Emphysema

This essay has a total of 448 words and 3 pages.

Emphysema



Emphysema is one of several diseases usually labeled collectively as chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD). It's the most common cause of death from respiratory disease in
the United States; approximately 2 million Americans are afflicted with the disease.
Emphysema(COPD) appears to be more prevalent in men than women. Postmortem findings reveal
few adult lungs without some degree of emphysema.

Causes
Emphysema(COPD) may be caused by a genetic deficiency of alpha 1 -antitrypsin (AAN) and by
cigarette smoking. Genetically, one in 3,000 newborns are found with the disease, and 1%
to 3% of all cases of emphysema are due to AAT deficiency. Cigarette smoking is thought to
cause 20% of the cases. Other causative factors are unknown.

Complications
In emphysema(COPD), complications may include recurrent respiratory tract infections, cor
pulmonale, and respiratory failure. Peptic ulcer disease strikes 20% to 25% of patients
with COPD. Additionally, alveolar blebs and bullae may rupture, leading to spontaneous
pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

Assessment findings
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