Facility Layout Essay

This essay has a total of 1376 words and 15 pages.

Facility Layout



Chapter 6
Facility Layout

Facility layout refers to the configuration of departments, employee workstations,
customer service areas, material storage areas, restrooms, offices, computer rooms, and
for the flow patterns of materials and people around into and within buildings.


As process planning and facility layout planning proceed, there is a continuous
interchange of information between these two planning activities, because each affects the
other.


In operations strategy, the mix of competitive priorities that operation function can
provide is: low production costs, fast and on-time deliveries, high-quality products and
services, and product and volume flexibility.


The objectives that drive facility layouts must reflect an appropriate mix of these
competitive priorities. Operations strategy drives facility planning, and facility layouts
serve as a means of achieving operations strategy.


( I ) BASIC LAYOUT TYPES

The central focus of most manufacturing layouts is to minimize the cost of processing,
transporting, and storing materials throughout the production system.


Materials Handling System: is the entire network of transportation that receives
materials, stores materials in inventories, moves them between processing points within
and between buildings, and finally deposits the finished products into vehicles that will
deliver them to customers.


The following describes the different types of layout:

1. Process Layouts (functional layouts, or job shops)

Process layouts are the layouts that can handle varied processing requirements. They are
designed to accommodate variety in product and processing steps. They are also called
functional layouts, or job shops.


If a manufacturing facility produces a variety of custom products in relatively small
batches, the facility probably will use a process layout.


They use general-purpose machines that can be changed over rapidly to new operations for
different product design. These machines are usually arranged according to the type of the
process being performed.


2. Product Layouts

Product layouts are layouts that use standardized processing operations to achieve smooth,
rapid, high-volume flow. They are designed to accommodate only a few product designs. Such
layouts are designed to allow a direct material flow through the facility for products.




They use specialized machines that are set up once to perform a specific operation for a
long period of time on one product. These machines are usually arranged into product
department. Product layouts can take one of the following three forms:


a) Production Line; which is a standardized layout arranged according to a fixed sequence of production tasks.
b) Assembly Line; which is a standardized layout arranged according to a fixed sequence of assembly tasks.
c) U-Shaped Layout; is a compact layout requiring half the length of a straight production line.

3. Fixed-Position Layouts

Fixed-Position Layouts are layouts in which the product or project remains stationary
(fixed position) and workers, materials, equipments are moved as needed.


* RELATED CONCEPTS

- Combination Layouts (Hybrid Layouts)

Most manufacturing facilities use a combination of the three layout types, where the
departments are arranged according to the types of processes but the products flow through
on a product layout.


- Cellular Manufacturing (CM) Layouts

Machines are grouped into cells; each cell is formed to produce a single parts family, which require the same machines.

The flow of parts tends to be more like a product layout than a job shop.
- Group Technology

Group Technology refers to the grouping into part families of items with similar design or
manufacturing characteristics.


- Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)
Refers to chapter 5.

* Other Service Layouts

There are three layouts found in service environments, they are:

1. Warehouse and Storage Layouts.
2. Retail Layouts.
3. Office Layouts.

( II ) ANALYZING MANUFACTURING FACILITY LAYOUTS

Planning Product Layout

The analysis of production lines is the central focus of the analysis of product layouts.
The product design and the market demand for products determine the technological process
steps and the required production capacity of production lines.

The number of workers, attended and unattended machines, and tools required to provide the
market demand must then be determined. This information is provided by line balancing.


Line-Balancing

It is the analysis of production that nearly equally divides the work to be done among
work stations so that the number of workstations required on the production line is
minimized.


The goal of analysis of production line is to determine how many work stations to have and
which tasks to assign to each work station so that the minimum number of workers and the
minimum amount of machines are used to provide the required amount of capacity.


Line-Balancing Heuristics

They are methods based on simple rules that have been used to develop good solutions for
the problems aroused from the line balancing method. They are of two types; incremental
utilization heuristic, and longest task-time heuristic.






a) Incremental Utilization Heuristic

It is also called Maximum Utilization Rate (MUTR). This method simply adds tasks to a
workstation in order of task precedence one at a time until utilization is 100% or is
observed to fall. Then this procedure is repeated at the next workstation for the
remaining tasks. If a choice must be made between two or more tasks, the one with the
smallest task time is added.

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