GENETIC ENGINEERING OF COTTON FOR INSECT RESISTANC Essay

This essay has a total of 1265 words and 8 pages.


GENETIC ENGINEERING OF COTTON FOR INSECT RESISTANCE





GENETIC ENGINEERING OF COTTON FOR INSECT RESISTANCE

The DNA code mostly contains instructions for protein synthesis. The code is read in
groups of three nucleotides and each triplet of nucleotides codes for one of the twenty
amino acids which link together in a polypeptide chain to form a protein. The code is
universal, so the same code applies in nearly all living organisms. Some triplets have
special functions and direct protein synthesis to start or stop. Protein synthesis occurs
in ribosomes where a copy of the gene coding for a protein (mRNA) is translated to produce
a protein. Some proteins may be consist of several polypeptide chains and the genes
required to do this are collectively called a transcription unit.

Fig. 2 Diagram showing how genes code for proteins














Bacterium also contain small circular loops of DNA called plasmids which are not essential
to the bacterium but can be useful in certain environmental conditions such as resistance
to antibiotics. Because bacterium are prokaryotic and don’t have a nucleus
plasmids are easy to obtain in pure form and can be introduced into other cells. Plasmids
are also capable of independent self-replication, which makes them useful in multiplying
useful DNA.

Bacteria also produce restriction enzymes, which can cut DNA at specific base sequences.
Different restriction enzymes cut different base sequences and some make staggered cuts
which leaves unpaired DNA (“sticky ends”) and other cut leaving no unpaired
DNA (“blunt ends”).



Techniques used in genetically engineering cotton for insect resistance
The first step in inserting the Bt gene into the cotton plant is determining the Bt
protein’s amino acid sequence. Using the principles of the genetic code it is
possible to construct a complementary DNA sequence called and oligonucleotide using an
automated DNA synthesiser.

This oligonucleotide can then be used as a DNA probe to isolate the DNA from the Bascillus
thuringiensis. It is made radioactive and when inserted into the bacteria it hybridises
(attaches to the complementary base pairing) with the DNA sequence that codes for the Bt
protein. The DNA binding to the probe becomes radioactive so it can be detected by x-ray
film.

Fig. 3 DNA probe production











The gene is then isolated from the bacterium by using restriction enzymes and multiplyed
in the bacterium E. coli through gene cloning. The gene is first inserted into a plasmid
from E. coli containing a gene coding for resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and
neomycin. The plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzyme as used to cut the
Bascillus thuringiensis’ DNA. The restriction enzyme cuts both the DNA and the
plasmid leaving sticky ends on the resulting fragments that enable the Bt gene to be
incorporated into the plasmid. The complementary ends pair and the enzyme DNA ligase is
used to join them together.

Fig. 4 Bt gene insertion into E. coli plasmid
The plasmid is then introduced into the E. coli cells by transformation. The E. coli
cells that take-up the new plasmid then can be identified by their resistance to the
antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. The E. coli replicates the plasmids so that a single
cell may contain hundreds of identical copies.

After the plasmids containing the Bt gene have been multiplied the Bt toxin gene is then
isolated again and is inserted into a plasmid of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumafacien
using the same techniques as used to insert the Bt gene into the E. coli. This plasmid is
Continues for 4 more pages >>




  • Parasitic wasps
    Parasitic wasps Introduction Malaria is one of the most prevalent and dangerous diseases known to man. It has existed for centuries and affects a myriad of people in the tropical region. Even today, with our newly discovered treatments for many of the tropical diseases, over 10% of the people that are infected with malaria each year and do not receive proper treatment die. In Africa alone, over 1 million children die each year because of malaria and new cases are reported frequently. Malaria is
  • Spiders
    Spiders Spiders This report deals with testing the toxicity of certain chemicals on spiders, and determining the toxicity by how it affects it’s ability to weave it’s web. This report contains research on the four chemicals (benzedrine, chloral hydrate, caffeine, and alcohol) as wellas the spiders and their webs. Spiders are of course found in the class Arachnidia, which also contain mites, scorpions, and other arthropods. The order which spiders are classified under is called Araneae, a word of
  • Dove
    dove ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA reproduction process by which organisms replicate themselves. In a general sense reproduction is one of the most important concepts in biology: it means making a copy, a likeness, and thereby providing for the continued existence of species. Although reproduction is often considered solely in terms of the production of offspring in animals and plants, the more general meaning has far greater significance to living organisms. To appreciate this fact, the origin of lif
  • Dna Computing The Future or the End
    Dna Computing The Future or the End DNA Computing, The Future or the End? The future of computers is in the hands of the next century. The evolution of the Computer Age has become a part of everyday life, and as time proceeds, people are depending more and more on computer technology. From controlling a small wrist watch to the largest super-computers that can calculated the center of the universe, computers are essential for everyone in modern societies. Even most societies outside of the civil
  • Genetic Engineering
    Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n
  • Ocean water
    ocean water Outline 1. Introduction to open water waste disposal. 2. Introduction of oil into marine environments. 1. Effects upon environment. 2. Effects upon living organisms. 3. Introduction of plastics/pollutants into marine environments. 1. Effects upon living organisms. 4. Possible solutions to waste disposal into our water systems. 1. Military applications. 2. Research and developments. 5. Conclusion The oceans and the life they sustain have had enough. They can no longer endure the unwan
  • Genetics
    Genetics Genetics: Issues of IVF, screening, pre-selection, genetic testing, cloning and the social implications. James Watson once said, “We used to think that our fate was in our stars. Now we know that, in large measure, our fate is in our Genes” (Jaroff 1998). On June 26th 2000, The Human Genome Project will unveil its rough draft mapping of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences within the human chromosomes (genetic code), to the public. The project has been ongoing since the late eighti
  • Sail Study Help only
    Sail Study Help only On the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836) Darwin collected and described thousands of animals and plants. In South America he observed the adaptations of organisms to a variety of habitat from jungle to grassland to mountain habitats. In the temperate regions the species resembled more closely the species of the tropical regions of South America rather than the corresponding species of the temperate regions of Europe. For example, in the grasslands of Argentina there are no ra
  • Ali KHAN
    Ali KHAN Introduction: Why the Theory of Evolution? Some of the people who have heard of "the theory of evolution" or "Darwinism", may think that these concepts only concern the field of biology and that they have no significance in their everyday lives. This is a big misconception because far more than a biological concept, the theory of evolution constitutes the underpinnings of a dishonest philosophy that has held sway over a great number of people. That philosophy is "materialism", which hol
  • Biology outline
    biology outline BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energ
  • Evolution2
    evolution2 INTRODUCTION Theories explaining biological evolution have been bandied about since the ancient Greeks, but it was not until the Enlightment of the 18th century that widespread acceptance and development of this theory emerged. In the mid 19th century english naturalist Charles Darwin - who has been called the "father of evolution" - conceived of the most comprehensive findings about organic evolution ever1. Today many of his principles still entail modern interpretation of evolution.
  • Lucy
    Lucy When he was in high school, Donald Johanson was told by his guidance counselor to forget about going to college. The only son of a widowed immigrant mother who worked as a cleaning lady, Johanson had done so poorly on his SATs that the counselor did not believe he was capable of performing college-level work. Now, Dr. Donald C. Johanson is one of the world\'s leading and America\'s best known paleoanthropologists. (Ann Online) His dramatic discovery, in 1974, of LUCY our oldest, most comple
  • Math as it Relates to Biology
    Math as it Relates to Biology Mathematics as it relates to Biology Mathematics and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of “Why do we need to know these things?” has been asked of a teacher by his or her students. The following will explain the history and purpose of mathematics in the role of a biologist. There are various fields that are found within the subject of bio
  • Nanotechnology
    nanotechnology Computers reproduce information at almost no cost. A push is well underway to invent devices that manufacture at almost no cost, by treating atoms discretely, like computers treat bits of information. This would allow automatic construction of consumer goods without traditional labor, like a Xerox machine produces unlimited copies without a human retyping the original information. Electronics is fueled by miniaturization. Working smaller has led to the tools capable of manipulatin
  • TRYPSIN LAB
    TRYPSIN LAB Title: The Effects of Substrate Concentration and Temperature on the Rate of Hydrolysis of the Enzyme Trypsin. Abstract: Quantitative measurements can relate both temperature and substrate concentration to the enzymatic activity of trypsin. By analyzing the data, it is suggested that at BAPNA concentrations below those corresponding to Vmax are rate limiting, as less active sights are available for adhesion. The values of Vmax and Km relate a temperate catalytic efficiency of trypsin
  • Errh
    errh Human Disease IINTRODUCTION Human Disease, in medicine, any harmful change that interferes with the normal appearance, structure, or function of the body or any of its parts. Since time immemorial, disease has played a role in the history of societies. It has affected-and been affected by-economic conditions, wars, and natural disasters. Indeed, the impact of disease can be far greater than better-known calamities. An epidemic of influenza that swept the globe in 1918 killed between 20 mill
  • BIO OUTLINE
    BIO OUTLINE BIOLOGY 220 OUTLINE SECTION II Text: Essential Cell Biology I. Opening Comments (Chapter 3) A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES. II. Basic Principles of Energy A. Energy - Basics Principles 1. Define Energy -
  • Biology Book Report
    Biology Book Report CHP 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES AND BONDS Define element, atom, compound, molecule, and trace element. ELEMENT: a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. COMPOUND: a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. MOLECULE: two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds TRACE ELEMENTS: those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Give the mass, charge, and location of each sub-atomic particle. NEUTRON: Mass
  • Biology Molecule
    Biology Molecule Unit 1 -man is high 50s to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 1) intracellular - 28 litres 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% 3) blood plasma - 3 litres - 20% -women contain less water than men -organisms can contain 60-80% water -bacteria have lots of water -fat cells have little -waters properties result from its structure and molecular interactions -water is polar -polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical shape give it opposite char
  • Cancer1
    Cancer1 The Ins and Outs of Cancer Cancer has affected the lives of each and every one of us alive today. Many people have know someone with cancer, yet even those who haven’t have been bombarded with constant reminders of its terrible threat. Although cancer is often referred to as a single condition, it actually consists of more than 100 different diseases, all characterized by the uncontrolled growth, reproduction, and spread of abnormal body cells. All of these diseases are individually uniq
  • Cancer1
    Cancer1 The Ins and Outs of Cancer Cancer has affected the lives of each and every one of us alive today. Many people have know someone with cancer, yet even those who haven’t have been bombarded with constant reminders of its terrible threat. Although cancer is often referred to as a single condition, it actually consists of more than 100 different diseases, all characterized by the uncontrolled growth, reproduction, and spread of abnormal body cells. All of these diseases are individually uniq
  • Construction of a Geneticis
    Construction of a Geneticis The Construction of a Geneticist I. A. The construction of a geneticist follows a difficult path of education, preparation, and hard work. B. Genetic Engineering C. Scope 1- accomplishments 2- job description 3- education 4- opportunities 5- future 6- (interview) - Personal insight - Attraction to job II. Background III. Accomplishments IV. Job Description & Opportunities V. Education & salary VI. Interview -Attraction, Personal Insight -Future VII. Conclusion- Why I
  • Dna gel electrophorosis
    Dna gel electrophorosis Introduction: DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule which determines inherited structure of a protein. The “steps” are made of bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The sides are sugar and phosphate molecules. Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut DNA at restriction sites, leaving fragments blunt or sticky. The restriction fragments are separated using a technique called gel electrophoresis. DNA has a negative charge
  • Evolution2
    Evolution2 Evolution, a process of change through time, is what links together the enormous diversity of the living world. A lot of evidence is present that indicates that the earth has had a very long history and that all living things arose in the course of that history from earlier, more simpler forms. In other words, all species have descended from other species and all living things share common ancestors in the past. Basically, organisms are what they are because of their history. Today th
  • Genetic Engineering right or wrong
    Genetic Engineering right or wrong Genetic Engineering. Right or Wrong? Genetic engineering has been one of the most controversial ethical issues since 1997; when Dolly the first successfully cloned sheep was announced. Dolly has redefined the meaning of ?dentical twin? not only does she look exactly like her mother she also has the same genetic make up. This experiment was not only impossible but unthinkable. Yet, Dr. Ian Wilmut revealed Dolly on February 23, 1997, at seven months old ( Travis
  • Genetic Engineering The Frontier
    Genetic Engineering The Frontier Genetic Engineering: The Frontier Science is a still somewhat obscure creature that continues to evolve, radically changing the face of mankind perhaps faster than it’s creator. The magnificent world of science has witnessed many profound breakthroughs and advances in this past century, but none as noteworthy as genetic engineering. As a subset of the more general subject of biotechnology, genetic engineering is “the process of altering genetic material by purpos
  • Genetic Engineering1
    Genetic Engineering1 Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be
  • Genetic Engineering1
    Genetic Engineering1 Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be
  • Genetic Engineering2
    Genetic Engineering2 Science is a source that continues to radically improve the state of mankind. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply affect our lives, as genetic engineering will certainly do. Genetic engineering is a safe and powerful tool that will bring forth amazing results, specifically in the field of medicine. It will bring in a world where gene defects, bacterial disease, and even agin
  • Human Genome Project
    Human Genome Project What is the Human Genome Project? The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international research program designed to construct detailed genetic and physical maps of the human genome, to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of human DNA, to localize the estimated 80,000 genes within the human genome, and to perform similar analyses on the genomes of several other organisms used extensively in research laboratories as model systems. This project is estimated to take 15 year
  • Mad cow
    mad cow Who would of thought that eating hamburgers, steaks and drinking milk could produce an epidemic disease? These types of food are frequently eaten for their appealing tastes and nutritional values. The discovery of Creutzfeld Jakob Disease (CJD) has been a long and remarkable one. The cause of this disease is a mutated prion protein within the brain that can be either inherited or acquired. These mutations create sponge like holes that destroy the brain. As a result, the disorder gives bo
  • Molecular Biology
    Molecular Biology Molecular Biology Abstract The bacterium used in this lab, Escherichia coli (or E. coli) is an ideal organism for the molecular geneticist to manipulate. It can easily be grown in suspension culture in a nutrient medium such as Luria broth, or in a petri dish of Luria broth mixed with agar (LB agar) or nutrient agar. Genes can be transferred between bacterial in three ways: conjugation, transduction, or transformation. Bacterial transformation involves transfer of genetic infor
  • Never Met A Dull Enzyne
    Never Met A Dull Enzyne “ Never Met A Dull Enzyme” A. Personal Information Arthur Kornberg (1918-), American biochemist and physician, claims he has never met “a dull enzyme.” He has devoted his life to pursuing and purifying these critical protein molecules. His love of science did not spring from a family history rooted in science. He was born on March 3rd, 1918, the son of a sewing machine operator in the sweatshops of the Lower East Side of New York City. His parents, Joseph Aaron Kornberg a
  • Origin of life
    origin of life To help us with our study of origins, we will use two main sources: the Bible – as God’s direct revelation of life, and science – a way to interpret the Bible using scientific knowledge. In his book Biology Through the Eyes of Faith, R.T. Wright (1989) states: “It is an important conclusion of faith that both science and Scripture are sources of knowledge of God’s works and that, when properly understood, should not lead to conflicts.” I agree with this statement, believing that G
  • Protein Enzyme Lab
    Protein Enzyme Lab Biology Lab Report Title: Examining Some Properties of the Enzyme -amylase Introduction: In this experiment a deeper meaning in the catalysts of reactions is studied. Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions without permanently changing the reaction. Enzymes, catalysts in biochemical reactions, are globular proteins which lower the activation energy needed to begin a reaction and therefore increase the rate at which efficient reactions can occur. Proteins (henceforth enzymes) a
  • Protein Linked to Prostate Cancer
    Protein Linked to Prostate Cancer www.bcm.tmc.edu/baylormed September, 2000 Gene Identified for Cardiomyopathy The Director of the Heart Failure and Transplantation Unit at Texas Children\'s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine Professor of Pediatrics was extremely excited with the news of a gene recently identified. Baylor College of Medicine researchers have identified a new gene that is responsible for dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of heart failure in children
  • Three branches of science
    three branches of science Three Branches of Science Andrew Rambo Ms. Gardener 10th Grade Biology September 11, 2000 Science is such a wide area that it is divided into branches. Biology, chemistry and geology are three of these branches. Each branch of science are very different. They use many of the same techniques in the study of the materials in their area of science, but are very different materials. Biology is the study of life and living things. The French naturalist, Jean Baptiste, introd
  • Biotechnology Pros and Cons
    Biotechnology Pros and Cons Biotechnology: Pros and Cons Throughout this past semester many important ecological dilemmas have come to my attention. The most striking environmental issue that I have noted this semester has been agricultural Biotechnology. A reputable definition of Biotechnology would be “the means or way of manipulating life forms (organisms) to provide desirable products for man\'s use”(www.biotechknowledge.com). Scientists are pleased due to the arrival of biotechnology, belie
  • Career Review Pharmacist
    Career Review Pharmacist Introduction On the surface, daily routines of Pharmacists may appear to be rather simplified and involves little work hazard and responsibilities. As pharmacists dispense prescribed drug and medicine by doctors or dentists, they may provide assistance to those who seeks help with non-prescribed products. This is a correct yet very generalized view of pharmacist, this career interacts with many different industries. As an example, technology plays key role for pharmacist
  • Genetic screening
    genetic screening Genetic screening, also known as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), is a newly emerging technology that has brought with it much controversy. PGD involves the in vitro fertilization of an embryo. “The embryos are allowed to develop to a 6 to 10 cell stage, at which point one of the embryonic cells is removed from each embryo and the cellular DNA is analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities or genetic mutations” (Botkin, 1998). In doing this, it can be determined which embryo
  • Community and Social Structure
    Community and Social Structure AssignmentIII The idea of people being social in nature can be clearly illustrated by the groups, or communities that one sees all around them. Groups of individuals share a common perspective of what reality consists of, this is known as culture(Charon, 1997). This reality is perceived through our interactions with others in the group and by what our position is within that group(Charon, 1997). The way in which we see the world is in a sense limited by both our po
  • Community and Social Structure1
    Community and Social Structure1 AssignmentIII The idea of people being social in nature can be clearly illustrated by the groups, or communities that one sees all around them. Groups of individuals share a common perspective of what reality consists of, this is known as culture(Charon, 1997). This reality is perceived through our interactions with others in the group and by what our position is within that group(Charon, 1997). The way in which we see the world is in a sense limited by both our p
  • Farewell to the Fiction in the Science of Cloning
    Farewell to the Fiction in the Science of Cloning In his 1930’s futuristic novel, Brave New World, Aldous Huxley predicted a society where the human race was created in a laboratory and carried to term in incubators. At the time it was regarded as being ludicrously impossible. The idea of cloning in the eighties required multiple reproductions of specialized cells. Even then, the possibility of cloning was unachievable. Recently, scientists cloned a lamb, simply by replicating the cell in the sk
  • Genetic Engineering in Food Production
    Genetic Engineering in Food Production Genetic Engineering in Food Production: Is it Safe, Wise, and Moral? Over the past couple of decades much debate has been going on about the use of advanced technology in the field of biology. Ever since the first gene was cloned in 1973, genetic engineers have been pursuing at break-neck speed the "unlimited possibilities" promised by biotechnology (Davidson 1993). Their excitement, which has generated billions of investment dollars for the industry, is un
  • Molecular Biotechnology in Our Life
    Molecular Biotechnology in Our Life Molecular Biotechnology in Our Life If you have had a can of soft drink, ate a fruit, or took some head ache medicine this morning - then it\'s very likely you have used a genetically enhanced product. Genetics is a part of biotechnology that manipulates biological organisms to make products that benefit humankind. Biotechnology is essential in our life, but there are some concerns regarding its safety. Although, biotechnology may pose some danger it is provin
  • NANO TECHNOLOGY
    NANO TECHNOLOGY Nanotechnlogy 18 seems to be the magic number in today\'s manufacturing process. Intel and AMD both boast their upgraded production, and note that it will lead to ever increasing speeds and capabilities. Quietly, however, there is a growing consensus among the scientific community that silicon based-chips are on their way out. Tiny, molecular computers are becoming more and more feasible, and may do to silicon what transistors did to vacuum tubes. Across the world, universities a
  • The Applications of Technology in the First Decade
    The Applications of Technology in the First Decade of the TwentyFirst Century The Applications of Technology in the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century A quote I heard many times when I was in high school and which I now know traces back to Sir Francis Bacon, one of our earliest scientist or philosophers as they were then called, is the statement "Knowledge Is Power." Today, I believe that the fuller, more correct statement is to say, "the application of knowledge is power." The study of sc
  • Tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis I. Introduction Print section Tuberculosis (TB), chronic or acute bacterial infection that primarily attacks the lungs, but which may also affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod-shaped bacterium. Symptoms of TB include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, chills, and fatigue. Children and people with weakened immune systems are the most susceptible to TB. Half of all u
  • The Effects of Various Factors on the Growth Rate
    The Effects of Various Factors on the Growth Rate of E coli The Effects of Various Factors on the Growth Rate of E. coli Introduction: There are times in our lives (as human beings) when people do not feel well. A doctor might diagnose them with a disease or an infection. There are also times when people do not feel clean. This could be a person\'s feeling after exercising, sweating, or maybe he/she had not taken a shower in a couple days. In any of the preceding scenarios, bacteria most likely
  • Genetic Engineering history and future
    Genetic Engineering history and future Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in hist