Facts On Cocaine Essay

This essay has a total of 2805 words and 14 pages.

Facts On Cocaine

Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that heightens alertness,
inhibits appetite and the need for sleep, and provides intense feelings of pleasure. It is
prepared from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush, which grows primarily in Peru and
Bolivia.


Street dealers dilute it with inert (non-psychoactive) but similar-looking substances such
as cornstarch, talcum powder, and sugar, or with active drugs such as procaine and
benzocaine (used as local anesthetics), or other CNS stimulants such as amphetamines.
Nevertheless, illicit cocaine has actually become purer over the years; according to RCMP
figures, in 1988 its purity averaged about 75%.


With repeated administration over time, users experience the drug's long-term effects.
Euphoria is gradually displaced by restlessness, extreme excitability, insomnia, and
paranoia - and eventually hallucinations and delusions. These conditions, clinically
identical to amphetamine psychosis and very similar to paranoid schizophrenia, disappear
rapidly in most cases after cocaine use is ended.


Tolerance to any drug exists when higher doses are necessary to achieve the same effects
once reached with lower doses. But scientists have not observed tolerance to cocaine's
stimulant effect: users may keep taking the original amount over extended periods and
still experience the same euphoria.


Physical effects of cocaine use include constricted peripheral blood vessels, dilated
pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. The duration of
cocaine's immediate euphoric effects, which include hyperstimulation, reduced fatigue, and
mental clarity, depends on the route of administration. The faster the absorption, the
more intense the high. On the other hand, the faster the absorption, the shorter the
duration of action. The high from snorting may last 15 to 30 minutes, while that from
smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes. Increased use can reduce the period of stimulation.


When people mix cocaine and alcohol consumption, they are compounding the danger each drug
poses and unknowingly forming a complex chemical experiment within their bodies.
NIDA-funded researchers have found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and
manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects,
while possibly increasing the risk of sudden death.


Yes. Cocaine is often used with other illicit drugs, especially alcohol,
marijuana, and heroin. Some users alternate snorting lines of cocaine
and heroin, known as "crisscrossing," or inject the two drugs as a
"speedball." Crack is also smoked with marijuana joints or marijuana
cigars/blunts, a combination called a "primo." Alcoholic beverages can
intensify cocaine's effects, and may place users at greater risk of sudden
death. A gram of powder cocaine may cost between $20-$100, while
crack rocks can be found for as little as $5-10 each.

Powder cocaine is processed with many volatile solvents, such as
kerosene, benzene, and gasoline, and these poisons can remain in the
cocaine found on the street. In addition, dealers on the street may "cut"
or combine the cocaine with other substances, like talcum powder,
amphetamines, anesthetics, and other substances that may bring the
purity down and cause unwanted side effects.

Cocaine use can cause dilated pupils, nausea, headaches, sweating,
increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite,
and seizures. Cocaine speeds up the heart by stimulating the same
nerves that cause fear causing the heart to beat erratically or stop.
Cocaine also shrinks the peripheral blood vessels and places extra
pressure on the heart and circulatory system. These effects can lead to
heart attacks, strokes, brain seizures, cardiac arrest, and respiratory
failure in otherwise healthy people. New and chronic users can die
suddenly. In Texas, 200-300 cocaine overdose deaths due to cocaine
use have been reported each year.

Chronic use of cocaine can cause heart problems, permanent liver
damage, nutritional deficiencies, and long-term changes in the brain,
triggering intense craving for cocaine. In addition, research has shown
that long-term cocaine use can compromise the immune system. Other
effects are related to how cocaine is administered.

Snorting: Snorting cocaine may cause a loss of the sense of smell,
nose bleeds, sores around the nose and upper lip, swallowing
problems, hoarseness, and sinus problems. Stuffy or runny noses
are common, and chronic use may damage the structures on the
inside of the nose. Because of cocaine's anesthetic effects, users
may not be aware of the extent of damage to their nose and
mouth.
Smoking: Smoking crack can cause severe chest pain, wheezing,
chronic cough, parched lips, tongue and throat, extreme
hoarseness, singed eyebrows and lashes, and burns on fingers. In
the extreme, crack can cause bleeding in the lungs and "crack
lung," a condition characterized by pneumonia-like symptoms.
Injecting: Users may have collapsed and scared veins, bacterial
infections, infections of the heart lining and valves, abscesses or
boils, pneumonia and tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.
Injecting users are at risk of contracting HIV, the virus that
causes AIDS, and hepatitis B and C, liver diseases that can lead
to cancer. These diseases are spread by sharing needles and
using unsterilized drug paraphernalia.

What are cocaine's effects on the mind?
Cocaine causes severe behavior changes, causing violent, erratic
behavior in some and suicidal feelings in others. Users under the
influence may experience tactile hallucinations, where they feel "coke
bugs" crawling on their body. After using cocaine, they may be
confused, anxious, and depressed. They may even lose interest in food
or sex, have trouble feeling pleasure, and act paranoid after long term
use. In severe cases, users may exhibit cocaine-induced psychosis
where users lose touch with reality and exhibit paranoid behavior.
Because of its effects on behavior, cocaine intoxication is often listed as
a contributing factor in drownings, car crashes, burns, and suicides.

Is cocaine really addictive and what does that mean?
Yes. The onset of addiction is rapid and severe, and not even
"recreational users" who limit their use to weekends are immune from
the threat of addiction. Once more, all methods of cocaine use cause
addiction. Clinicians estimate that 10 percent of recreational users will
go on to serious, heavy use of cocaine. Users who become addicted will
"crave" more of the drug as soon as the intoxicating effects wear off, if
they do not get their regular dose of cocaine or crack. Cocaine abusers
may have a hard time limiting their use, may build a tolerance to the drug
requiring larger amounts to get the same effect, and may develop
problems with schools, jobs, and personal relationships. Cocaine
addicts have to support expensive habits, which can cause them to
quickly turn to lives of shoplifting, theft, drug dealing, and prostitution

Does treatment for cocaine addiction work?
Yes. Cocaine addiction is a chronic, relapsing "brain disease"
characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use as a result of
chemical imbalances in the brain. Long-term use of cocaine can alter the
brain's chemistry to the point that the individual may have very
long-term and possibly permanent cravings for cocaine. A national study
has found that treatment for cocaine or crack dependency is effective,
reducing cocaine or crack use by over 50 percent. The study did report
that clients using cocaine in combination with heroin were harder to
treat. In addition, treatment reduces criminal activity up to 80 percent,
increases employment, improves health, and reduces risky sexual
behavior.

How long does cocaine remain in the body?
Benzoylecognine, a metabolite unique to cocaine, can be detected in the
urine 2-4 days for experimental use and up to three weeks or more for
chronic use. The disruption to brain chemistry can remain for much
longer. Individuals who have become dependent on cocaine will feel
intense cravings for cocaine long after use has ceased making recovery
difficult.


Cocaine is an alkaloid found in leaves of the South American shrub Erythroxylon coca. It
is a powerfully reinforcing psychostimulant. The drug induces a sense of exhilaration in
the user primarily by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the
midbrain. If the predictions of The Hedonistic Imperative are vindicated, then future
millennia will witness what Robert Anton Wilson once called "hedonic engineering"". Mature
enhancements of currently drug-induced states of euphoria will be transformed into a
absolute presupposition of sentient existence. Life-long happiness will be genetically
pre-programmed. "Peak experiences" will become a natural part of everyday mental health.
Cocaine, alas, offers only a tragically delusive short-cut.

Continues for 7 more pages >>




  • Death Penalty
    Death Penalty what do canadates think? Al Gore Al Gore on Crime : Sep 4, 2000 Use DNA techniques to make death penalty more fair I believe the death penalty is an appropriate and effective punishment for certain offenses. I strongly support, however, the use of new DNA techniques that can make our criminal justice system fairer and more accurate. I believe that we must take every possible precaution to ensure the integrity and fairness of the system when we apply this ultimate penalty. We must b
  • War on drugs
    war on drugs War On Drugs This is supposed to be a free country. I don\'t see that it would harm you or anybody else if someone smokes a few joints a week in moderation. What is the harm done to you? Is this enough to take fathers and mothers away from children? I know I\'m not the sharpest knife in the draw but to say that drug users might abuse the stuff and cause problems for their family or neighbors is not very far from saying that because you have a knife in your kitchen draw that you migh
  • Ethnography of the city
    ethnography of the city Ethnography in the City: Phillipe Bourgois and the Barrio Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for
  • Poul Voulkos Ceramist
    Poul Voulkos Ceramist The exhibition of recent stoneware vessels by Peter Voulkos at Frank Lloyd Gallery featured the sort of work on which the artist established reputation in the 1950s. The work was greeted with stunned amazement. However now it is too, but it\'s amazement of a different order -- the kind that comes from being in the presence of effortless artistic mastery. These astonishing vessels are truly amaising. Every ceramic artist knows that what goes into a kiln looks very different
  • Legalization of marijuana
    legalization of marijuana Pro marijuana legalization groups such as the Physician\'s Association for AIDS Care, National Lymphoma Foundation argue that marijuana should be legalized in order to treat terminally ill patients. Among them are AIDS victims who find that marijuana stimulates their appetites so they can fight off dangerous emaciation; glaucoma sufferers who have used marijuana said it has prevented them from going blind, and cancer patients for whom it alleviates the severe nausea tha
  • One Fat Englishman
    One Fat Englishman 1. One Fat English Man 2. The author of the novel is Kingsley Amis, copyright 1963. 3. Kingsley Amis was a British writer from England. 4. Major Characters Roger Micheldene is the man the book focuses primarily upon. He is “a shortish fat Englishman of forty (6)” and a publisher. Of the seven deadly sins Roger considers himself to be gluttony, sloth and lust. He considers himself most qualified in the sin of anger (8). He is so fat that his hips have fused together and he is f
  • Coca cola
    coca cola Coca-Cola and its Evolution The Coca-Cola company started out as an insignificant one man business and over the last one hundred and ten years it has grown into one of the largest companies in the world. The first operator of the company was Dr. John Pemberton and the current operator is Roberto Goizueta. Without societies help, Coca-Cola could not have become over a 50 billion dollar business. Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist. He concocted the formul
  • Drug laws
    drug laws NOTE:This draft document represents a joint effort by the SAMHSA/CSAP Division of Workplace Programs and members of the SAMHSA Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB). It has not been reviewed by all members of the DTAB, by industry working groups, or by other Federal agencies. This draft document is the first release to a wider audience. It will serve as the basis for developing the guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs. All interested parties are invited to comment on the
  • Ectasy
    Ectasy Drugs are a ridiculous way to handle all kinds of things. A recent Teen Magazine survey noted that: 86% of respondents had tried drugs before, 77% of whom are under 16. 63% have tried marijuana, 16% have taken a trip, and 32% have no worries about drugs. That is pretty heavy. The top 3 reasons for taking drugs were: Enjoyment, Dealing with pressure, and Peer Pressure. Do you want to end up in hospital, severely injured or DEAD? Anna Wood was a happy 15-year-old girl who was popular, on to
  • Legalization of Marijuana
    Legalization of Marijuana How can something so good be so bad??? There is a large drug problem facing Canada today, and this problem extends to all citizens. It’s not just the poor and the uneducated that are affected by this problem. The most largely used illegal drug in Canada is Marijuana, and thus is targeted as the drug for law enforcement to target the most, costing the taxpayers lots and lots of money. I will show you that Marijuana is not as large an evil as it may appear, and that if le
  • Legalizing Marijuanna
    Legalizing Marijuanna Legalizing Marijuana The purpose of this paper is to discuss marijuana and compare both sides of the issue of legalizing marijuana. We have two opposite opinions fighting each other, those who are pro marijuana and those who are anti-marijuana. These two sides have been fighting on this issue for years. Pro marijuana legalization groups such as the Physician\'s Association for AIDS Care argue that marijuana should be legalized in order to treat terminally ill patients. Amon
  • None Provided2
    None Provided2 Dangers of Anabolic Steroids In the past three decades, steroids has been becoming a serious problem more than ever in the athletic field. Steroids are anabolic drug "to build" growth hormones that include the androgens (male sex hormones) principally testosterone and estrogen and progestogens (female sex hormones). Steroids were first developed for medical purposes. They\'re used in controlling inflammation, strengthening weakened hearts, preventing conception, and alleviating sy
  • Drub abuse
    drub abuse In the United States of America, we, the people value several things, some of which are freedom, expanding and taking care of our families and our financial security. We, the people, take such things for granted. We also discourage some behavior, such as crime, laziness and use of illegal drugs. Drug abuse is one of the most discouraged behaviors in our country. Use of illegal drugs is harmful to the userand all those with whom the user comes in contact. There are over 40 million ille
  • Drug abuse with athletes
    drug abuse with athletes Drugs and Athletes Drugs have been a problem in our society for many years. They have been used and abused by many groups, including professional athletes. It is certainly quite common to hear about or read about athletes and drug use. Although drugs have a lengthy history of use by athletes, they have varied effects on the body and different preventions. Much of the world\'s supply of cocaine is produced in South America. Thousands of years ago, the ancient Incas of Per
  • Animal Testing
    Animal Testing Animal Testing For centuries, animals have been used in medical research. Since 1875, animal experimentation has been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals are ethical. At the very start, the movement against animal testing focused mainly on the "inhumanity of hurting and killing living beings for experimental discovery" (Achor 95). However, in these few decades, scientific invalidity was one of the focusing claims to object to vivisection, which is an "injur
  • Animal Testing
    Animal Testing Animal Testing For centuries, animals have been used in medical research. Since 1875, animal experimentation has been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals are ethical. At the very start, the movement against animal testing focused mainly on the "inhumanity of hurting and killing living beings for experimental discovery" (Achor 95). However, in these few decades, scientific invalidity was one of the focusing claims to object to vivisection, which is an "injur
  • Crack in the box
    crack in the box Crack in the Box Essay by Pete Hamill To summarize the essay, Crack in the Box, you have to understand the writer and what he is saying, or the point he is trying to make. In the article Crack in the Box The writer Pete Hammil compares the difference between Television and the common street drug known as Crack Cocaine. The essay starts with a story of a young lady hooked on drugs and living in poverty with a couple of children. The children are almost hypnotized by the televisio
  • Elduc in 2000
    Elduc in 2000 Eliduc In 2000 Sarah DeMoranville Prof. Gardner Ancient World Ren. Love in 20th century is entirely different from when Marie De France lived. In her time, she wrote a sweet story of two women who love the same man, Eliduc. He leaves his wife, Guildeluec to go fight in another country even though she is devastated by his decision. During his excursion he ends up with a younger woman named Guilliadun. The two fall madly in love. Ultimately, Guildeluec detects the affair and behaves
  • Marijuana
    marijuana The Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is a relatively harmless drug that governments around the world have made illegal. If legalized, marijuana can be beneficial to society in a number of ways: whether it be for medical, economic, or public safety reasons. Marijuana has been proven to treat several life debilitating, and even life threatening diseases. Although it is not a cure, marijuana can ease the pain and suffering of a dying person. Another benefit of legalization is the finan
  • Marijuana
    marijuana The Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is a relatively harmless drug that governments around the world have made illegal. If legalized, marijuana can be beneficial to society in a number of ways: whether it be for medical, economic, or public safety reasons. Marijuana has been proven to treat several life debilitating, and even life threatening diseases. Although it is not a cure, marijuana can ease the pain and suffering of a dying person. Another benefit of legalization is the finan
  • Nicotine
    Nicotine Matthew Matherne English 1002 Ms. Westmoreland 4-11-00 Tobacco “One out of three people who use tobacco will die from it.” Nearly 3,000 young Americans each day become regular smokers. Of these, 1,000 will die early from tobacco-related diseases. More Americans die due to complications from smoking than from any other major killer such as AIDS, car accidents, drug abuse and homicide. Why do so many people continue to smoke when they know the possible risks involved? Many have become add
  • The Drug Debate
    The Drug Debate The Drug Debate For over twenty years the drug debate has been argued over and over. The drug war in the United States has been historically seen as a costly, yet necessary component of public policy; a policy that has been under substantial political fire for years. As we enter a new century, many are reconsidering their feelings towards the drug war. Critics cite the billions of dollars spent every year as well as the overflowing prison problem as reasons to cut back, and even
  • Weed
    weed Marijuana is a relatively harmless drug that governments around the world have made illegal. If legalized, marijuana can be beneficial to society in a number of ways: whether it be for medical, economic, or public safety reasons. Marijuana has been proven to treat several life debilitating, and even life threatening diseases. Although it is not a cure, marijuana can ease the pain and suffering of a dying person. Another benefit of legalization is the financial gains that governments will ac
  • Where do we draw the Line
    Where do we draw the Line Kelly Deabler Written Communications II Professor Haack February 18, 2001 Where Do We Draw the Line? In Jeff Jacoby\'s essay "Bring Back Flogging," he states why he thinks that flogging should be brought back in our society today. He backs his ideas up very well as to why he thinks them. He catches the attention of the readers very well by introducing his essay with examples. The example he gives also defines what flogging means also. In his title, bring back flogging,
  • El Salvador
    El Salvador Kelly Pire 2/15/01 World Geography report El Salvador Here are historical facts on El Salvador. The history of El Salvador revolves around land. It is the smallest country in Central America. Agriculture defined the economic life of the country well before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500s. The unequal distribution of land in El Salvador can be traced directly to the Spanish colonial system, under which land title was invested in the crown. The individuals t
  • Taiwan
    taiwan Introduction It is sometimes said that the widening gap between the rich and the poor is due to the fact that capital is so easily shifted around the globe while labor, bound to family and place, is not. But there is nothing natural about this. Human beings, after all, have wandered the earth for ages - crossing oceans and continents, in search of food, land, and adventure - whereas a factory, shipyard, or office building, once built, is almost impossible to move in a cost effective way.
  • A bill
    a bill Mock Congress Bill In the House of Representatives Representative introduces the following bill, which was referred to the committee on January tenth twenty thousand and one. Section One: Cigarettes are killing the uneducated youth. This bill is targeted towards the youth and protecting them against making the terrible decision to smoke. This bill will change the amount of smokers because the bill is going to make cigarettes less a part of society and make them less desired. Section Two:
  • Njsp profiling
    njsp profiling NEW JERSEY STATE POLICE RACIAL PROFILING SEAN SILVERS PROF. ROMANO 11/6/00 Racial profiling is a law enforcement strategy that encourages police officers to stop and question African Americans simply because of their race. Although not raised as a major issue in the courtroom during the trial of the four police officers who shot Amadou Diallo (who were acquitted in February), racial profiling is often employed by police, officially and unofficially, and was likely a factor in the
  • Should Marijuana be legalized
    Should Marijuana be legalized The controversy of legalizing marijuana has been raging for quite a while in America. From some people pushing it for medical purposes to pott-heads just wanting to get high legally. Marijuana has been used for years as a popular drug for people who want to get a high. All this time it has been illegal and now it looks as if the drug may become legal. There has been heated debate by many sides giving there opinion in the issue. These people are not only left wing li
  • Dangers of Smoking
    Dangers of Smoking "According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were a little over 300,000 deaths related to AIDS in 1997. That\'s like taking half the people in Baltimore county and making them disappear. Another 75,000 died from alcohol. In addition to that, 20,000 died from illegal drug use, and 25,000 died from motor vehicle crashes. But if you were to add those numbers up, they still wouldn\'t equal the amount of deaths that were related to tobacco. In fact, each year
  • Drug abuse
    drug abuse DRUG ABUSE in the United States of America, we, the people value several things, some of which are freedom, expanding and taking care of our families and our financial security. We, the people, take such things for granted. We also discourage some behavior, such as crime, laziness and use of illegal drugs. Drug abuse is one of the most discouraged behaviors in our country. Use of illegal drugs is harmful to the user and all those with whom the user comes in contact. There are over 40
  • Drug legalization
    drug legalization Drug Education and Prevention Question #2 March 8th 2000 Will the legalization of certain drugs reduce the crime rate in the United States? This question has baffled United States lawmakers, reformists, and citizens alike for so long that many people probably consider it a rhetorical question. With this in mind, I think that the only solution would be to go to the research and see what studies would say about the dilemma. For this particular paper, I found some research that lo
  • Drugs and Alcohol
    Drugs and Alcohol One of the biggest problems people cope with today is the addiction of drugs and alcohol. The effects of taking these drugs are dangerous: domestic violence, crimes, accidents, sexual assault or becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Different studies of domestic violence show a big involvement of high quantities of alcohol and other drugs. These increase the level of aggression. Alcoholism and child abuse, including incest, seem tightly intertwined as well. Parents, being under alco
  • Ecstasy1
    Ecstasy1 1 September 2000 The Lure of Ecstasy According to the Time Magazine article ecstasy is a serious drug in America. Karen a high school student from Texas experiments with the drug before school. In Grand Rapids, Michigan takes the drug so her and husband can talk about there problems. So what is this drug “ecstasy” and where did it come from? Well according to Time it is actually MDMA. The patient was issued in 1914 to the E. Merch Company. The chemists though they could develop the drug
  • Marijuana paper
    Marijuana paper Marijuana Marijuana is an illegal narcotic drug and is a green or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. It is also known by its many slang names like pot, weed, Mary Jane, dope and chronic. The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The THC causes a series of cellular reactions with protein in certain nerve cells that lead to the high the user experiences. Most of the marijuana used in the United
  • Should you use tobacco
    should you use tobacco Should You Use Tobacco? There are about 1.5 million smokers that are age seventeen or younger. Many historians believe smoking started with the Native Americans. There are many uses of the tobacco leaf. Also there are many things to consider if you thinking about using any type of tobacco. First, one must realize there is illness associated with the use of tobacco. Secondly, the cost of using tobacco keeps going up every year and often the amount being used increases. Thir
  • The Harmful Effects of Smoking
    The Harmful Effects of Smoking The Harmful Effects of Smoking Name: Adam Newell Teacher: Dr. Delos Santos Section: 57 Date December 8, 1999 Research Paper Words: 1901 Every year thousands of people die because of lung cancer or other tobacco related illnesses. Everyone in the world comes in contact with smoke from a cigarette at least once in their lifetime, whether it is at a restaurant or at work. Millions of people are addicted to smoking, and thousands more become addicted every year. Cigare
  • TOBACCO
    TOBACCO Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. The tobacco plant is believed to have originated in the Western Hemisphere. The cultivated species most often grown for North American and European tobacco products is Nicotine Tabacum. The leaves of the plant are prepared for smoking, chewing, or sniffing. In addition nicotine tobacco contains over 45 car
  • Why do we smoke
    Why do we smoke Why do we smoke By Bryan Hesters After listening to 2 solid weeks of classroom lecture on all the negative side effects that smoking causes in the human body, I felt somewhat concerned that the habit that I have had for 10 years of my life might be a serious problem to my health, even at this young age. We spent a great deal of time discussing the negative side effects of smoking covering heart disease, cancer, and respiratory failure, but there was very little discussion given t
  • Colombia
    Colombia Violence in modern Colombia takes place in many forms. The three major categories are crime, guerrilla activities, and attacks committed by drug traffickers. Violence has become so widespread and common in Colombia that many people have now become numb to it. The Colombian economy has also benefited from the illicit drug trade; however violent it may be. During the 1970s, Colombia became well known, as one of the world’s most important drug processing, production, and distribution cente
  • Japenise internment america
    japenise internment america Senior Exhibition Draft #2 I. Introduction/Thesis Why do cigarettes remain a legal form of substance abuse, when scientific evidence gathered from around the world has proven how addictive and dangerous they are? “Tobacco dependence is a global epidemic that affects more than one billion people worldwide.” “tobacco causes 3.5 million deaths each year or about 10,000 deaths each day.” In addiction, “it is estimated that passive smoke kills 50,000 adults every year in t
  • Prejudice
    Prejudice Watkins v. United States (1957) 354 U.S. 178 Facts: Watkins was subpoenaed to testify in a congressional hearing to investigate alleged wrong doings of the Attorney General and the department of justice. Throughout the questioning the congressional committee asked questions that could result in Watkins incriminating himself because of his political beliefs. Due to this Watkins evoked his 5th Amendment right not to answer the question. By doing so the congressional committee indicted hi
  • Reagans Popularity
    Reagans Popularity Ronald Reagan presided over the United States from 1981 to 1989. Even though the country was experiencing major economic and social problems, he was popular for the majority of the time he was in office. Throughout his presidency, he and his administration worked continuously to build his image as a true American. Partially because of his image, the public ignored the rise in unemployment, the drop in salaries, the increase of people living in poverty, the increase of children
  • Antilegalization of Marijuana
    antilegalization of Marijuana Dear Congressman, I am honored to be writing to you on such a significant topic of national concern. Average citizens are annoyed and just plain fatigued with the drugs and crime problems in America. These upright citizens, that contribute to the growth of American society, are being told that legalization is a reasonable alternative to dealing with these problems in their communities. Legalization of any drug is not a positive way to fight crime. In fact, there is
  • Community policing1
    community policing1 American Me is a harsh look at the "reality" of prison and gang life, especially within the Chicano community. Based on a "true story", American Me traces the life of a Latino crime lord, Santana, from his youth growing up in the barrio of East Los Angeles, through his rise to power behind the walls of Folso Prison. Set against a backdrop of hopelessness and prejudice the movie brutally attempts to portray the continuing cycle of violence inherent within a crime-based life-st
  • Crime and Drug Use misc0
    Crime and Drug Use misc0 The link between drug use and crime is not a new one. For more than twenty years, both the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Justice have funded many studies to try to better understand the connection. One such study was done in Baltimore on heroin users. This study found high rates of criminality among users during periods of active drug use, and much lower rates during periods of nonuse (Ball et al. 1983, pp.119-142). A large number of peop
  • Crime and Drug Use misc1
    Crime and Drug Use misc1 Crime and Drug Use federal tax dollars to fund these therapeutic communities in prisons. I feel that if we teach these prisoners some self-control and alternative lifestyles that we can keep them from reentering the prisons once they get out. I am also going to describe some of today’s programs that have proven to be very effective. Gottfredson and Hirschi developed the general theory of crime. It According to their theory, the criminal act and the criminal offender are
  • Criminal procedure
    criminal procedure Question # 1 The overall issue is whether the offered evidence obtained by the State in the robbery trial of Andy and Bob should be suppressed. The first issue is whether Officer Short had probable cause to stop the VW bug. When a police officer has probable cause to believe that a suspect has committed a crime, the officer makes an arrest. An arrest may occur either with or without a warrant (most are made without a warrant). Arrest usually involves taking the suspect into cu
  • Drug legalization
    drug legalization The debate over drugs and drug legalization is an increasingly important political issue as we proceed into the twenty-first century. It is important that we proceed into this era with a keen sense of direction on this issue. Whether we increase our current laws or we proceed in the direction legalization. It is obvious that some reformation of our current policy is needed. But, the drug legalization debate is not a issue that should only concern our political officials and law
  • Drug legalization
    drug legalization The debate over drugs and drug legalization is an increasingly important political issue as we proceed into the twenty-first century. It is important that we proceed into this era with a keen sense of direction on this issue. Whether we increase our current laws or we proceed in the direction legalization. It is obvious that some reformation of our current policy is needed. But, the drug legalization debate is not a issue that should only concern our political officials and law