Depth Perception, an Inborn Skill? Essay

This essay has a total of 441 words and 2 pages.

Depth Perception, an Inborn Skill?

In 1960, Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk conducted an experiment to see whether depth
perception is an inborn or a learned skill in humans. They conducted their experiment with
a table that had a thick glass surface on half of the table and a solid base on the other
half. This created an illusion of a small cliff without the dangers of actually falling.
In this experiment, infants ranging from the age of 6 to 14 months were placed on the
solid side of the table. The infants' mothers were placed on the other side of table and
were there to coax the infants to the other side. Of the 30 infants tested, 27 of them
crossed the glass surface when called while only 3 refused.

Gibson and Walk conducted the same experiment on newborn chickens and goats with
astonishing results. When chickens and goats were placed on the solid side, not a single
one of them made an error to cross the "cliff." The same test was conducted on baby rats
whose results fared far worse than the results of the chickens and goats. The rats fared
worse because they are nocturnal animals who rely on other senses other than vision to
direct them. From this experiment, Gibson and Walk concluded that depth perception was
inborn to all animals and humans by the time they achieve independent movement. This is in
the case of chickens and goats at birth and for humans at around 6 months of age.

The results of Gibson and Walk's experiment are very questionable because their control
group did not consist of any socially dependant animals. Infants are socially dependent of
their mother for survival and nurturing throughout their childhood. Gibson and Walk should
Continues for 1 more page >>




  • HG Wells
    HG Wells H.G. Wells writings were influenced by things such as Darwinism, the first World War, and involved extensive predictions, futuristic inventions, and humor. Herbert George Wells was born in Bromely, Kent, England in 1866. His father was a shopkeeper, and his mother was a house keeper. While Wells attended Morley’s School in Bromely, most of his education came from reading. In 1874 Wells started reading lot’s of books while he was laid up in bed with a broken leg. From 1880 to 1883 Wells
  • Human Resource Management
    Human Resource Management Human Resources Management Introductory paragraph – main idea grab attention Body paragraph Body paragraph Body paragraph Concluding paragraph Human Resources Management would entail supporting, encouraging and counselling new and existing staff members Human Resource Management would not be only about marketing the company and specific job vacancy to recruit new staff and administer company policies but also to enhance the working environment of staff to ensure a long
  • Twelfth night
    twelfth night Comedic Conflict and Love in Trevor Nunn’s “Twelfth Night” Trevor Nunn\'s direction of Shakespeare\'s "Twelfth Night" takes away some of the confusion present in the reading of the text, which begins with the complicated love interests of the main characters. Having been the artistic director for the world famous Royal Shakespeare Company for eighteen years, Nunn is vastly familiar with adaptations of Shakespeare’s plays. Part of the comedy of this film develops from the first thre
  • Battle of the Bulge
    Battle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge was an important fight because it was one that could have turned World War II around for the Germans. The Battle of the Bulge took place on December 16 1944. The Germans mobilized the last chance they had to win the war. The Germans wanted to cut the American forces in to two parts, because this way they could easily be destroyed. Hitler felt this was his last chance to win, because his forces were being pushed back and soon they would run out of the r
  • Bunker hill
    bunker hill Boom, Bang, Crack! The sounds of muskets being fired, its ammunition ricocheting off rocks and splintering trees are heard all around. The pungent smell of gun powder stings the nose, and its taste makes the mouth dry and sticky. The battle is still young, but blood soaked uniforms and dead or dying men can already be seen, causing the fear of death to enter many of the soldiers\' minds. It is remembered that freedom is what the fight is for, so we must continue to gain independence.
  • Charles Dickens
    Charles Dickens Charles Dickens Dickens has always presented problems for literary criticism. For theorists whose critical presuppositions emphasize intelligence, sensitivity and an author in complete control of his work the cruder aspects of his popular art have often proved an insurmountable obstacle, while for the formulators of traditions his gigantic idiosyncrasies can never be made to conform. If difficulties such as these have been overcome by the awareness that Dickens sets his own stand
  • Charles Manson
    Charles Manson Air section of southern California. On Saturday, August ninth, nineteen sixty-nine, all hell broke loose with more than six dozen plunges of a carving fork and knife, and the peaceful dyll was shattered. Out of the chaos caused by the senseless, horrific murderers, Charles Manson emerged as one of the most feared notorious criminals of all time. In the twenty-nine years since the so-called "Tate-La Bianca" murders, many people have speculated about what caused Charles Manson to be
  • John dalton
    John dalton John Dalton was born on September 6, 1766, in Eaglesfield, England. He was the son of a weaver and received his early education from his father also at a Quaker school in his hometown, where he began teaching at the age of twelve. In 1781 he moved to Kendal, where he conducted a school with his cousin and older brother. He moved to Manchester in 1793, and lived there the rest of his life as a teacher, fist at New College and later as a tutor. He died on July 27, 1844. Dalton began a
  • Martin luther king
    martin luther king One of the worlds best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence in
  • Martin luther king
    martin luther king One of the worlds best known advocates of non-violent social change strategies, Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK), synthesized ideals drawn from many different cultural traditions. Recent studies of him emphasize the extent to which his ideals were rooted in African-American religious traditions which were then shaped by his education. The image of a social activist and leader was the result of extensive formal education, strong personal values and licit ethics. This excellence in
  • On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Enco
    On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Encountered by My On My Personal Experience with Other Cultures Encountered by My ... ... Sight Every lucky man has all five senses, perhaps he or she has also the power of predicting the future by means of of the so called "sixth sense", or intuition. We use them altogether all the time, and so one can hardly tell a story in which just one particular sense is engaged. I have spent most of my life here in Slovakia and I only communicate with other wo
  • Slave Resistance
    Slave Resistance It could be considered almost ludicrous that most African-Americans were content with their station in life. Although that was how they were portrayed to the white people, it was a complete myth. Most slaves were dissatisfied with their stations in life, and longed to have the right of freedom. Their owners were acutely conscious of this fact and went to great lengths to prevent slave uprisings from occurring. An example of a drastic measure would be the prohibition of slaves re
  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X
    The Autobiography of Malcolm X BOOKREPORT by Maximilian Schreder Malcolm X The Autobiography as told to Alex Haley Introduction When Malcolm X was murdered in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem on February 21, 1965, he was world-famous as "the angriest black man in America." By that time he had completed his autobiography, so we have now the opportunity to get information of this both hated and loved Afro-American leader’s life at first hand. The book "The Autobiography of Malcolm X," which he wrote
  • The Battle of Bunker Hill
    The Battle of Bunker Hill The Battle of Bunker Hill Boom, Bang, Crack! The sounds of muskets being fired, its ammunition ricocheting off rocks and splintering trees are heard all around. The pungent smell of gun powder stings the nose, and its taste makes the mouth dry and sticky. The battle is still young, but blood soaked uniforms and dead or dying men can already be seen, causing the fear of death to enter many of the soldiers\' minds. It is remembered that freedom is what the fight is for, s
  • The civil rights movement black panther party
    the civil rights movement black panther party Most of us, being United States citizens, would like to believe that everyone in this country is living in conditions of utmost freedom and equality. Although according to the constitution this is true, anyone who has ever been the victim of oppression knows not to take equality for granted. Our society has slowly grown to accept the different types of people that live in our country; it is now a lot less common to see people’s rights such as freedom
  • The Great Gatsby
    The Great Gatsby In the book the Great Gatsby, none but a few people had the idealistic “American Dream”. To some characters it seems the “American Dream, ”has replaced by materialism and greed. What does the American Dream mean? What does it stand for? If a person has achieved their American Dream how should they go about living? The American Dream is the vision to be successful and to provide from and family the best way you can. Their dream is to also have money. In the book the Great Gatsby
  • The New American
    The New American The New American The definition of what it means to be an American has changed dramatically throughout the history of our country. The founding fathers brought forth the idea of a new nation; that made sovereign the supremacy of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. America has changed drastically over the last two hundred years, and the definition of what it means to be an American has changed with it as well. In class for the last several weeks, the question was raised o
  • The People Leisure and Cultures of Blacks During t
    The People Leisure and Cultures of Blacks During the HArlem Renaissance The People, Leisure, and Culture of Blacks During the Harlem Renaissance It seems unfair that the pages of our history books or even the lecturers in majority of classrooms speak very little of the accomplishments of blacks. They speak very little of a period within black history in which many of the greatest musicians, writers, painters, and influential paragon\'’ emerged. This significant period in time was known as the Ha
  • The sixties
    the sixties The Sixties Many social changes that were addresses in the 1960s are still the issues being confronted today. The ‘60s was a decade of social and political upheaval. Inspite of all the turmoil, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, John F. Kennedy’s bold vision of a new frontier, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about progress and prosperity. However, there was alot of negative effects: student and anti-war protest movements, political ass
  • Uncletomscabin
    uncletomscabin Analysis of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe “The book, Uncle Tom\'s Cabin, is thought of as a fantastic, even fanatic, representation of Southern life, most memorable for its emotional oversimplification of the complexities of the slave system,” says Gossett (4). Harriet Beecher Stowe describes her own experiences or ones that she has witnessed in the past through the text in her novel. She grew up in Cincinnati where she had a very close look at slavery. Located on the
  • Westward expansionin nineteenth century
    westward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
  • Womens Movement Towards Equality
    Womens Movement Towards Equality The Women¡¯s Movement Towards Equality For centuries, all over the world, women have been forced to stand in the shadow of man because they were seen as weak individuals not worthy of equality. And for centuries, all over the world, women have fought to prove them wrong. In early 15th century Venice, young girls were only give three options for the pathways of their lives when they reached womanhood: marriage, prostitution, or becoming a bride of Christ (a nun).
  • Evolution
    Evolution The origins of mankind is an extremely controversial issue within today’s society. Scientists have a host of different theories pertaining to man’s inhabitance of earth. Many disagreements arise between scientists who have different beliefs pertaining to where and how mankind arose. One such argument is the conflict involving the theory of evolution versus the theory of creation. After extensive scientific research, it is apparent that the theory of evolution is correct. Evolution is t
  • Half Brained
    Half Brained Your brain has two sides. And each has a distinctly different way of looking at the world. Do you realize that in order for you to read this article, the two sides of your brain must do completely different things? The more we integrate those two sides, the more integrated we become as people. Integration not only increases our ability to solve problems more creatively, but to control physical maladies such as epilepsy and migranes, replace certain damaged brain functions and even l
  • Macular Degeneration
    Macular Degeneration Macular Degeneration Condition: Macular Degeneration is a problem in the part of the eye that controls your sharpest central vision. It is a group of diseases that result in a loss of detailed vision. The brain will not just leave the spot empty, so it learns to fill it in with spotty macular cell damage. People most of the time don\'t tell their doctors (opthalmologists) about it until it is well in advance. There are two types of Macular Degeneration. Juvenile Macular Dege
  • Multiple Sclerosis A Research Paper
    Multiple Sclerosis A Research Paper Introduction Multiple Sclerosis By: Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The progress, severity and specific symptoms of the disease can not be predicted; symptoms may range from tingling and numbness to paralysis and blindness. MS is a devastating disease because people live with its unpredictable physical and emotional effects for the rest of the
  • None Provided
    None Provided The Enlightened Machine Brain Science, also known as nerve science, has been classified as an adventure. It mostly deals with our behavior, as well as speech, movement, coordination, and basically any part of our life in general is associated with it. As we study the brain more and more over the last twenty years, we begin to discover more and more about it and its hundreds of thousands of complex and involved tasks. Let us start with the basics, the brain from the out side is abou
  • None Provided1
    None Provided1 Vision and Movement When we discuss our brain, we usually focus on the brains ability to think. That task alone is extremely complex and involved, but the brain also has many other tasks. Most of the time the brain is on autopilot, meaning that most of the activities preformed are just automatic. Our five senses; sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, are automatically preformed in our brains. We don\'t have to think about how something sounds, we just hear it and we then interpre
  • Sympathetic Parasympathetic Divisions
    Sympathetic Parasympathetic Divisions Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions The autonomic nervous system is made up of two divisions. There are many differences between these divisions. First of all there are anatomical and physiological differences. The parasympathetic division of the autonomic system origin is in the craniosacral outflow, the brain stem nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X; and spinal cord segments S2-S4. The sympathetic division on the other hand is much more comp
  • Understanding the Silent Killer
    Understanding the Silent Killer Uncontrolled high blood pressure, hypertension, is one of the leading causes of disability or death due to stroke, heart attack, heart failure and kidney failure. High blood pressure has been described as "the silent killer" because it often occurs without symptoms. Headaches, blurred vision, nosebleeds, or dizziness may occur, but these symptoms are not specific to high blood pressure. Everybody has, and needs blood pressure. Without it, blood cannot circulate th
  • Butterflies
    butterflies BUTTERFLIES: Butterflies are flying insects, which comprise the order Lepidoptera with. There are about 15,000 to 20,000 kinds of butterflies. Butterflies are holometobore insects. The largest butterfly ever found is the Queen Alexandra’s butterfly. Scientific and non-scientific vocabulary words which must be learned before reading this section in alphabetical order: Abdomen: (noun) 1. The part of the body in mammals, that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. 2. In arthropods the
  • Dolphins
    Dolphins Some people claim that dolphins and whales communicate in such a way that it is very similar to human speech. An analysis will be coucted to determine if there is more similarity or difference between these animals and humans. Dolphins are aquatic mammals closely related to whales. They aresleek and powerful swimers. They can be found in all seas around the world. It is interesting to point out that they spend about 99% of their time on the water. This affects their consiouness. It mean
  • Praying Mantiss
    Praying Mantiss MANTODEA Most commonly known as the Praying Mantis, order mantodea is a group of about 1800 carnivorous insects which prodominatley live in tropical regions of the earth. Though certain species can be found in locations with moderate climate. With an extremely striking appearence, mantids almost have human like qualities with the ability to hold an erect stance, and arms that face forward. A very efficient killer, mantids were created for hunting and killing prey. Order Mantodea
  • Ridleys sea turtle
    Ridleys sea turtle Sea Turtles Each species of sea turtle is distinctive in appearance and behavior, all sea turtles have certain characteristics in common the shell consist of a carapace (upper part) and plastron (lower part), which are joined together by cartilage called a bridge. in most species with the exception of the leatherback scutes cover the carapace. Like all turtles sea turtles have no external ears, they hear best at low frequencies and their sense of smell is excellent. Though the
  • Spiders
    Spiders Spiders This report deals with testing the toxicity of certain chemicals on spiders, and determining the toxicity by how it affects it’s ability to weave it’s web. This report contains research on the four chemicals (benzedrine, chloral hydrate, caffeine, and alcohol) as wellas the spiders and their webs. Spiders are of course found in the class Arachnidia, which also contain mites, scorpions, and other arthropods. The order which spiders are classified under is called Araneae, a word of
  • HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS
    HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTO-HUMANS INTO MODERN HUMANS According to archeological and physical record, tool use has had an enormous effect in the transformation of proto humans into modern humans. What stimulated tool use was the proto humans intrest in new and easier ways to do things. With the introduction of tools, body morphology changed and reproductive fitness increased. Evolution did not happened over night. It took 4.5 million years for humans to get wher
  • American As Apple Pie
    American As Apple Pie In America, artists’ works are not only shown in museums, they are often displayed on magazine covers. Norman Rockwell produced cover paintings for the Saturday Evening Post, a major magazine of the 1910’s and for many decades later. In the process he became a nationally renowned artist. His precise detail brought him great popularity. “He created a moral myth in which people were reassured of their own essential goodness,” art critic Arthur C Danto told Allison Adato of Li
  • Auguste Rodin
    Auguste Rodin Like some artists, Rodin was not an overnight success. Even though he was rejected numerous times from art schools because of his art style, he prevailed in the end. Rodin, like many artists, got their inspiration from other great and famous artists. In Rodin\'s case, his inspiration came from Michelangelo. In Rodin\'s more famous works, one can see the similarities between the two artists\' artwork. Rodin\'s parents were not wealthy, therefore, he was not able to attend an art sch
  • Burial of el greco
    Burial of el greco Burial of Count Orgaz by El Greco This painting is the Burial of Count Orgaz by El Greco (the Geek) his real name Domenikos Theotocopoulos. It hangs on the wall in the vestibule of the church of Santo Tome in Toledo, Spain and was painted in 1586. It is oil on canvas and was made to fit the very wall it hangs today. The painting does have a Round top making it a very odd fit for anywhere but the church for it to hang. The artist used many dark shades Blue and blacks with yello
  • Cheret lithographic posters and Art Nouveau
    Cheret lithographic posters and Art Nouveau Although lithography was invented in 1798, it was at first too slow and expensive for poster production. Most posters were woodblocks or metal engravings with little color or design. This all changed with Cheret’s "three stone lithographic process," a breakthrough which allowed artists to achieve every color in the spectrum with as little as three stones - red, yellow and blue - printed in careful registration. Although the process was difficult, the r
  • Critical Analysis of El Grecos View of Toledo
    Critical Analysis of El Grecos View of Toledo High atop a hill of granite, surrounded by the gorge and river Tagus sits the ancient and formidable gothic Cathedral and Moorish palace, Alcazar, of Toledo, Spain. Toledo\'s skyline has changed little since El Greco immortalized Spain\'s religious centre in 1597-9(Cardillac 28). El Greco\'s natural talents, his "schooling," and the flare of his adopted Spain, combined to produce an artistic genius. El Greco\'s ability to convey manneristic images th
  • Cubism and Picasso
    Cubism and Picasso I N T R O D U C T I O N Picasso’s development toward cubism reached its climax with the monumental justly celebrated Demoiselles d’Avignon (1906). This painting, named for a brothel in Barcelona’s Avignon Street, depicts, in a highly stylized form, five angular nude or partially draped women grouped around an arrangement of fruit. This final, condensed version, developed through many preparatory works, was attained by gradual simplifications and eliminations of an originally c
  • Cubism1
    Cubism1 Cubism is one of the first forms of abstract art. "Cubism was a movement in painting that sought to break down objects into basic shapes of cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones." Cubism originated in France and was influenced by African sculptures and by Paul Cezanne. The first cubist works were those in which objects, landscapes, and people are represented as many-sided solids. This enables you to see various views of the object at the same time. Later, cubism changed using a flatter ty
  • Edgar Dega
    Edgar Dega Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796-1875) Jean Baptiste Camille Corot was born in Paris on July 16, 1796. His mother managed a fashionable dress shop in Paris on the Rue du Bac and as a result he spent his first four years with a family near I\'sleAdam, and until 1807 lived in a pension on the Rue Vaugirard. He was sent afterwards on scholarship to a school in Rouen, but did not adapt well to his new environment, and in 1812, his parents decided it would be best for him to return to Par
  • Francis bacon
    francis bacon Francis Bacon (1909-92) Beginning on the early 1950s, despite the dominance of Abstract Expressionism in both the United States and Europe, there were recurring waves of insistence on a return to the figure, a new naturalism of naturalistic fantasy. Crucial to the new figuration were Alberto Giacometti and Jean Dubuffet. The only other figurative Expressionist powerful enough to be compared with Giacometti and Dubuffet were British. Chief among these was the Irish-born Francis Baco
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
    Frank Lloyd Wright The way you live is being directly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright’s innovations in residential architecture. Mr. Wright’s “organic architecture” was a radical departure form the traditional architecture of his day, which was dominated by European styles that dated back hundreds of years or even millennia. He contributed the Prairie and Usonian houses to the familiar of American residential design, and elements of his designs can be found in a large proportion of homes today.
  • Futurism
    futurism During the first decade of the twentieth century, a group of young Italian painters united together, under the influence of poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Before creating their new style, these painters embraced the ideas of Marinetti’s The Foundation and Manisfesto of Futurism which appeared in the newspaper Le Figaro on February 20, 1909 (Tisdall 7). His manifesto of futurism was primarily concerned with peotry, but artists such as Boccioni, Balla, and Severini used his ideas and app
  • Georgia OKeefe
    Georgia OKeefe * Georgia O\'Keeffe is one of the most influential artists there is today. Her works are valued highly and are quite beautiful and unique. As a prominent American artist, Georgia O\'Keeffe is famous for her images of gigantic flowers, city-scapes and distinctive desert scenes. All of these different phases represent times in her life. Throughout the seventy years of her creative career, Georgia O\'Keeffe continually made some of the most original contributions to the art of our ti
  • Greek Grave Steles
    Greek Grave Steles The portals to immortality-Greek Grave Steles To us who live in modern times the ‘melancholic look’ that we find in the sculpture of cemeteries throughout the world is something we take for granted. Although its authenticity has been lost to us, this so-called look can be traced back to 5th century Greek funerary sculpture. For us it is only natural to associate such a look with death. However, as the above verse elaborates, the Greeks viewed death somewhat differently from th
  • Impressionism and Postimpressionism
    Impressionism and Postimpressionism Impressionism was a form of art in the late nineteenth century that used luminosity, subtlety of tone and preoccupation with sensation. The impressionist subject matter preserved the romantic fascination with nature and the realist preoccupation with late century French society. An example of an impressionist work would be Claude Monet\'s Impression: Sunrise. Impression: Sunrise is a seascape that shows more of what one sees than the sea. The painting had no r