Early Strikes of the American Labor Movement Essay

This essay has a total of 3674 words and 19 pages.

Early Strikes of the American Labor Movement


In the mid-nineteenth century and early twentieth century, industry in America was growing
at an alarming rate. This growth brought about basic changes in the way things were
produced and in the lives of those who produced them. It was the Civil War that first
started to change industrial landscape of the nation. “More than a million dollars
a day were spent on weapons, ammunition, machinery, clothing, boots, shoes, [and] canned
goods” (Meltzer, 3). The high demand for so many different items brought bigger,
newer and more efficient factories. The factories were producing cheaper products than
the small, independent, hand-made specialists were. As a result of this industrialization
a shoemaker, for example, no longer made the whole shoe. Instead the “new”
shoemaker only made the heel, or shoelace. “Mass production left no place for the
individual craftsman” (Meltzer, 4).

The new assembly line organization had several side effects. One was condition for the
workers. Factories often provided inadequate housing which lead to bad living conditions.
The working conditions were usually dirty, uncomfortable, and unsafe.

By 1900 nearly one out of every five in the labor force was a woman. Conditions for women
and children were often much worse. “They [women] were used to hard work. In the
home they put in 12 hours a day or more, cleaning, cooking, sewing, rearing children, and
helping with the men’s chores as well,” (Foner, Women 8). Industry owners
sent people to rural parts of the country to recruit women. They promised the women high
wages, leisure hours, and silk dresses. Instead, the women worked 14 to 16 hours a day
for an average wage of $1.56 a week. They received no silk dresses. “Some of the
hands never touch their money from month’s end to month’s end. Once in two
weeks is payday. A woman had then worked 122 hours. The corporation furnishes her house.
There is rent to be paid; there are also the corporation stores from which she has been
getting her food, coal… and [other] cheap stuff on sale may tempt her to
purchase...” (Meltzer, 21). Factory employers also cheated women, believing they
were defenseless. Some employers did not pay them at all, or deducted a large part of
their pay for “imperfect” work. An 1870 survey showed that 7,000 of the
working women could only afford to live in cellars and 20,000 were near starvation.

For children in the nineteenth century, idleness was considered a sin. And the factory
was a God sent protector against the evils into which idleness might lead children. In
the 1830’s in Massachusetts, children in the factory worked 12 to 13 hours a day.
In 1845, the mills in Lowell set hours for children from sunup to sunset. In New England
two fifths of all workers were children. The Census of 1870 reported 700,000 children
ages ten to fifteen at work. By 1910, nearly 2 million children ages ten to fifteen were
at work. In addition to the extremely high hours, the conditions children were forced to
work in were atrocious. The factories were often dirty, unsanitary, cramped, dark, and

As difference in wealth between workers and owners increased, there was a greater need for
the worker to be able to improve their circumstances. There were several key strikes
through which the workers fought to improve conditions. In this paper I will investigate
the issues, events, and outcomes surrounding three important strikes.

The Homestead Strike: 1891, Steel Industry, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Conditions in the steel mills were difficult, dangerous and wages were low.
“Everywhere in the enormous sheds were pits gaping like the mouth of hell, and ovens
emitting a terrible degree of heat, with grimy men filling and lining them. One man jumps
down, works desperately for a few minutes, and is then pulled up exhausted. Another
immediately takes his place; there is no hesitation,” (Meltzer, 137). The accident
rate in the steel mills of Pittsburgh was very high. In 1891 there was a total of 300
deaths and over 2,000 injuries. People died or were injured from explosions, burnings,
asphyxiation, electric shocks, falls, crushing, etc.

In 1889 the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers organized to seek higher
wages and better conditions for steel workers. In that same year the Amalgamated
Association of Iron and Steel Workers achieved a three-year contract from Andrew Carnegie,
the steel owner. Nearing the end of the contract, the union began negotiations to renew

In response to the workers union, Andrew Carnegie formed an association of manufacturers.
Henry Clay Frick was a famous union buster, and had just finished dissolving a union in
the coke fields when Carnegie gave him the position of being in charge at Homestead.
Negotiations began in 1892. Steel prices had greatly increased and the union asked for a
raise. Frick responded by cutting wages. Negotiations continued and Frick started
building high fences around the mill, cutting gun slits in it, and topping it with barbed
wire. Soon after the men learned of his plan to smash the union, they were left with a
proposition: settle on his terms in one month, or the company would stop dealing with the
union. Angered by his inflexibility, the workers held a mock public hanging of Frick.
Using this as an excuse, he shut down the mill, and locked the workers out two days before
the end of the contract. Frick quickly hired as many scabs as he could and brought in 300
Pinkerton guards to get them through the picket line and protect the plant.

What was to happen in the next thirteen hours is considered one of the bloodiest battles
in American Labor history. It started very early in the morning when some of the workers
sighted two barges of Pinkertons a mile below Homestead. Ten thousand men, women, and
children rushed to the riverbank. When the Pinkertons disembarked from the boats, they
saw hordes of men holding carbines, rifles, shotguns, pistols, revolvers, clubs, and

The firing started when one of the ships began to lower their gangplank. When the plank
reached shore, a striker lay down upon it to keep people from getting off. When a
Pinkerton tried to kick him out of the way, the striker shot him in the thigh. Almost
immediately both side began firing at each other. The Pinkertons shot from the plank and
top of the barge instantly shooting down thirty Homestead strikers.

It is estimated that 20 Pinkertons and 40 strikers were shot. Finally, the Pinkertons
surrendered, and march upon the shore, unarmed just to be severely beaten by the enraged
wives of several of the workers.

Instead, a few days later, 8,000 members of the Pennsylvania National Guard took over the
town. According to the commanding general, their aim was to restore law and order.

They stayed for three months while the company continued to bring in more and more scabs.
There were nearly 2,000 operating the steel mill. Though locked out, and holding firm for
almost five months, the strikers gave in. The troops, scabs, costly court action,
evictions from company houses, press attacks, and hunger forced the men to give in. The
unskilled workers, whose jobs were easily replaced, voted to return back to work. And a
few days later, the union joined them.

Frick’s response was simple, “This outbreak settles one matter forever, and
that is that the Homestead mill hereafter will never again recognize the Amalgamated
Association nor any other labor organization,” (Meltzer, 142). After the strike,
life got even harder for the union. Frick stayed so he could watch the members of the
union ask for their old jobs back. Almost all of them were denied. The once
indispensable skilled workers saw their places taken by new men, who were quickly trained.
The mechanization of the mills also reduced the value of skilled labor.

These union members had trouble finding jobs anywhere. The industry-wide blacklist kept
the union men out of every steel mill. Within two years, the Amalgamated Association of
Iron and Steel Workers lost half of its national membership. By 1910, the Amalgamated
Association of Iron and Steel Workers had only one contract with a small company.

The 1892 defeat of Homestead meant a twelve-hour day, seven days a week for almost all the
workers. Pinkerton spies were installed everywhere. Wages were slashed more than anyone
had ever expected them to be, and grievance committees were done away with. Workers
meetings were also banned. And working and living conditions sank lower than they had
ever been before. “As for Mr. Carnegie, he wired a friend in 1899, ‘Ashamed
to tell you profits these days. Prodigious!’ In 1900 the company’s net worth
was $40 million,” (Meltzer, 146).

The Pullman Strike: 1894, Railroad Industry, Chicago, Illinois
The Pullman Strike had many causes. Pullman workers lived in a company town described as,
“bordered with bright beds of flowers, and green velvety stretches of lawn, shaded
with trees, and dotted with parks and pretty water vistas,” (Meltzer 148). This,
however, was not a complete truth. Though was a section of the town that included this.
The houses in it were designated only for the Pullman officials. There were ten large
tenements designated for the workers. They were each three stories tall containing flats
of two to four. Each building accommodated twelve to forty-eight families. Bathrooms
were shared between two or more families, and there were water faucets for each group of
five families.

The Pullman Corporation appointed all the town officials. The Pullman Journal backed all
corporation policies. The company reserved the right to deny labor organizers and radical
speakers rental or use of public halls. And, a spy system sought out any sign or word
critical of the authorities. The Pullman Corporation tried and succeeded in dominating
every aspect of its workers’ lives. The company owned land, plants, houses,
tenements, hotel, stores, bank, school, library, church, water and gas systems. “As
employer, George Pullman determined wages, as landlord he fixed rents, as banker he
collected savings,” (Meltzer 150).

George Pullman knew how to make a profit. He made his business highly profitable, and was
running his town the same way. The town obtained its water from Chicago for four cents,
but Pullman charged his workers ten. As for the gas he paid 33 cents for, he charged his
workers $2.55. One worker said, “We are born in a Pullman house, fed from the
Pullman shop, taught in the Pullman school, catechized in the Pullman church, and when we
die we shall be buried in the Pullman cemetery and go to Pullman hell,” (Meltzer
151). Pullman managed to keep business good, even in the depression of 1893. In that
year, he managed to earn a surplus of $4 million. He managed that by cutting wages 25 to
40 per cent while keeping rents and prices the same.

In the first winter of the depression, every single Pullman worker was in debt. They felt
they had taken all they could. The new American Railway Union, recently organized by
Eugene V. Debs, was encouraging the workers to join them. The fact that Pullman ran a
small railroad made the eligible. They managed to have secret meeting in adjacent town to
avoid company spies. A year and a half after the start of the depression a committee was
organized and sent to the company to ask that their wages be restored. The company
claimed that they had lost a lot of money and were only keeping the plant going to give
the men work. The men reluctantly returned to work assured by the company that that no
member of the committee would be fired. The next day, three members of the committee were
laid off.

Turning to Debs for help, the of the American Railway Union in the company declared a
strike. Pullman shut down the whole plant. His plan was to wait until the workers and
their families starved, driving them back to work. In a few short weeks the
workers’ families were starving. Debs tried repeatedly to settle the dispute. The
company remained was not interested. The American Railway Union decided to boycott
Pullman cars, refusing to handle them anywhere.

On the first day of the boycott, switchmen detached all Pullman cars from the trains.
They were all fired immediately. That act provoked other members of the American Railway
Union to walk off the job in protest. The boycott evolved into a strike. By the second
day 40,000 people refused to work. By the forth, 125,000. “Soon, nearly every
train in the country was dead on its tracks,” (Meltzer 155). It was already deemed
the most effective strike on this scale the country had ever seen. The union had grown in
importance so that a strike against one company, the Pullman Company for example,
escalated into an industry-wide strike.

The General Managers Association, a semi-secret organization representing twenty-four of
the nation’s biggest railroads, came to Pullman’s aid. Though the Association
Continues for 10 more pages >>

  • African Americans In The South
    African Americans In The South As a social and economic institution, slavery originated in the times when humans began farming instead of hunting and gathering. Slave labor became commonplace in ancient Greece and Rome. Slaves were created through the capture of enemies, the birth of children to slave parents, and means of punishment. Enslaved Africans represented many different peoples, each with distinct cultures, religions, and languages. Most originated from the coast or the interior of West
  • American Immigration
    American Immigration December 11, 2000 Immigration In the decades following the Civil War, the United States emerged as an industrial giant. Old industries expanded and many new ones, including petroleum refining, steel manufacturing, and electrical power, emerged. Railroads expanded significantly, bringing even remote parts of the country into a national market economy. America was the ideal place. In the late 1800s, people in many parts of the world decided to leave their homes and immigrate t
  • American Women During WWII
    american Women During WWII American Women During World War II. America\'s entry into World War II posed opportunities for American women domestically, yet paradoxically heightened fears in the polity about the exact role that women should adopt during wartime. A central issue that dominated women\'s lives during this period was how to combine the private sphere of the home, with the new demands of the war economy in the public sphere. Women made significant gains in the military, the war economy
  • Antebellum Periods and Reforms
    Antebellum Periods and Reforms The Ante-bellum Period and The Reforms The overwhelming number of reforms in the ante-bellum period was a result the rapid change that was occurring around the country. These changes were seen in economics, politics and society. Americans reacted in a nationwide panic which created doubts of the goodness of the changes America was going through. The institution and then rise of the market economy and the Second Great Awakening had the greatest effect on America. Th
  • Entrepreneurial Adventure
    Entrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
  • FDRs Influence as president
    FDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
  • History of labor in america
    history of labor in america The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills,
  • Muckrakers
    muckrakers Muckraking was a powerful journalistic force, whose supporters made it become so. Muckraking was the practice of writers and critics exposing corrupt politicians and business practices. President Theodore Roosevelt made the term "muck-raker" popular. He once said The man with the muck-rake, the man who could look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; who was offered a celestial crown for his muckrake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, bu
  • Outsiders locking in
    Outsiders locking in Outsiders Looking In In the United States something very odd happened during the period of time from the middle of the 1950\'s up to the impact of the crisis of the 1960\'s. For once in the storied history of the United States a majority of Americans accepted the same system of assumptions. This shared system of assumptions is known as the liberal consensus. The main reason there was such a thing as liberal consensus was because of the extreme economic growth we experienced
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The Roaring Twenties
    The Roaring Twenties THE ROARING TWENTIES Americans, in the years following the end of World War I found themselves in an era, where the people simply wished to detach themselves from the troubles of Europeans and the rest of the world. During the years of the Twenties, the economy was prosperous, there was widespread social reform, new aspects of culture were established, and people found better ways to improve their lifestyle and enjoy life. The 1920\'s exemplified the changing attitudes of Am
  • Total War World War One
    Total War World War One “World War I: Total War” Europe since pre-Roman times has been marked by conflict. Warring tribes often did battle in small skirmishes and hand-to-hand combat. But as the civilizations grew and technology improved the battles became larger and much more intense. With the Industrial revolution, warfare would change forever. This can be best seen in World War One. The “war to end all wars” gradually escalated to a global conflict, dragging the super powers into a four year
  • Unionism
    unionism Michael Paul 099 66 3949 History 316z Trade unionism, industrial unionism, and socialism were the main forms of organized labor in the late nineteenth century early twentieth century, yet rarely did these shifting currents flow in complementary ways that might appeal to the vast majority of struggling workers. The three most important formal organizations were the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Socialist Party of America. All three
  • Westward expansionin nineteenth century
    westward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
  • Ethnography of the city
    ethnography of the city Ethnography in the City: Phillipe Bourgois and the Barrio Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for
  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
  • The Bauhaus Notes
    The Bauhaus Notes Architecturearchitecture When Walter Gropius resigned as the head of the Bauhaus in 1930, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1886-1969) became its director, moving it to Berlin before political pressures forced it to close in 1933. In his architecture and furniture he made a clear and elegant statement of the International Style, so much so that his work had enormous influence on modern architecture. Taking his motto "less is more" and calling his architecture "skin and bones," his aest
  • The world has known many great leaders, especially
    FDR The world has known many great leaders, especially in the post-Civil War era. Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Harry Truman all rank with the most prominent leaders of all time. However, in my opinion President Franklin Roosevelt made the most difference out of anybody in this century. He began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had succumbed to in 1929. Without him ending the Depression, who knows where this country could have gone?
  • FDRs influence as president
    FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
  • The Life of Mao Zedong
    The Life of Mao Zedong The Life of Mao Zedong Dressed in the drab military uniform that symbolized the revolutionary government of Communist China, Mao Zedong\'s body still looked powerful, like an giant rock in a gushing river. An enormous red flag draped his coffin, like a red sail unfurled on a Chinese junk, illustrating the dualism of traditional China and the present Communist China that typified Mao. 1 A river of people flowed past while he lay in state during the second week of September
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • Analysis of Looking Backward 20001887
    Analysis of Looking Backward 20001887 Edward Bellamy\'s Looking Backward: 2000-1887 was an attempt to show Americans who desired the utopian sense of community what it could truly be. Looking Backward addressed the yearnings of a society stricken by economic panics and social collapse by proposing an Eden-like community in which war, hunger, greed and malice were eradicated from society. While the story followed the wonderment of Julian West as he awoke in a Boston of 2000 AD after 113 years of
  • One flew over cuckoos nest
    one flew over cuckoos nest One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest By Ken Kesey 1. How would you describe your main character? Become his “voice” and write about who he believes they are. I might frighten some of you at first, and others may think of me as some crazy man who has no business living in a normal society. Well, if you thought any of those, you’re wrong. I, Randle McMurphy, might have gotten in four or five fights and have been in jail and the work farm for sometime, but I feel that it is ne
  • The Communist Manifesto
    The Communist Manifesto The Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx Also words By Friedrich Engles and A JP Taylor Volumes and volumes could be written about communism, but in fact, the actual Communist Manifesto is a mere forty pages. Karl Marx, the principal former of communism as we know it now, later wrote many books fulfilling the outline or skeleton of communism, which is the Communist Manifesto. Communism cannot be summed up in one sentence, but it can be summed up in ten main ideas, sort of lik
  • The Jungle3
    The Jungle3 The Jungle By Upton Sinclair "The Jungle" portrays the lower ranks of the industrial world as the scene of a naked struggle for survival. Where workers not only are forced to compete with each other but, if they falter, are hard pressed to keep starvation from their door and a roof over their heads. With unions weak and cheap labor plentiful, a social Darwinist state of "the survival of the fittest" exists. The real story revolves around the integration and eventual disintegration of
  • Problems In Chinas Economy
    Problems In Chinas Economy Problems In China¡¯s Economy And Their Solutions Today, at the turn of the century, the People¡¯s Republic of China who has a history of over 5000 years is facing a very important choice. After the revolution of 1949,new China has devoted himself to improving his peoples¡¯ living condition, and developing the economy. Although we encountered some difficulties on the way of development, we still make a rapid progress in many fields, such as, we have already solve the p
  • Banking on Diversity
    Banking on Diversity Organizational Environment Uncertainty Acme is made up of five key departments, they include: purchasing, drafting, productions, industrial engineering and mechanical engineering. Omega, on the other hand, is made up of four key departments: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and drafting. Both are similar. These departments play an instrumental role in the success of both companies. It is evident that Acme operates under a mechanistic str
  • Big Oil and Bus Ethics
    Big Oil and Bus Ethics Big Oil in the Arctic It can be argued (convincingly) that humans usage of fossil fuels is responsible for a large part of the worlds pollution problems. The area that I will discuss is the interaction that the big oil companies have had with the environment surrounding their businesses in Alaska. I will not tackle the issue of whether it is right or wrong to extract or use fossil fuels. Instead, I will ignore the larger issue and concentrate on specific issues concernin
  • Cannington
    cannington Cannington Remuneration Policy Investigation. The organisation studied for the purpose of this investigation is Broken Hill Proprietary / Limited (B.H.P.). B.H.P. is Australia’s largest company and was ranked 125th on the fortune global 500 list of the worlds largest industrial companies in 1993. The company was incorporated in 1885 and began mining silver , lead and zinc at Broken Hill in NSW Cannington is BHP’s latest mine which is still yet to officially open, the mine was a Greenf
  • Changing Job Roles
    Changing Job Roles Introduction This paper is the result of research into and reflection on the roles carried out by those who are responsible for managing the \'people\' function within organisations. Whether these incumbents are called personnel or HR managers is not necessarily important; it is however critical to give recognition to the complexity of the task that faces those who have to take responsibility for this function. This paper raises two inter-related issues. First, in what sorts o
  • Collective Bargaining in the Workplace
    Collective Bargaining in the Workplace Britain has one of the most developed systems of collective bargaining in the world, especially amongst manual workers. Its sophistication is one of the main reasons why British workers traditionally pressed less for the statutory provision of basic rights in the work place than their Continental colleagues. Most trade unionists prefer to put a grievance ‘through procedure\' rather than go to an industrial tribunal. Dubin has described collective bargaining
  • Entrepreneurship
    Entrepreneurship \'A Balanced Economic State\' Two main economic systems have been developed since the Industrial Revolution, these are Capitalism and Socialism. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages, this essay will explain these, and also give my proposals for a mixed system for the whole society of the United Kingdom. Capitalism Capitalism generally started as an economic system in the United Kingdom at the time of the Industrial Revolution. The basic explanation of Capitalism would
  • Fed and Monetary policy
    Fed and Monetary policy Justin McVay Period 4 Macroeconomics Term Paper FEDERAL RESERVE AND MONETARY POLICY Monetary policy affects the economic and financial decisions of virtually all of us from workers to borrowers to investors (Rukeyser 105). Louis Rukeyser wrote, "If we want monetary policy to play its proper role in a true national economic reconstruction, the authentic task is to get the Fed to stop bouncing like a Chinese Ping-Pong ball, switching every few months between the inflationar
  • McDonalds
    McDonalds INTRODUCTION: McDonald\'s Corporation is the world\'s leading food service organization. The corporation started out as a small drive-through in 1948 by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald. Raymond Albert Kroc, a salesman, saw a great opportunity in this market and advised Dick and Mac to expand their operation and open new restaurants. In 1961 Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers. By 1967 McDonalds expanded its operations to countries outside the U.S.A. This unyielding expansion led
  • NAFTA1
    NAFTA1 North American Free Trade Agreement In December of 1992, President Salinas of the Government of the United Mexican States, President Bush of the Government of the United States of America, and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of the Government of Canada signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); however, it was not ratified and fully effective until 1 January 1994. NAFTA, which established a free trade area among the aforementioned nations, consistent with the previously institu
  • Recruitment
    recruitment On dealing with the premiss that the practice of recruitment and selection is a long way from the recommendations of personnel textbooks, distinction must be taken into account between explicit recommendations and guidelines, on one hand, and, on the other, implicit suggestions stemming from the author’s own stance. The implications of distancing from, or identification with, such explicit recommendations and implicit suggestions will be viewed in this paper as well as forms of overt
  • Retailing in the internet
    retailing in the internet INDUSTRY IN GERMANY Country Issues Country issues related to Germany are addressed in four contexts. The areas of consideration are (1) cultural, social, and demographic trends and concerns, (2) political/governmental concerns, (3) exchange rate issues, and (4) macroeconomic issues. Cultural, Social, and Demographic Trends and Concerns Germany is the slightly larger then the combined size of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. (137,691 square miles.) Germany is a nation o
  • Sabre
    Sabre Sabre is a complex company that is difficult to fit into a specific industry. Although they were once a division of American Airlines, and remain closely tied to the airline industry, they are not direct competitors of other airline companies. Sabre has several business lines, therefore determining true competitors change with each business unit. Because the core competency is its computer reservation system, the competitive focus will be on other computer reservation system\'s companies.
  • Shrinking buying power of the middle class
    Shrinking buying power of the middle class The Shrinking Buying Power of the Middle Class According to the Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, the middle class is “a class occupying a position between the upper class and the lower class; especially: a fluid heterogeneous socioeconomic grouping composed principally of business and professional people, bureaucrats, and some farmers and skilled workers sharing common social characteristics and values (Merriam-Webster). In the United States, their
  • Teams Making Them Work For You
    Teams Making Them Work For You The organisational organ known as the team is becoming more and more apparent in today\'s dynamic business world. Increasingly managers are searching for a means to improve production and keep their organisation competitive in the global market. A lot of these managers have turned to the team as a means for achieving this improvement. Quality circles were looked at to fulfil this role. However, this form of team is being phased out and may have posed as incubator f
  • Zero Inflation
    Zero Inflation Introduction Hyper inflation has plagued most of the world’s developing countries over the past decades. Countries in the industrialised world, too, have at times duelled with dangerously high inflation rates in the post WWII era. With varying degrees of success, all have employed great efforts to bring their inflation rates within acceptable limits. Generally, a moderate rate of inflation has been the ultimate goal. More recently, however, a few countries have pursued policies th
  • The Battle in Seattle
    The Battle in Seattle The last time the World Trade Organization had a major meeting, it was in Singapore, and now we know why. Singapore, of course, is the city-state that accords near-perfect freedom to banks and corporations while jailing political activists and caning messy tenants and people who chew gum in public. When WTO ministers gathered in Singapore in 1997, their business was unimpeded by any outside agitators. (Or, for that matter, any internal dissidents: Advocates for worker right
  • 1990s 1880s economy
    1990s 1880s economy As one can see there are many striking parallels between the Gilded Age or the era from the eighteen eighties to the eighteen nineties compared to the Silicon Age of the nineteen eighties to the nineteen nineties. The preconditions for these two massive economic booms share similar birth paths laid in laissez faire policy, no regulation or deregulation and innovative booms. Before the 1880\'s there was no real conflict between the welfare of the American people and that of it
  • A civil Action
    A civil Action A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don\'t see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don\'t take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of huma
  • A civil acton
    a civil acton A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don\'t see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don\'t take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of human
  • Chinas Economics
    Chinas Economics Introduction For various reasons, China has always been an important country in the world. With its increasing large population, it was determined by other countries that is has a lot of economic potentials. In just one decade and a half, China has transformed itself from a giant that use to live in poverty into a wealthy powerhouse to the world economy. With one-fifth of the world¡¦s population, China is now producing 4% of world merchandise and a proportion of global productio
  • Chinas Growing Economy
    Chinas Growing Economy After North America, Europe, and Japan, the area of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong "is a fourth growth pole in the world economy" (Jue 108) which in 1994 was expected to double in size by 2002. Today, the growth rate is still on track to fulfill that prediction. Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, China’s gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over
    CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, which had had as their base ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese Economic Refrom
    Chinese Economic Refrom Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems
  • Chinese reform
    chinese reform Chinese Economic Reform Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced