Diabetes Study Guide

This essay has a total of 298 words and 5 pages.


Type 1 Pathophysiology

Stage 1: genetic predisposition
Stage 2: environmental triggers
Spring and fall
Epidemics of various viral diseases
Stage 3: active autoimmunity
ICA's and insulin antibodies progressively decrease the effective circulating insulin level
Stage 4: progressive beta cell destruction
Stage 5: overt diabetes mellitus

Type 2 Pathophysiology

Insulin is a building (anabolic) hormone. w/o 3 metabolic problems occur
Decreased glucose utilization
Increased fat mobilization
Increased protein utilization

Decreased Glucose Utilization
Cells that require insulin as a carrier for glucose can take in only 25% of the glucose they require for fuel

Do Not Require Insulin for Glucose Transport Require Insulin
Nerve tissue Adipose tissue
Erythrocytes Skeletal muscle
Cells of intestines Cardiac muscle
Kidney tubules

Inadequate amounts of insulin = levels of glucose rise

Elevation continues to rise b/c liver cannot store glucose as glycogen w/o sufficient insulin levels

Return to homeostasis = kidney excretes excess glucose = urine acting as osmotic diuretic
= increased water loss aka fluid volume deficit.

Continues for 3 more pages >>