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Guns Germs and Steel
Book Review on Jared Diamond’s
Guns, Germs and Steel
Why is it that Europeans ended up conquering so much of the world? Or as Yali puts it in the far beginning of the book, “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own”? Despite all the contrary evidence from anthropology and human biology, many persist in attributing the differing political and economic successes of the world’s peoples to historical contingency. On the other hand though, the author sees the fundamental causes as environmental, resting ultimately on ecological differences between the continents and as he well puts it on page 25: “Authors are regularly asked by journalists to summarize a long book in one sentence. For this book, here is such a sentence: ‘History followed different courses for different peoples because of differences among peoples’ environments, not because of biological difference among peoples themselves.”
The complex and integrated argument unfolds in four parts, strategically constructed by questions: why have different continents and regions developed so differently like the Maori killing the Moriori, and why did Pizzaro capture Inca emperor Atahuallpa. The first part, “from Eden to Cajamarca,” sketches developments on all the continents before 11000 BC. In the second part, the author gives approximate dates on the early production of food and explains why certain peoples developed food production whereas others did not. Followed by the studies of why some peoples chose not to farm, why some did not domesticate animals, and why production spread on different rates at different continents. In part three the author argues that the settled communities made possible by production of plant and animal food allowed diseases to leap from domesticated animals to humans. He also links success in food production to the inventions of writing and of technology. These he relates also to government and religion, which he characterizes as “kleptocracy”. After all this research and explanation the author returns to reconsider the course of human development on each continent. Starting first with Australia and New Guinea, then with China, Polynesia, Eurasia and the Americas and finally Africa.
Jared Diamond sees food production, or the domestication of plants and animals, as the central key to human history. In a relatively short display (part two), the author outlines the origins of agriculture. He describes when and where food production originated, how it spread from the Fertile Crescent to other parts of the world and why. There is a deep explanation about the types of crops around the world, and a thorough description why the large seeded wild plants in Eurasia were easy to domesticate. Eurasia had the same climate over its long east-west axis whereas the Americas and Africa had a huge variation and thus could not grow those kinds of plants. The characteristics of these crops are extensively discussed, driving us, the readers, to the conclusion that food production indeed played a major role in a material sense, mental sense, as an agent o
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