Effects of marijuana Essay

This essay has a total of 2347 words and 11 pages.

Effects of marijuana



Essay Question: Outline the use of marijuana and identify the acute and chronic harmful
biological and psychological effects of marijuana on individuals.

The use of marijuana is widespread by all classes, races, and cultures. Marijuana has been
used for a multitude of purposes over thousands of years, and is still, today, is being
used for many of the same purposes. (Hawks 1982) It is some of the possible outcomes of
the usage of marijuana, and a brief history of marijuana that will be discussed in this
paper. The outcomes associated with the use and abuse of marijuana is the major focus of
this paper, and will be discussed and will be divided up in two groups. These groups
include Medicinal/therapeutic users, and recreational users. Recreational users will then
be divided into 2 groups; acute (experimental) users, and chronic (habitual) users. The
topic of marijuana use is very broad and has an intricate effect on society as a whole,
however, for the purpose of this paper, the literature review is based on a very narrow
fraction of the topic of marijuana, namely, the harmful biological and psychological
effects of the drug.

Marijuana is a naturally occurring plant with several species. Cannabis indica and
cannabis sativa are the two most common types of marijuana in the developed world. These
two species can be prepared for the use of people in a number of ways. The plant may be
dried and used for intoxication, or as resin can be collected from the plant by
compressing the plant into a brick. Also by drying the plant and boiling it in alcohol and
filtering the matter to make hash oil is a way of preparing the plant for human
consumption. The potency of the marijuana substances depends on the climatic conditions,
soil nutrients of the environment in which the plant is grown (Listin 1998)

(Marijuana can be administered in many ways (Hawks 1982). These ways include inhaling the
fumes by smoking the plant, or by eating the plant baked into biscuits. The levels of
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana consumed from the
different methods of administering varies, and hence, so does the effect of the
administered amount.

THC is lipid soluble and is stored readily in fatty tissues in the body. As a consequence,
traces of THC can be detected in the urine up to 2 - 3 months after marijuana use. The
reason for the extended period of time that THC stays in the body is that unlike alcohol,
which is excreted through the kidneys, THC very slowly seeps out of the fat cells.
Therefore, a trace of THC in the urine of a person is not necessarily an indication of
recent marijuana use (Hall, Solowij and Lemon 1994).

Medical/therapeutic use of marijuana is largely concealed because of the known fact that
marijuana is an illegal drug in Australia and most countries. However, history shows that
marijuana has been used for medicinal purposes for over 3000 years. Medical uses of
marijuana include pain management, as an antispasmoic, as an antimeric and for
constipation, and epilepsy. (Mathre 1997)

The recreational use of marijuana is one area where harmful biological and psychological
effects occur. Recreational can be divided into the 2 above-mentioned groups; experimental
and habitual. According to the National Drug Strategy (1994) experimental use of marijuana
is statistically the most prevalent in Australia, with an estimate of 80% of marijuana
users being experimental users. Regular users of marijuana are those who use marijuana on
a weekly basis, the prevalence of regular users is 15% of users in Australia. Chronic
habitual users are those users who have used marijuana on a daily basis for a number of
years. Prevalence of habitual users is 5% of the total amount of marijuana smokers in
Australia. The main focus of this paper is on the 2 last mentioned groups classified as
'chronic' users.

The effect of marijuana is varied from individual to individual. This is because of the
variables in route of administration, the mood of the user, the environment in which
marijuana is smoked, the amount smoked, the body's ability to absorb, previous use, and
the potency of the drug (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services 1995).

The human body has cannabinoid receptors, which respond to THC and absorb and distribute
THC to the nervous system. THC is rapidly distributed throughout the body starting with
the brain, liver, and kidneys, and later distributes right through to the extremities with
less blood flow (Liston 1998). THC levels peak at 30 - 40 minutes after smoking marijuana,
and within 2 - 3 hours if ingested orally. The THC will have a half-life of 20 - 30 hours
for daily (chronic habitual) users and a half-life of 50 - 70 hours in occasional
(recreational acute) users. This slower release of THC and it's metabolites is due to
their high fat solubility and the consequent slow release back into the blood from the
'storage' areas, namely the fat supplies, of the body. (National Health Strategy 1994).

Harmful effects of Marijuana can be divided up into 2 groups: biological and psychological
effects. Both the biological effects and the psychological effects can be divided into
short term and long term damage. In other words, from the use of marijuana short term, and
long term damage has been found in individuals. This damage is psychological damage,
physical damage, or both. Short-term damage is only temporary, and the individual will
recover some weeks after cessation of taking marijuana. Long term damage, on the other
hand, will last a lifetime (Mathre 1997).

Initially, within a few minutes of inhaling marijuana smoke, users likely experience dry
mouth, rapid heartbeat, some loss of coordination, a decreased sense of balance, and
slower reaction times. Blood pressure is likely to increase and, in some cases the heart
rate can double the baseline rate. (www.nida.nih.gov)

Marijuana smokes regularly encounter many of the same biological respiratory problems that
tobacco smokers have. These individuals may have daily coughs and phlegm, symptoms of
chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds than non-smokers. Continuing to smoke
marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of the lungs and airways (www.nida.nih.gov).
Nahas (1992) agrees with this, and elaborates further on the harmful biological effects of
marijuana use. Chronic use of marijuana can (by inhalation) causes some mutagenic effects,
and hence, be of possible danger to having carcinogenic properties. Hence, it can be
concluded that chronic use of marijuana can have the harmful biological effect of causing
lung cancer (Nahas 1992). Also, on the topic of mutatious damage from the effect of
marijuana on human genetics, chronic use may also lead to decreased testosterone
concentrations (M.mol/L in the blood stream) and cause impermanent, or inhibition of
spermatocytes. Nahas (1992)

Furthermore, THC suppresses the neurones in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is the part
of the brain responsible for information processing, learning, memory, and the integration
of sensory experiences with emotions and motivation (www.nida.nih.gov). McCance and
Huether (1998) state that the neurones of the hippocampus are suppressed in chronic
schizophrenics as opposed to in control groups of studies where the neurones are
considered 'normal' and not suppressed. So, assuming that the facts of the American
National Institute of Drug Abuse are correct, the suppressed neurones of the hippocampus
caused by marijuana use, and McCance and Huether's (1998) research into the suppressed
neurones of the hippocampus the following can be concluded. Presence of suppressed
neurones in schizophrenia patients clearly links the common theory of a cause of drug
induced schizophrenia as being contributed to by marijuana use/abuse. According to
Continues for 6 more pages >>




  • Rainforest
    Rainforest In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will write on some specific plants and animals that call the tropical rain forests their home; there are many different types of rainforest species and their uniqueness from the rest of the world is amazing. I will also touch on the efforts being made to help curb the rate
  • Rainforest
    Rainforest In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will write on some specific plants and animals that call the tropical rain forests their home; there are many different types of rainforest species and their uniqueness from the rest of the world is amazing. I will also touch on the efforts being made to help curb the rate
  • Save the Rainforests
    Save the Rainforests The destruction of the rainforests is one of the most crucial environmental issues of our time. It is also one of the most misunderstood and neglected. There has been so much propaganda and publicity attached to this crisis that “Save the Rainforests” is becoming almost as cliché as “Save the Whales.” Why don’t we take this problem more seriously? Is it because we, as Americans, simply don’t understand the devastating, long-terms consequences that continued deforestation of
  • The Rain Forests Medical Treasures
    The Rain Forests Medical Treasures For many years now, scientist have been scouring tropical rain forests for botanical extracts that could cure some of the deadliest diseases. In 1967 Robin Foster discovered a tree that never flowered. After three years of studying this species of tree, it finally flowered. All at once the trees produced an array of light yellow and pink flowers. Unfortunately, these trees all died within a year of their flowering and fruiting. Robin also discovered that as soo
  • Kama Sutra
    Kama Sutra PREFACE IN the literature of all countries there will be found a certain number of works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealt with differently, and from various points of view. In the present publication it is proposed to give a complete translation of what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and which is called the \'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra\', or Aphorisms on Love, by Vatsyayana. While the introduction will deal with the evidence conc
  • Legalization of Marijuana3
    Legalization of Marijuana3 Several pressing issues have arose throughout time, such as abortion and capitol punishment. The controversies have been addressed and decisions have been made. A new topic has emerged l states (1986, Congress), (Buchsbaum, 8). This crowds court rooms and jail cells, often times forcing judges to release violent offenders. In 1994 alone, 1.35 million people were incarcerated because of possession and use of marijuana (Buckley, 70). Even though only an estimates ten mil
  • Legalize hemp
    legalize hemp Legalize Hemp! Legally defined, marijuana consists of the dried leaves and flowers of the plant Cannabis sativa. Cannabis is one of the most ancient and historically important of cultivated plants. Hemp or Cannabis has been cultivated for at least 6000 years (Frank 3). On account of the many advantages that this multipurpose plant offers, I see reason to believe that it should be legalized, to the public, in all forms. The legalization of hemp would reduce the size of our overpopul
  • Marketing Mix of PepsiCloa
    Marketing Mix of PepsiCloa AN OVER VIEW OF THE BEVERAGE INDUSTRIES Contributing to this industrial revolution among other industries were Manufacturing, Agricultural, Automotive, Chemical, Hotel, Banking Business Services, Real estate, Tourism and information Technology to name a few. But on such industry that has been holding onto its share of the market since its inception note in the USA - its birthplace - but all across the globe as well as the Beverage Industry. It has introduced icons that
  • Ergot
    Ergot Ergot and its disease ergotism have been a worldwide plague to humans ever since humans have started to harvest and cultivate grains in all their forms. Although outbreaks of ergotism still occur periodically they have all but become nonexistent in the modern era. Ergot has had beneficial effects as well. Ergot has produced medicines, which are vital to the medicine world. Ergot has produced in the world\'s eyes an ugly stepsister to its medicines: LSD. D-lysergic acid diethylamide known t
  • History of weed
    history of weed Marijuana in the New World By: Erica Marijuana in the New World The first definite record of the marijuana plant in the New World dates from 1545 AD, when the Spaniards introduced it into Chile. It has been suggested, however, that African slaves familiar with marijuana as an intoxicant and medicine brought the seeds with them to Brazil even earlier in the sixteenth century. There is no record that the Pilgrims brought marijuana with them to Plymouth but the Jamestown settlers di
  • Gold
    a12 Gold One kind of metal that the Byzantine\'s really liked to use was gold. They got the gold form a place called Armenia, and from mines and streams in Greece. Byzantine\'s described gold as condensed light from the sun, and they made it the symbol of incorruptibility, truth, and glory. It was sometimes mixed with silver or copper. Gold was worked to create coins, medallions, enamel plaques, jewelry, elegant dishes for the home, and containers for the church. Gold foil was used in mosaic cub
  • The greatest of medieval civilizations was the Eas
    a21 The greatest of medieval civilizations was the Eastern Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was divided in 395. The Western half, ruled from Rome, was ruled by the barbarians in the 5th century. The Eastern half, known as the Byzantine Empire, lasted for more than over 1,000 years. The Byzantine Empire was one of the leading civilizations in the world. Some of the reasons for the success of the Byzantine Empire was because of their strength is art and architecture. Gold One kind of metal that the
  • Amazon Rainforest
    Amazon Rainforest Science; Rainforests and Earth The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat
  • Crude oil report
    crude oil report Crude Oil Crude Oil Farnaz Kermaani Table of Contents The Statistics and History of Crude Oil 4 Crude Oils Economic Theory 6 The Market Place 10 Trading Crude Oil 13 Charting Prices 14 Keeping a Diary 15 Trading positions 17 Trading Positions Chart 18 Summary 19 Bibliography 20 The Statistics and History of Crude Oil A mixture of comparatively volatile liquid hydrocarbons (compounds composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon with some nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen) that occurs in th
  • Curanderismo
    curanderismo Curanderismo is a 500 year old medical system born in the Americas, it’s inception began when the Spaniards arrived on this continent and blended their medicine with that of indigenous peoples from Mexico and the Southwestern United States. 500 years ago the indigeous people of the Americas already had a system of healthcare which was thousands of years old, the Spaniards also had an established system which was at that time one of the most advanced in the Western world. The Spanish
  • Gliricidia sepium
    gliricidia sepium GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM Content History Introduction and Description Common Names Chemical Compounds Toxicity Uses and Efficacy History Gliricidia was first used in Mexico to provide shade for cacao plantations. It is from this use that the Aztecs labeled the tree "Madre de Cacao" (Mother of cacao). Later, in the 18th Century, Gliricidia was brought to Sri Lanka to provide shade for coffee plantations. Today, the tree\'s long leafy branches are used to shade vanilla and tea crops as
  • Gliricidiaa sepium
    Gliricidiaa sepium GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM Content History Introduction and Description Common Names Chemical Compounds Toxicity Uses and Efficacy History Gliricidia was first used in Mexico to provide shade for cacao plantations. It is from this use that the Aztecs labeled the tree "Madre de Cacao" (Mother of cacao). Later, in the 18th Century, Gliricidia was brought to Sri Lanka to provide shade for coffee plantations. Today, the tree\'s long leafy branches are used to shade vanilla and tea crops as
  • Indians
    indians Stories of Native Americans contributions to the advancement of health and medicine traces were discovered in a small town in Nali, Africa. The very first onset of the beggining of modern pharmacology is the substance called "quinine". This is the substance that came from a bark of a tree that grew in high elevations. The Indians has been using this substance to cure malaria, cramps, chills, hear-rythm disorders and many other ailments. Prior to the disovery of quinine, the old world suf
  • Legalization Of Marijuana
    Legalization Of Marijuana For thousands of years the plant cannabis sativa, otherwise known as hemp or marijuana, has been harvested by people and utilized in many different ways. It has been grown to provide food for villages and towns, and used for clothes, rope, and sails on early ships. The Bible was written on hemp paper, as well as the first draft of the US Constitution. Marijuana has been utilized for its medicinal value since four to five hundred BC. Not until a half-century ago did the
  • Marijuana1
    marijuana1 Should Drugs Be Made Legal? For several decades drugs have been one of the major problems of society. There have been escalating costs spent on the war against drugs and countless dollars spent on rehabilitation, but the problem still exists. Not only has the drug problem increased but drug related problems are on the rise. Drug abuse is a killer in our country. Some are born addicts (crack babies), while others become users. The result of drug abuse is thousands of addicts in denial.
  • Marijuana1
    marijuana1 Should Drugs Be Made Legal? For several decades drugs have been one of the major problems of society. There have been escalating costs spent on the war against drugs and countless dollars spent on rehabilitation, but the problem still exists. Not only has the drug problem increased but drug related problems are on the rise. Drug abuse is a killer in our country. Some are born addicts (crack babies), while others become users. The result of drug abuse is thousands of addicts in denial.
  • Math as it Relates to Biology
    Math as it Relates to Biology Mathematics as it relates to Biology Mathematics and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of “Why do we need to know these things?” has been asked of a teacher by his or her students. The following will explain the history and purpose of mathematics in the role of a biologist. There are various fields that are found within the subject of bio
  • Math in Everyday Life
    Math in Everyday Life Math and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of ‘why do we need to know these things?’ has been asked. The following report will explain the history and purpose of geometry in our lives. ‘Geometry’ means ‘measure of the earth’. In ancient Egypt, the Nile would flood its banks each year, flooding the land and destroying the farm areas. When the wate
  • Paper
    paper History has recorded that England and China used ceramic ware to drink their tea and those records go into great detail, showing contrasts and similarities between each culture\'s ceramics. The vast ideological differences between England and China show how social, political and ritualistic issues were reflected in the developments and changes made to the ware visually, as well as its functionality. Were the issues in each culture a result of external or internal influences, exchange, insp
  • Paper
    paper History has recorded that England and China used ceramic ware to drink their tea and those records go into great detail, showing contrasts and similarities between each culture\'s ceramics. The vast ideological differences between England and China show how social, political and ritualistic issues were reflected in the developments and changes made to the ware visually, as well as its functionality. Were the issues in each culture a result of external or internal influences, exchange, insp
  • Rainforest
    rainforest The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being dis
  • Rainforest1
    rainforest1 The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being di
  • Rainforest2
    rainforest2 The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being di
  • Religion2
    Religion2 Religion Everyone has felt somewhat out of place at one point or another in his or her life. How does one feel when he or she has no one to turn to? Mary Shelley\'s Frankenstein and Nathaniel Hawthorne\'s "Rappaccini\'s Daughter" are both works that give the reader a chance to observe how individuals feel and act when they are placed in an isolated position. Mary Shelly\'s Frankenstein is a book about a creature that is alienated from society due to his repulsive outward appearance, an
  • Religion2
    Religion2 Religion Everyone has felt somewhat out of place at one point or another in his or her life. How does one feel when he or she has no one to turn to? Mary Shelley\'s Frankenstein and Nathaniel Hawthorne\'s "Rappaccini\'s Daughter" are both works that give the reader a chance to observe how individuals feel and act when they are placed in an isolated position. Mary Shelly\'s Frankenstein is a book about a creature that is alienated from society due to his repulsive outward appearance, an
  • Romeo and juliet summarys
    romeo and juliet summarys Paris asks Capulet for his daughter Juliet’s hand in marriage. Capulet replies that she is still too young to be married, but then invites Paris to try to woo her at a banquet he is holding that night. He gives a servant a list of guests and tells him to take an invitation to each of them. The servant is illiterate, and so goes about trying to find someone to read the list for him. He runs into Romeo and Benvolio, who are still discussing Romeo\'s love. The servant gets
  • Silk and spice trade
    silk and spice trade The establishment and impact of the Silk and Spice trade The establishment of silk garments in Asia first came about when the silkworm, Bombyx mori (moth) residing in the family Bombycidae, was first discovered for its thread by a great dynasty of China—the Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220). The silk has a continuous-filament fiber consisting of fibroin protein secreted from two salivary glands in the head of each larvae, and a gum called sericin, which cements the two filaments
  • Thjyt
    thjyt Raintree\'s website is dedicated to providing information and education on the important plants of the Amazon Rainforest, therefore this section is the most extensive. The Plant Database section is continuously under construction as we continue to add more rainforest plants which are under research. The plant data is linked through various menus to enable both professional readers and readers new to medicinal plants easy access to search the available plant information. Each plant file con
  • Timeline
    timeline IN THE BEGINNING . . . Huron Indian myth has it that in ancient times, when the land was barren and the people were starving, the Great Spirit sent forth a woman to save humanity. As she traveled over the world, everywhere her right hand touched the soil, there grew potatoes. And everywhere her left hand touched the soil, there grew corn. And when the world was rich and fertile, she sat down and rested. When she arose, there grew tobacco . . . • The sacred origin of tobacco and the firs
  • Raintree's website is dedicated to providing infor
    vdg Raintree\'s website is dedicated to providing information and education on the important plants of the Amazon Rainforest, therefore this section is the most extensive. The Plant Database section is continuously under construction as we continue to add more rainforest plants which are under research. The plant data is linked through various menus to enable both professional readers and readers new to medicinal plants easy access to search the available plant information. Each plant file conta
  • The Health and Mental Effects of Cannabis
    The Health and Mental Effects of Cannabis Controversy has been revolving around cannabis for decades, but the plant itself has been in existence for centuries. The plant as a whole has many different uses from medicinal, to recreational, to industrial. Cannabis’ uses stretch from treating glaucoma patients all the way to making durable clothing. Marijuana, as it is also known, has been in use as far back as ancient times for it’s psychoactive effects as well as for it’s great healing properties,
  • Deforestation
    Deforestation Eight thousand years ago, when humans didn’t have an astounding affect on the world ecosystem, trees covered two fifths of the land. Since that time, the human race has burnt and chopped down half of the original forestland. According to Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, deforestation is defined as "the action or process of clearing of forests…" (www.m-w.com). The act of deforestation could, in a matter of just a few decades, completely strip the earth of trees. Deforestation not only
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental Science Global Warming Human kind has entered a brand new relationship with the earth. The constant and increasing pressures we are exerting threaten our planets ability to sustain life itself. Change-in the way we think , and in the way we live-is needed now. Global warming is the most urgent environmental problem the world will face in the next decade and the next century. Few, if any, trends are more important to our future than climate change caused by human activities. Scienti
  • Genetically engineered foods
    Genetically engineered foods Introduction The use of genetically engineering in agriculture and food production has an impact, not only on the environment and biodiversity, but also on human health. Therefore, thorough biosafety assessment requires, not only an evaluation of environmental impacts of genetically engineered organisms, but also an assessment of the risks that genetically engineered food pose for the health of consumers. Let us take deeper look at some of the aspects related to gene
  • Life Science and the Law
    Life Science and the Law One issue that has been a controversy is the preservation of endangered species. Ever since the 1960\'s, scientists have been fighting for laws and acts to protect animals and plants in keeping them in good health and their populations high in numbers. The problem is animals and plants are having trouble surviving in today\'s world which leads them to be classified as endangered or threatened. Endangered, meaning animals or plants with little population that the species
  • Starch
    starch STARCH Starch is a white, granular, organic chemical that is produced by all green plants. Starch is a soft, white, tasteless powder that is insoluble in cold water, alcohol, or other solvents. The basic chemical formula of the starch molecule is (C6H10O5)n. The simplest form of starch is the linear polymer amylose; amylopectin is the branched form. Starch is manufactured in the green leaves of plants from excess glucose produced during photosynthesis and serves the plant as a reserve foo
  • The Tropical Rainforests of the World
    The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Another topic being discussed is t
  • Rain forrsest
    rain forrsest Rain forests may be grouped into two major types: tropical and temperate. Tropical rain forest is evergreen trees that form a closed canopy, below which is found a zone of vines and epiphytes where plants grow on trees, a relatively open forest floor, and a very large number of species of both plant and animal life. The largest trees have buttressed trunks above the continuous canopy, while smaller trees form a layer of more shade-delicate species beneath the upper canopy. The maxi
  • Will the World Starve
    Will the World Starve Will the World Starve? Looking out a window upon a barren desert, a dry wasteland unfolds as a carpet to nowhere. Abandoned cities dot the horizon, as the ruins speak volumes to the once populated extravagance of a country which lived on wealth and opportunity. The vision just described is not one out of a Hollywood movie script, but one that is not only possible but probable. Currently, the world population numbers over six billion, with China alone cradling over one-sixth
  • Will the World Starve1
    Will the World Starve1 Will the World Starve? Looking out a window upon a barren desert, a dry wasteland unfolds as a carpet to nowhere. Abandoned cities dot the horizon, as the ruins speak volumes to the once populated extravagance of a country which lived on wealth and opportunity. The vision just described is not one out of a Hollywood movie script, but one that is not only possible but probable. Currently, the world population numbers over six billion, with China alone cradling over one-sixt
  • Marijuana
    marijuana Marijuana (also spelled marihuana) is a psychoactive drug made from the dried leaves and flowering parts of the hemp plant. It is one of the most strictly classified illegal drugs in the United States. Under the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, marijuana is listed as a Schedule I substance, which defines it as having “a high potential for abuse” and “no currently accepted medical use.” Marijuana is therefore classified more severely than cocaine and morphine, which as Schedule II drugs
  • Cree Indians
    Cree Indians This is an introduction to the Cree Indians way of life explaining about the foods they ate, significance of story telling, myths, religious beliefs, rituals performed, and their present day way of life. It is almost impossible to touch on every aspect because of what is not printed and only known by elders. Some native words used by Cree Indians: Kiwetin meaning the north wind that brings misfortune (Gill, Sullivan 158). Another word is maskwa used for bear, the most intelligent a
  • Causes of endangered species
    Causes of endangered species CAUSES OF ENDANGERED SPECIES The term endangered is used by international and national organizations to define plants and animals currently in danger of becoming extinct. Although the term endangered is universally used, the definition of an endangered species is greatly varied. In most cases, the factors causing an organism to become endangered are human- related. When discussing the causes of endangered species, it is important to understand that individual specie
  • Come Home
    Come Home Growing from its humble beginnings as an ash dump in the late 1800\'s, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden has come to represent today the very best in urban gardening and horticultural display. The Brooklyn Botanical Garden blooms in the middle of one of the largest cities in the world. Each year more than 750,000 people visit the well-manicured formal and informal gardens that are a testament to nature\'s vitality amidst urban brick and concrete. More than 12,000 kinds of plants from around
  • Book Review of People of the Three Fires
    Book Review of People of the Three Fires Book Review of People of the Three Fires The book, People of the Three Fires, is written by three different people each describing a tribe in detail.The book is very well written and relatively easy to understand. It is informative and was written to be used as a teaching tool for schools. The book discusses the relationship between the groups that lived in Michigan and surrounding areas. James M. McClurken writes the first section, which deals with the