Essay on Facism

This essay has a total of 2317 words and 11 pages.

Facism

Fascism


Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in
the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response
to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the
Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of
government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme
right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,
together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the
nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other
loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent
action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.
Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and
elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole
against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of
unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people's will on one
select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom
all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that go
along with Fascism is Italy's Benito Mussolini and Germany's Adolf
Hitler.
The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue
that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.
George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main
philosophers who's beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping
of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher
who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies
naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only be
slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence
to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two
moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressed
class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires were
developed from the master majority and the religious ideas and views
grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman" or superman
which symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectual
capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed people
should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessary
to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegal
also sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization of
the state.
Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the
community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is
ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed down
from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led mass
movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is in
the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used to
control the population and everything in it so the community will be
benefited.
Fascism's ideal government would be fashioned around the good of the
community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation
and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging of
the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. In
this the nation will also take care of its members if the need should
arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other need that might
come about.
The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state
terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf
Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mein Kampf, which means
My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler was in prison and not
yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of
Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitler
and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established their
principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic
responses to various issues the leaders faced.
Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy
and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the
profound political and social changes brought about from inflation, and
declining social, economic, and political conditions. Italy, which was
ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascist
ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology to
Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to take
complete control of the country and now was the time to do so. Mussolini
said "Fascism, which was not afraid to call itself reactionary…does not
hesitate to call itself illiberal and anti-liberal" (Nazi Fascism and
the Modern Totalitarian State) this statement can be easily recognized
in the steps that Mussolini took to gain control of Italy. In 1919
Mussolini and his followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along
paramilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms. After defeats at
the polls Mussolini used his new financial backing friends to clothe a
gang of thugs who would attack other street gangs supporting other
ideologies that Mussolini disliked. These black shirts also vandalized,
terrorized, bullied, and on occasion took control of self-governing
governments by force. Paralyzed by these violent occurrences, the
government did little to combat the fascists. Mussolini furthered his
popularity by supporting eight hour days, elimination of class
privileges, universal suffrage, and tax advantages.
Adolf Hitler's Nazi (National Socialist German Worker's Party) party is
the most recognized example of fascism. Nazism is the ideology and
policies of Hitler and his party from 1921 to 1945. Nazism also stressed
the superiority of the Aryan race, calling for the unification of all
German-speaking peoples into one single empire. Unlike fascism, the
state was second in importance, behind only racial purity for the
nation. Hitler used his book Mein Kampf to establish a plan of action
for creating this racially pure state.
In January of 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany by
Hindenburg. By the end of the year Hitler had concentrated his power as
a fascist dictator and began a campaign for a racially pure nation that
eventually led to the Holocaust. In order for Hitler to maintain his
ability to control the German people he had to organize several militia
groups. Hitler even wrote down important points of the Nazi party that
had to be followed. These Twenty Five points of Hitler's party were
enforced by these militia groups.
A few of the points made by Hitler are as follows: immigration of
non-Germans must be prevented, no individual shall do any work that
would I any way hurt the interest of the community for the benefit of
all, a creation of a national (folk) army, all editors and their
assistants on newspapers published in German must be a citizen, and all
material to be published must go through the government for approval.
To keep control of the population and maintain the law, Hitler setup
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