only small amounts or sugar cane available until
large scale imports from the New World became available. But by the seventeenth century
the imports from the colonies were in full swing and sugar was being imported at a
fantastic rate. These imports coincided with a greater occurrence of caries where by the
early years of the twentieth century, caries in England had increased three fold in since
the Iron Age In Britain (Mays: 1998; 151)

Also starches are a major dietary carbohydrate, which if left in a environment such as the
mouth can breakdown and start to deteriorate the enamel, but still not quite as much as
the high incidence as with that of high levels of a sucrose diet. Frayer (1989) using
archaeological evidence from the early upper Paleolithic to the late Mesolithic associated
an increase in caries associated with a changing environment and thus a changing
subsistence for those inhabitants. He proved that sites dating to the early upper
Paleolithic had a supriseingly low incidence of caries, where environmental factors did
not foster extensive plant grow. In contrast late upper Paleolithic sites show a marked
warming of climate where there is an increase in the growth of plant material and plant
foods. This change would have promoted a growth in subsistence farming, at the very least.
This would have increased the amount of plant carbohydrates and thus there was an increase
in the occurrence in evidence of caries.
Continues for 11 more pages >>




  • DAYS WORK
    DAYS WORK I woke up on a day with , the sun ,and my dog laying with this feet on my bed. I got up and got dressed and went down the steps.te some breakfast. Then I went outside and went on a bikeride. I went to my friends house. She was up and happy. She had on a dress with flower on it. We went to the garden and picked some roses. They smelled like roses. . We gave him the roses. He said “That is nif you girls .” I said, “You doto Mr.Turny sir. We went to the park and had a time. We played on t
  • Hamlet Delay
    Hamlet Delay Hamlet\'s Delay Everyone contains a tinge of Hamlet in his feelings, wants, and worries, and proudly so, for Hamlet is not like the other tragic heroes of his period. He stands apart from other Shakespeare\'s heroes in his today much discussed innocence. Is this supposed tragic hero maybe an ideal hero - one without the tragic flaw, which has been a part of the formula for the tragedy since the Golden age of Greece?; is a question that has been the field for many literary critics\'
  • Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now
    Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now Christian Rivas 5-20-2000 Period 6 Heart of Darkness/Apocalypse Now Inside every human soul is a savage evil side that remains separated by society. Often this evil side breaks out during times of isolation from our culture, and whenever one culture confronts another. Whenever different cultures meet, there is often a fear of contamination and loss of self that leads us to discover more about our true selves, often causing madness by those who have yet to dis
  • Fort William Henry The Savages Explored
    Fort William Henry The Savages Explored Fort William Henry: The Savages Explored The massacre of Fort William Henry occurred in the year 1757, when France’s Native American allies captured, tortured, or killed 308 surrendered English. The incident was brutal, it has been told and retold throughout history by an array of authors, historians, and media agencies. Although every re-telling of the massacre has inevitable variations, the writings of James Fenimore Cooper and Francis Parkman, and the H
  • History of Medicine in America
    History of Medicine in America James Cassedy’s Medicine in America, A Short History takes a comprehensive look at medical progress in America from its colonial days to the present time. The book takes on five different themes in discussing medicine. First, it discusses the medical establishment, and how it develops over time. Second, it looks at the alternative to established medicine. Alternatives consist of any kind of medical practice outside the orthodox practice of the time. Third, Cassedy
  • Mound builders of north america
    mound builders of north america Mound Builders of North America The mound builders of North America have allured the curiosity of scholars and architects since the days of de Soto. Having such a long history, and being the most advanced civilization in the United States portion of North America, their history, vague and ancient, has continued to excite scholars up until current times. Mounds are scattered all over the United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains. Some, especially in Illinois
  • Plantation slavery
    Plantation slavery Slave Life The warm climate, boundless fields of fertile soil, long growing seasons, and numerous waterways provided favorable conditions for farming plantations in the South (Foster). The richness of the South depended on the productivity of the plantations (Katz 3-5). With the invention of the cotton gin, expansion of the country occurred. This called for the spread of slavery (Foster). Slaves, owned by one in four families, were controlled from birth to death by their white
  • Quotes
    quotes Great American Quotes 1. The high office of President has been used to foment a plot to destroy the American\'s freedom, and before I leave office I must inform the citizen of his plight. -John F. Kennedy at Columbia University, 10 days before his assassination 2. This nation can never be conquered from without. If it is ever to fall it will be from within. -President Abraham Lincoln 3. The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax. -Albert Einstein 4. Man will ultimately
  • Evolution
    Evolution The origins of mankind is an extremely controversial issue within today’s society. Scientists have a host of different theories pertaining to man’s inhabitance of earth. Many disagreements arise between scientists who have different beliefs pertaining to where and how mankind arose. One such argument is the conflict involving the theory of evolution versus the theory of creation. After extensive scientific research, it is apparent that the theory of evolution is correct. Evolution is t
  • Alligators and Crocodiles
    Alligators and Crocodiles Leigh Williams Alligators and Crocodiles Crocodiles and alligators are two reptiles that are often mistaken for each other. One of the most common questions alligator and crocodile researchers face today is what the differences are between the two. Although these reptiles favor in physical features, there are numerous differences. The first three differences between the alligator and crocodile are not in physical appearance. These differences are in their subfamilies, n
  • Animal Testing1
    Animal Testing1 Speaking Outline: Animal Testing Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience about the three major ways of how scientific experiments on animal is inhumane. Introduction I. Put yourself into an animal’s position. Imagine that you are being poked and probed by needles for the benefits of humans. II. Animals are being abuse more and more everyday in scientific experiments. III. I have pets and I’m against animal testing, so knowing that animals are used in research is appalling. IV.
  • Blue Whales
    Blue Whales Abstract The Blue whale is the largest creature of the sea, in fact, it is the largest creature known to man. Contrary to what most people think, even though Blue whales live in the sea, they are mammals. They breathe air, have their babies born alive and can live anywhere from 30 to 70 years. The Blue whale is a baleen whale, and instead of having teeth, Blue whales have around 300-400 baleen plates in their mouths. They fall under the category of the rorquals, which are the largest
  • CATS
    CATS Many people today have pets for pleasure and companionship. Nearly any animal can be a pet, such as hamsters, rabbits, birds, fish, frogs, horses, and even cats and dogs. Besides being a loving companion, pets serve many other purposes as in protecting homes, destroying vermin, and providing a means of transportation. The elderly and the childless couples can rely on a pet as an emotional outlet. In addition, pets can be kept for their beauty, rarity, or for the beautiful sounds that birds
  • Different Types of Sharks
    Different Types of Sharks INTRODUCTION Although sharks belong to the class Chondrichtyes, there are many different types. Sharks arose about 350 million years ago and have remained virtually unchanged for the past 70 million years and still comprise a dominant group. It is thought that sharks almost certainly evolved from placoderms, a group of primitive jawed fishes. It took a long series of successful and unsuccessful mutations with fin, jaw positions etc to give us all the different designs o
  • Dolphins1
    Dolphins1 Dolphins are playful and cleverness make them fascinating to watch . Dolphins are not fish they are mammals that live in the sea . They have to come to the top of the water every half minute , so they can breathe . But dolphins can stay under the water for six or seven minutes ,if he holds his breath . The dolphin breathes in his head because he has a blow hole in his head that allows him to breathe . Dolphins have a lot of teeth to help them eat. Each dolphin has almost one hundred te
  • Frogs
    Frogs A Frog is a small, tail less animal that has bulging eyes. Almost all frogs have long back legs. The strong hind legs make the frog able to leap farther than the length of its body. Frogs live on every continent except Antarctica, but tropical regions have the greatest number of species. Frogs are classified as amphibians. Most amphibians, including most frogs, spend part of their life as a water animal and part as a land animal. Frogs are related to toads, but are different from them in a
  • Horses and how they grow
    Horses and how they grow Horses and How They Grow Horses are fun to ride, but they can be a lot of hard work. The first horse was the Eohippus. It was about the size of a fox. It can be traced over a period of 60 million years. From America they spread across the world. Then 8-10,000 years ago the horse be-came extinct in America. It was reintroduced by the Spanish Conquistadors in the 16th century. The herds of mustangs in north America is descended from horses introduced by the Spanish in the
  • Horses and how they grow1
    Horses and how they grow1 Horses and How They Grow Horses are fun to ride, but they can be a lot of hard work. The first horse was the Eohippus. It was about the size of a fox. It can be traced over a period of 60 million years. From America they spread across the world. Then 8-10,000 years ago the horse be-came extinct in America. It was reintroduced by the Spanish Conquistadors in the 16th century. The herds of mustangs in north America is descended from horses introduced by the Spanish in the
  • Parasitic wasps
    Parasitic wasps Introduction Malaria is one of the most prevalent and dangerous diseases known to man. It has existed for centuries and affects a myriad of people in the tropical region. Even today, with our newly discovered treatments for many of the tropical diseases, over 10% of the people that are infected with malaria each year and do not receive proper treatment die. In Africa alone, over 1 million children die each year because of malaria and new cases are reported frequently. Malaria is
  • POLAR vs BROWN BEAR
    POLAR vs BROWN BEAR There are eight different species of bears found throughout the world: the spectacled bear, the Asiatic black bear, the brown bear (including grizzlies), the polar bear, the sun bear, the American black bear, the sloth bear and the giant panda. Even though most people can distinguish a polar bear from a brown bear by the color of the fur, a lot of people fail to identify all the differences among those two species. Both bears can be perceived as large, clumsy and lumbering be
  • Whales
    Whales Blue Whales The Blue whale is the largest creature of the sea; in fact, it’s the largest creature known to man. Contrary to what most people think, even though Blue whales live in the sea, they are mammals. They breathe air, have their babies born alive, and can live anywhere from 30 to 70 years. The Blue whale is a baleen whale, and instead of having teeth, Blue whales have around 300-400 baleen plates in their mouths. Baleen are rows of coarse, bristle-like fibers used to strain plankto
  • White Tigers
    White Tigers White tigers are an endangered species and it is said that less than a dozen have been seen in India in about a hundred years. In fact no sightings have been reported since 1951. This may be caused by the fact that the Royal Bengal tiger population has dropped from 40,000 to 1,800 in the past ten years and as few as one in every 10,000 tigers is white (www.cranes.org/whitetiger). White tigers are neither albinos nor a special species. They differ from the normally colored tigers by
  • Wonderful Lives of Dolphins
    Wonderful Lives of Dolphins Dolphins are one of the most beautiful animals in the word. Dolphins are mammals and are part of the Delphinidae family. This family contains various highly intelligent aquatic mammals. The name dolphin refers to the species that a have a beak like snout and a slender streamline body which helps them to swim at high speeds. Some species can swim up to speeds of 35 mph. Dolphins have a rubbery feeling skin that is hairless; this helps them swim through the water with l
  • D Caries
    D Caries Introduction Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth de
  • Diet and Primate Evolution
    Diet and Primate Evolution Diet and Primate Evolution Variation in the choices of food on a daily, seasonal, and yearly basis is one of the greatest differences between primate species. Primate diets have generally been divided into three main food categories-fruit, leaves and fauna (including insects, spiders, and bird\'s eggs for the most part). The different diets also are referred to as Frugivores, Folivores, and Insectivores (fruits, leaves and insects respectively). These gross dietary cat
  • Home bases and Early hominids
    Home bases and Early hominids “Home Bases and Early Hominids” is an article that looks at the earlier studies that suggests early hominids living in home bases and the new studies that may suggest different. The first archaeological sites from the Late Pliocene to the Lower Pliocene represented home bases suggesting that early hominids shifted their way of life to a way of life like present hunter and gathers (Potts, 338). However recent studies done from Olduvai Gorge suggests there are possibl
  • HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS
    HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTO-HUMANS INTO MODERN HUMANS According to archeological and physical record, tool use has had an enormous effect in the transformation of proto humans into modern humans. What stimulated tool use was the proto humans intrest in new and easier ways to do things. With the introduction of tools, body morphology changed and reproductive fitness increased. Evolution did not happened over night. It took 4.5 million years for humans to get wher
  • Ice Age Extinctions of the Megafauna
    Ice Age Extinctions of the Megafauna Lisa Gantenbein ANTH 365U March 15, 2000 ICE AGE EXTINCTIONS OF THE MEGAFAUNA During the last Ice Age before humans arrived, the North American continent belonged to various forms of enormous, fantastic creatures. By the end of the Ice Age, most of these large animals had become extinct. Numerous attempts have been made to explain the disappearance of these animals, but there has yet to be a consensus. Among the theories that have been debated, two are predom
  • None Provided
    None Provided Poverty Point sites in Louisiana and western Mississippi exhibit the first major residential settlements and monumental earthworks in the United States. Although the Poverty Point culture is not well understood in terms of social organization, it was involved in the transportation of nonlocal raw materials (for example, shell, stone, and copper) from throughout the eastern United States into the lower Mississippi River Valley to selected sites where the materials were worked into f
  • The Western Lowland Gorilla
    The Western Lowland Gorilla The Western Lowland Gorilla: A comparison with humans and a critique of methods of study. By Fokren Masters For thousands of years, men and women have strived to explain the why of their existence. To discover the reasons for how we act the way we do and what this knowledge can do to impact the way we live our lives in this complex society that we have created. One of the ways that science has begun to shed light on the inner workings of the human condition is through
  • Gothic Influence
    Gothic Influence The church in the Middle Ages was a place that all people, regardless of class, could belong to. As a source of unity, its influence on art and architecture was great during this time. As society drew away from the feudal system of the Romanesque period, a new spirit of human individualism began to take hold; alas, the birth of Gothic. Here, the Church became a place where humanity became more acceptable, alas becoming the ideal place to visual such new ideals. The beauty and el
  • A Visual Analysis of 8220Jonah Cast Up8221
    A Visual Analysis of 8220Jonah Cast Up8221 A collection of marble sculptures called the Jonah Group is now on display at the Cleveland Art Museum. Jonah Swallowed, Jonah Cast Up, Jonah Praying, Jonah Under the Gourd Vine, and The Good Shepherd, are the separate titles for each of the different statues depicting events in the Bible story. They are part of the John L. Severance Fund; numbered 1965.237, .238, .239, .240, .241 respectively. The Jonah Group was created in Asia minor, approximat
  • Art comparison
    art comparison Picasso Vs. Perugino The Painting Of The Female The Picasso and the Perugino paintings in the art book are in no way really similar; they are infact very different aside from the fact that the main piece of the painting is a female. The colors used in Picasso’s Weeping Woman are a lot of Brights. But the colors in Perugino’s The Virgin and Child with Saints uses nice colors, neither bright nor dull but there are many different colors in both of the paintings. I feel as though that
  • Symbolic Landscape
    Symbolic Landscape Symbolic Landscape By Diego Rivera The grand work of art looms before me and I am taken aback by its unusual form, yet struck by its very expressive nature. "Symbolic Landscape" by Diego Rivera definitely makes its powerful presence in the room just as the artist forever made a mark in time as a man who pushed the political and social limits of his time through his art work and murals. Although the painting described in this paper is powerful and makes a bold statement, as man
  • Jimi Hendrix
    Jimi Hendrix On November 27, 1942, Jimi Hendrix was born as John Allen Hendrix in Washington at Seattle General Hospital. His childhood was not a privileged one, however, he did indulge himself in one particular way: Jimi loved to play the guitar. At first he played an old acoustic, and later a cheap Silvertone electric, which were both strung for a lefty on a right-handed guitar, one of the defining Hendrix traits (Murray 34- 5) . As a teenager, young Jimi listened to the music which affected h
  • Leakey Richard
    Leakey Richard Richard Leakey- Homo habilis Richard Leakey was born December 19, 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya. His parents were the esteemed anthropologists Louis and Mary Leakey. Richard first became a tour guide in Kenya, but changed his mind when he found an extinct human jaw. He then schooled himself by completing a two-year secondary education program in six months. From 1967-77 he and his co-workers dug up around 400 fossils, that accounted for 230 individuals. The most important discovery was a
  • Robert E Lee
    Robert E Lee Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee is considered one of the greatest generals in the history of the United States. Lee was opposed to many views of the south, including succession and slavery, yet his loyalty to his native state of Virginia forced him to fight for the south and refuse command of the Union armies during the Civil War. Because of this, he was respected by every man in America including Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant. Robert Edward Lee was born to parents, Henry Lee
  • A Review of Sidney Mintzs Sweetness and Power
    A Review of Sidney Mintzs Sweetness and Power This book was definitely an informative and very detailed history of sugar production and consumption, but, most assuredly, it would not even rate in my “top 1,000 books to read” list. Let me say first though, Mintz did an excellent job of researching the topic for this book. But, he seemed to concentrate most of his points on the British, with only vague mention of the rest of the world. Furthermore, the format he used proved to be a bit confusing t
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • As I Lay Dying
    As I Lay Dying Adam Cooper Cooper 1 Mrs. Dibble English IV December 7, 1999 In one of William Faulkner\'s greatest novels, As I lay Dying, the character\'s selfishness is revealed. As I Lay Dying is a detailed account of the Bundren\'s family trek across Mississippi to bury Addie, their wife and mother. As Addie is dying, all the characters go through a different state of emotions, all of which are explained in fifty-nine chapters. An analysis of William Faulkner\'s As I Lay Dying reveals the im
  • As I Lay Dying1
    As I Lay Dying1 In the novel As I Lay Dying, by William Faulkner, there are several instances in which a pleasurable comment or action that is witty or humorous is made by a character. However, there are also many occurrences when there is a deep sense of disquietude resulting from a character’s words or dealings. Throughout the text, it is also not unusual for these two types of situations to occur as one, in a healthy confusion. This confusion may even be a mark of superior literature accordin
  • Awakening Eyes
    Awakening Eyes Awakening Eyes With few exceptions, our male dominated society has traditionally feared, repressed, and stymied the growth of women. As exemplified in history, man has always enjoyed a superior position. According to Genesis in the Old Testament, the fact that man was created first has led to the perception that man should rule. However, since woman was created from man’s rib, there is a strong argument that woman was meant to work along side with man as an equal partner. As James
  • Book lestat
    book lestat Main Characters: Lestat de Lioncourt Nicholas de Lenfent Summary: This book is about the life of Lestat de Lioncourt, later known as the Vampire Lestat. Lestat is writing The Vampire Lestat to let the other vampires around the world know that he is still around. He has been underground for a couple hundred years, but decides to come to the surface when he hears wonderful music by radio waves. Lestat begins the story with him at twenty-one years old, in the 1700s. He, his horse, and h
  • Darkness
    Darkness A sixteen-year-old girl Kelly Anderson and her family lived in Atlanta. Kelly was alone at home one day because her parents were invited to dinner at Bob Creighton\'s house that owned Creighton Construction. Kelly\'s father Ted was looking for a job in construction, but was turned down by Bob. While back at the house where Kelly was, she was in the bathroom, with the door open and the lights shut. She was looking in the mirror when she saw a man in the mirror over her shoulder. The man
  • Dubliners
    Dubliners Literature is constantly showing its readers aspects of people and societies that would not normally be shown to the public. The various aspects of society that writers choose to focus on are done for a reason. Whether or not it is a positive or negative aspect of society doesn\'t hold any significance. The only thing that matters in society is why writers choose to focus on the subjects that they do. Most writers are trying to push their readers further by challenging them with an asp
  • Eva Peron
    Eva Peron Mi Mensaje By Eva Perón “What is happening to our people is a drama, an authentic and extraordinary drama for the ownership of life… of happiness… of the pure and simple well-being that my people have been dreaming about since the beginning of history.” Eva Peron The Evita that people worldwide cherish as the Argentinian sweetheart is a stronger woman than I had ever envisioned. From reading her personal message to the people, I saw a woman who knew so much and had the will of an army
  • Frankenstein1
    Frankenstein1 Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein has been hailed as one of the best horror stories ever. The title, Frankenstein, is the last name of the creator of the infamous Frankenstein’s monster, Dr. Victor Frankenstein. His is a story of the great pain suffered by Frankenstein and his monster and people’s misunderstanding of the poor creature. All his efforts to find a companion are useless, as society shuns him for his horrid figure. Although the story is told by Dr. Frankenstein through Robert
  • Friday
    Friday FRIDAY A handsome, in about 26 years old, with straight and strong limbs, tall and well shaped fellow who bare name Friday which he got for the memory of a day he was rescued. The native who was saved from a certain death by Robinson Crusoe during one of the cannibal rituals of a local tribe. By the man who was actually on his way to Africa to buy Negroes! His hair was long and black but not curled, he had very high forehead and great sparkling sharp eyes. Friday’s appearance was somewher
  • Hard Times
    Hard Times Utilitarianism "Quadruped. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye-teeth, and twelve incisive. Sheds coat in spring......" A perfect example of a product of utilitarian education, Bitzer defines a horse off the top of his head in a split second. Utilitarianism is the assumption that human beings act in a way that highlights their own self interest. It is based on factuality and leaves little room for imagination. Dickens provides three vivid examples of this
  • How Could This Have Happened
    How Could This Have Happened How Could This Have Happened? Elie Wiesel, a survivor of the Jewish massacre during World War II, opens his classic autobiography, Night, in his hometown of Sighet, Transylvania (now Romania). In this short, but powerful, book, Wiesel speaks of the incredible events that take place in his life from age twelve to age sixteen; his carefree childhood; the brutal torture of Wiesel and his fellow Jews at the hands of German soldiers in the concentration camps; and the day