Foreign aid Essay

This essay has a total of 1729 words and 9 pages.


foreign aid







Since the 90’s, the Western governments have increased their interest in funding
civil society in Africa to promote democratization. This discussion paper examines how a
range of foreign donors, including Western Governments, multilateral agencies and Non-
Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) have developed “civil society” in Ghana, South
Africa and Uganda. Other important assistance comes from Civil Society Organizations
(CSO’s) to assist in basic provisions for food health and shelters.
The three countries discussed in this essay are viewed as models by the Western World
since they are amongst the African nations that receive the most foreign aid. For example,
in 1995 South Africa was the second largest African recipient of US aid after Egypt; Ghana
was the seventh-largest recipient of US aid; and Uganda was the ninth-largest recipient in
1997. Uganda is Denmark’s top aid recipient worldwide and was the UK’s
second-largest African aid recipient and Ghana was its fifth-largest African aid recipient
in 1997.

The single most favored area of US civil society assistance is that of advocacy
NGO’s, such as human rights groups and election monitoring organizations that seek
to influence governmental policy on some specific set of issues. National organizations
that receive the most support from donors include the following kinds of groups:
women’s organizations, rights/legal aid groups, think tanks, development NGO forums,
business associations, governance/democracy NGO’s, youth and student organizations,
conflict resolution groups and professional media associations. They are mostly those
concerned with supporting political liberalization, those concerned with promoting
economic liberalization and those supporting the rights and political participation of
particular socially excluded groups, such as rural women or the urban poor. Donors are not
funding the popular sectors of society, but are strengthening a new African elite commited
to the promotion of a limited form of democracy and structural-adjustment-type economic
policies in partnership with the west. This raises two crucial questions: How important is
this civil society in relation with political parties, religious movements or the
military, and how effective can it be?

The first types of donors are the ones that strengthen the position of the civil society
in relation to the state. The World Bank has played an important role in a two day
National Economic Forum in 1997, bringing together over 150 organizations and
institutions. The second form of donors for civil society is through funding the programs
and strengthening the capacity of individual organizations. Such support ranges from
funding research, parliamentary lobbying, public education campaigns and conferences to
training and paying an organization’s overheads. In South Africa, the Free Market
Foundation received nearly 1$ million in 1997 from the United States for the promotion of
economic policies in the South African parliament and administration. In Ghana, USAID
proposes to spend 6$ million over five years to build the local civil society
organizations through training in organizational management and lobbying skills.

The leading donor in aid to civil society worldwide is the United States. The United
States is responsible for 85% of total civil society assistance and spent over 100$
million on civil society support in 1993 and 1994 alone, equivalent to one third of its
political aid spending. Two important factors explain US dominance in this area. First is
the place of democracy promotion within the international role of the United States.
Second is the variation in emphasis amongst donors in their democracy promotion. The
British Government promotes good government as one of its core objectives, yet much of its
work is directed at public sector reform and enhanced competence of government. Sweden
emphasizes human rights within its democracy assistance. In contrast, the United States
emphasizes civil society. In addition to three direct governmental channels, a host of US
NGO’s are involved in distributing government funds, the most important of which is
the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). Although the NED’s budget was only one
tenth of USAID’s budget for democracy assistance, the NED is highly significant.
“It is a focal point for democracy promotion activities around the world and the
catalyst to a worldwide democratic movement activists, intellectuals and NED-type
political foundations. In South Africa, the United States has played an important role
since the 1980’s in shaping civil society. Between 1985 and 1993 it provided 338$
million in aid, all of it to NGO’s. Like other Western governments, the United
States has shifted its distribution of aid more evenly between governments and voluntary
sectors since the election of Mandela in 1994. In 1997, 52% of overall US aid was to the
government. However, it also has an important program that supports “watchdog”
organizations to monitor the government. Since 1996 it has provided 1$ million to each of
three of South Africa’s most prominent CSO’s to undertake this monitoring
function. The maturing of multi-party democracy is very important for the United Sates
policies in Ghana, and it provided the largest donor contribution to the December 1996
presidential and parliamentary elections. Its second aim is to hold workshops in
Ghana’s ten regions, which fund predominantly urban professional groups. In Uganda,
US civil society assistance is less developed than in Ghana and South Africa. The main
reason is because following twenty years of civil war and a million of deaths, when
Museveni came to power in 1986, the US priority was to rebuild the economy of the country
and the organs of the government, including a new constitution.

Although the World Bank is different from other donors, primarily providing loans to
member governments, its lead position in the donor community provides it with a powerful
role supporting civil society. Ghana is the World Bank’s largest program in Africa.
Between 1993 and 1995, the bank provided one third of the country’s total aid. In
Uganda over the same period, World Bank lending accounted for nearly one quarter of the
country’s overall aid. Although the World Bank’s lending program is very small
Continues for 5 more pages >>




  • Agent Orange
    Agent Orange In 1962, the United States Military began to use a potentially toxic chemical known as Agent Orange. The toxic chemical was used a defoliant to destroy crops and eliminate ground cover during the Vietnam War. Vietnamese troops would hide underneath the thick forest and make it impossible for United States troops to spot them. So in 1962 the Army began using Agent Orange as a way of eliminating that problem. The government had very little knowledge about the deadly chemical but went
  • Causes for american revolution
    causes for american revolution In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, Britain needed a new imperial design, but the situation in America was anything but favorable to change. Long accustomed to a large measure of independence, the colonies were demanding more, not less, freedom, particularly now that the French menace had been eliminated. To put a new system into effect, and to tighten control, Parliament had to contend with colonists trained in self-government and impatient with interfe
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Cuban missile crisis
    cuban missile crisis Many agree that the Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war; but exactly how close did it come? The Crisis was ultimately a showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union from October 16 to October 28, 1962. During those thirteen stressful days, the world’s two biggest superpowers stood on the brink of a nuclear catastrophe. The Crisis started as a result of both the Soviet Union’s fear of losing the arms race, and Cuba’s fear of US i
  • Did america do enought to help the jews in the hol
    did america do enought to help the jews in the holocaust Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in th Description of this essay : Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gypsy. When they came for the Jew Western Civilization - World War II Did the Western World do enough for the Jews in the Holocaust "When they came for the gypsies, I did not speak, for I am not a gyps
  • Doc Holliday
    Doc Holliday American West, Term Paper “Doc” Holliday: A man in search of normality. John Henry Holliday, perhaps one of the most legendary gunfighters of the west, lived in reality a life built on necessity and simply followed it and made due with the blows that were dealt to him. Born August 14, 1851 to Alice and Henry Holliday, John Henry Holliday entered the world already at a disadvantage with a serious birth defect. The defect known as a cleft palate and a partially cleft lip, basically ma
  • FDRs Influence as president
    FDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
  • Image and Reality
    Image and Reality Valery Potakh Mr. Anderson US History 1A, P.7 24 November 1998 Image and Reality In the years since the thousand days many questions have been raised and are still being studied about John F. Kennedy. A Life of John F. Kennedy: A Question of Character is a book written by Thomas C. Reeves, in which Reeves discusses these issues. JFK was a great man, and yet there are still some things that one must take into consideration. His morality was always somewhat of an uncertainty; be
  • John F Kennedy Jr
    John F Kennedy Jr John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest president ever to be elected, the first Roman Catholic president, and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Although, he didn\'t get the chance to live out his term and possible another one, he impacted the entire world. No other president was so popular, especially with the young people. John F. Kennedy was born May 29th, 1917, child of Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy. John had ei
  • John locke
    john locke John Locke John Locke was an English philosopher and political theorist during the 1600s. He was also the founder of British empiricism. He is known for his great contribution to the Enlightenment period, in which he gave people the idea of natural rights and a government that protects those rights. John Locke also wrote a famous essay called Concerning Human Understanding and attacked the theory of divine right of kings in Two Treatises of Government. John Locke was a very important
  • Lincolns Journey to Emancipation
    Lincolns Journey to Emancipation Lincoln’s Journey to Emancipation He comes to us in the mists of legend as a kind of homespun Socrates, brimming with prarie wit and folk wisdom. There is a counterlegend of Lincoln, one shared ironically enough by many white Southerners and certain black Americans of our time. Neither of these views, of course, reveals much about the man who really lived--legend and political interpretations seldom do. As a man, Lincoln was complex, many-sided, and richly human.
  • Native americans
    native americans American Indian Wars There is perhaps a tendency to view the record of the military in terms of conflict, that may be why the U.S. Armys operational experience in the quarter century following the Civil War became known as the Indian wars. Previous struggles with the Indian, dating back to colonial times, had been limited. There was a period where the Indian could withdraw or be pushed into vast reaches of uninhabited and as yet unwanted territory in the west. By 1865 the safet
  • Native americans
    native americans American Indian Wars There is perhaps a tendency to view the record of the military in terms of conflict, that may be why the U.S. Armys operational experience in the quarter century following the Civil War became known as the Indian wars. Previous struggles with the Indian, dating back to colonial times, had been limited. There was a period where the Indian could withdraw or be pushed into vast reaches of uninhabited and as yet unwanted territory in the west. By 1865 the safet
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The Dredd Scott Decision
    The Dredd Scott Decision INTRODUCTION United States Supreme Court case Scott v. Sanford (1857), commonly known as the Dred Scott Case, is probably the most famous case of the nineteenth century (with the exception possibly of Marbury v. Madison). It is one of only four cases in U. S. history that has ever been overturned by a Constitutional amendment (overturned by the 13th and 14th Amendments). It is also, along with Marbury, one of only two cases prior to the Civil War that declared a federal
  • Truman
    Truman Harry S. Truman. ”Early Life Harry S. Truman, the oldest of three children born to Martha Ellen Young Truman and John Anderson Truman, was born in his family’s small frame house in Lamar, Missouri, in 1884. Truman had no middle name; his parents apparently gave him the middle initial S. because two family relatives names started with that letter. When Truman was six years old, his family moved to Independence, Missouri, where he attended the Presbyterian Church Sunday school. There he met
  • Washington irving
    washington irving Irving, Washington (1783-1859), American writer, the first American author to achieve international renown, who created the fictional characters Rip Van Winkle and Ichabod Crane. The critical acceptance and enduring popularity of Irving\'s tales involving these characters proved the effectiveness of the as an American literary form. Born in New York City, Irving studied law at private schools. After serving in several law offices and traveling in Europe for his health from 1804
  • Westward expansionin nineteenth century
    westward expansionin nineteenth century THE WESTWARD EXPANSION Introduction The Westward Expansion has often been regarded as the central theme of American history, down to the end of the19th century and as the main factor in the shaping of American history. As Frederick Jackson Turner says, the greatest force or influence in shaping American democracy and society had been that there was so much free land in America and this profoundly affected American society. Motives After the revolution, the
  • William mckinley
    william mckinley William McKinley Twenty-Fifth President 1897-1901 Born: 1/29/1843 Birthplace: Niles, Ohio William McKinley was born in Niles, Ohio, on Jan. 29, 1843. He taught school, then served in the Civil War, rising from the ranks to become a major. McKinley opened a law office in Canton, Ohio, and in 1871 married Ida Saxton. Elected to Congress in 1876, he served there until 1891, except for 1883–85. His faithful advocacy of business interests culminated in the passage of the highly prote
  • Aztec Indains
    Aztec Indains The Aztec Indians, who are known for their domination of southern and central Mexico, ruled between the 14th and 16th centuries. They built a great empire and developed very modernized ways of doing things. They had phenomenal architectural skills and waterway systems. The Aztec Indians also had very developed social class and government systems and practiced a form of religion. To begin with, the Aztecs were very skilled in the art of Architecture and waterway systems. “An example
  • Colonialism
    Colonialism The Tiger and The Virgin Colonialism has often spread to areas where it is economically valuable for the colonizer to develop. South America was one of these places. First came the Spanish for gold, then for rubber. As colonization took place two cultures met, thinking they were opposites, but in reality they were very much connected to one another, their histories were now tied together. In considering the question of how Indians have developed their healing practices and spiritual
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
    Frank Lloyd Wright The way you live is being directly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright’s innovations in residential architecture. Mr. Wright’s “organic architecture” was a radical departure form the traditional architecture of his day, which was dominated by European styles that dated back hundreds of years or even millennia. He contributed the Prairie and Usonian houses to the familiar of American residential design, and elements of his designs can be found in a large proportion of homes today.
  • Privatization of Airports
    Privatization of Airports For 51 years Bergstrom Air Force Base was home to fighter pilots, bombers, troop carriers and reconnaissance jets. It was the first port of call for President Lyndon B. Johnson on his trips home to LBJ Country aboard Air Force One, it was where Chuck Yeager, the first pilot to break the sound barrier, once brought a disabled jet to rest in an emergency landing. In September 1993, in the path of military cutbacks Bergstrom Air Force Base was closed. But the timing was fo
  • Booker T Washington1
    Booker T Washington1 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON Booker Taliaferro Washington was the foremost black educator of the later 19th and early 20th centuries. He also had a major influence on the southern race relations and was the dominant figure in black public affairs from 1895 until his death in 1915. Born a slave on a small farm in the Virginia back country, he moved with his family after emancipation to work in the salt furnaces and coal mines of West Virginia. After a secondary education at Hampton I
  • Dwight D Eisenhower
    Dwight D Eisenhower Dwight D Eisenhower was our thirty-fourth president, serving from 1953 to 1961. He was born in Texas in 1890, and brought up in Abilene, Kansas. He was very good in sports in High school and recieved an appointment to West Point. He was stationed in Texas as second lieutenant where he met Mamie Geneva Doud, whom he married in 1916. He excelled at many staff assignments and served under the guidance of many great generals. After Pearl Harbor he was called to Washington for a w
  • The world has known many great leaders, especially
    FDR The world has known many great leaders, especially in the post-Civil War era. Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Harry Truman all rank with the most prominent leaders of all time. However, in my opinion President Franklin Roosevelt made the most difference out of anybody in this century. He began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had succumbed to in 1929. Without him ending the Depression, who knows where this country could have gone?
  • FDRs influence as president
    FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
  • Grant
    Grant Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was an American general and 18th president of the U.S. Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, the son of Hannah Simpson and Jesse Grant, the owner of a tannery. Taken to nearby Georgetown at the age of one, he was educated in local and boarding schools. In 1839, under the name of Ulysses Simpson instead of his original Hiram Ulysses, he was appointed to West Point. Graduating 21st in a class of 39 in 1843, he was assigned to Jefferson B
  • Oliver cromwell
    oliver cromwell Tom Hyde 5/11/00 Rough Draft Cromwell Sir Oliver Cromwell was a strong and well-outspoken person. Though he came from an average middle-class family. He became a member of parliament in 1640; he used his resources such as fellow parliament relatives to be elected. He became active in parliament with subjects on religion and They’re where three major characteristics of Cromwell’s childhood. They were his social connections, his parents, and his schooling. Cromwell’s family was nei
  • The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Tel
    The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Alexander Graham Bell is remembered today as the inventor of the telephone, but he was also an outstanding teacher of the deaf and a prolific inventor of other devices. Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a family of speech educators. His father, Melville Bell, had invented Visible Speech, a code of symbols for all spoken sounds that was used in teaching deaf people to speak. Aleck Bell studied at Edi
  • All Quiet On the Western Front Report
    All Quiet On the Western Front Report BARRON\'S BOOK NOTES ERICH MARIA REMARQUE\'S ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT ^^^^^^^^^^ERICH MARIA REMARQUE: THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Born Erich Paul Remark on June 22, 1898, he grew up in a Roman Catholic family in Osnabruck in the province of Westphalia, Germany--a city in the northwest part of what is now West Germany. He adored his mother, Anna Maria, but was never close to his father, Peter. The First World War effectively shut him off from his sisters,
  • Bookreport waller the bridge of madison county
    bookreport waller the bridge of madison county Book Report-Part 1 I will tell you the name and the author of the book and who the main characters are in this paragraph. Robert James Waller wrote the book, The Bridge of Madison County. There are two main characters in the book. One of the main character’s names is Robert Kincaid and the other is Francesca Johnson. In this paragraph I will tell you about Robert Kincaid and a little about his personality. Robert was a photographer for National Geog
  • Handmaids Tale
    Handmaids Tale The nature of Offred’s lost identity is very drastic. Before the new religious group of Gilead took over the world she was a very normal every day woman. She did what was expected of her time and continued to do so after the take over. She had a husband and a daughter who she loved very much. But the new society which she lives in love is not permitted. " If I thought that this would happen again I would die. But this is wrong, nobody dies from lack of sex. It’s lack of love we di
  • Problems In Chinas Economy
    Problems In Chinas Economy Problems In China¡¯s Economy And Their Solutions Today, at the turn of the century, the People¡¯s Republic of China who has a history of over 5000 years is facing a very important choice. After the revolution of 1949,new China has devoted himself to improving his peoples¡¯ living condition, and developing the economy. Although we encountered some difficulties on the way of development, we still make a rapid progress in many fields, such as, we have already solve the p
  • East Indiam Company
    East Indiam Company The Company The East India Company is a modern, dynamic commercial enterprise with a wealth of experience and contacts, and associates throughout the world. Founded by the Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth the First in 1600, The East India Company was once the single most powerful economic force that the world has ever seen. Based in London, its influence reached out to all continents, and the consequences of its actions, both great and small, are the very fabric of history it
  • European Union
    European Union Assignment on the European Union 1. Winston Churchill took the first step towards a European Union in 1946; he called for a "United States of Europe". This Union was going to be very strong, and it has developed some very important decisions since 1946. In 1948, the Congress of Europe brought all the European movements together in The Hague. The first really big change that EU accomplished took place in 1950. The Treaty of Rome was signed and that was the beginning of EEC, the Eur
  • The Battle in Seattle
    The Battle in Seattle The last time the World Trade Organization had a major meeting, it was in Singapore, and now we know why. Singapore, of course, is the city-state that accords near-perfect freedom to banks and corporations while jailing political activists and caning messy tenants and people who chew gum in public. When WTO ministers gathered in Singapore in 1997, their business was unimpeded by any outside agitators. (Or, for that matter, any internal dissidents: Advocates for worker right
  • Fall of russian communism
    fall of russian communism The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let\'s not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics a
  • Russian Economy
    Russian Economy The global economy has been brought about through innovation, technology and de-regulation. To the extent the government prints more Rubles than the equivalent of the hard currencies earned on exports, it will lower the real exchange rate value of the Ruble. In effect the government makes itself a forced partner of anyone with Rubles, whenever it prints Rubles for which there was no corresponding production of goods. By laws and policies it transfer this money from the poor to th
  • TRADE AND BARTER IN ANCIENT GREECE
    TRADE AND BARTER IN ANCIENT GREECE TRADE AND BARTER IN ANCIENT GREECE: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- When we discuss the economics of the ancient world, we must be careful not to use the formal Economics which we employ in analyzing our own society, since Economics is a function of the way a society runs, not the set of rules under which a given society operates. We cannot remove ourselves from awareness of the economic disciplines which our sch
  • Education
    education Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served as educators throughout h
  • Role of Entertainers as Educators
    Role of Entertainers as Educators Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served a
  • Role of Entertainers as Educators1
    Role of Entertainers as Educators1 Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served
  • 19849
    19849 1984:The Quintessential Negative Utopia (Or How to become really depressed about the future of the human condition in 267 pages or less.) 1984 is George Orwell\'s arguably his most famous novel, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever made against the dangers of a totalitarian society. George Orwell was primarily a political novelist as a result of his life experiences. In Spain, Germany, and Russia, Orwell had seen for himself the peril of absolute political authority in an
  • A Letter From Birmingham Jail An Outsider in the U
    A Letter From Birmingham Jail An Outsider in the US Outsider in the U.S. Martin Luther King Jr.\'s essay, A Letter From Birmingham Jail has become a classic for good reason. Martin Luther King was an excellent writer and speaker, appealing not only to the logical side of most people, but also to their emotional side. He was an intelligent man, keeping up with all the current events of not only the nation but the world, and was well read in issues of the past. What he said and wrote came from dee
  • Absalom
    Absalom Absalom, Absalom! by William Faulkner is the story of a man who outraged the land that then turned and destroyed the man’s family (Serafin 356). Growing up as a poor mountain white, Thomas Sutpen yearns for more than what he has ever had. He marries a young woman and fathers a son, but soon after it is revealed to him that his wife has Negro blood. Abandoning his new wife and child, Sutpen leaves to create a life for himself of wealth, family, and social acceptance. Thomas Sutpen marries
  • Contrast of Romeo and Juliet an West Side Story
    Contrast of Romeo and Juliet an West Side Story Contrast of Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story Essay submitted by Bob Garrard Three Hundred Fifty Years of Blind Love: A Contraposition of Shakespeare and Robbins’ Romeo and Juliet Andy Warhol once said, "They say that time changes things, but actually you have to change them yourself." Two hundred fifty years passed between the original Romeo and Juliet and the premiere of West Side Story on Broadway in 1957. However, time did not change the mes
  • Crane
    Crane Crane’s Use of Companionship, Through the Effects of Nature, in The Open Boat and Red Badge of Courage In both of these stories, The Open Boat and The Red Badge of Courage, Stephen Crane uses the theme of companionship. The way in which he uses this theme differs in some ways but are also comparable in both stories. In both stories, it is evident that the men all need each other, both mentally and physically. Without one another, it would be inevitable that each and every one of the charac
  • Crane Open Boat
    Crane Open Boat Crane’s Use of Companionship, Through the Effects of Nature, in The Open Boat and Red Badge of Courage In both of these stories, The Open Boat and The Red Badge of Courage, Stephen Crane uses the theme of companionship. The way in which he uses this theme differs in some ways but are also comparable in both stories. In both stories, it is evident that the men all need each other, both mentally and physically. Without one another, it would be inevitable that each and every one of