History Of Coca-cola Essay

This essay has a total of 2621 words and 26 pages.

History Of Coca-cola

History Of Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola was born on may 8th, 1886 at the hands of Dr.

John Smith Pemberton. In the laboratory of his house at 107

Marietta Street, Atlanta, Georgia he finally settled

on the syrup later to be known as Coca-Cola.1.

John Pemberton was born in Knoxville, Georgia in 1831.

At the age of 17, he

attended the Botanical Medicine School of the State of

Georgia.2. After school he owned a drug store in Columbus,

Georgia and fought for the confederacy in the Civil War.

During the war he became addicted to morphine from an

injury.3. After the war ended, he moved to Atlanta, Georgia

and kept up his pharmacy business at home. He created such

patent medicines as Globe flower Cough Syrup, Extract of

Stillingia, Triple Liver Pills, Lemon & Orange Elixer, and

French wine of Coca. The latter, being very similar to the

"Vin Mariani" created by a private industrialist, Angelo

Mariani, was inevitably the biggest seller. The "Vin

Mariani" was a cocaine laced Bordeaux wine, popular

throughout the world.4. French Wine of coca included

cocaine as well as caffeine from the kola nut found in a

tree from Africa. It was sold as a cure for nervous

disorders, disturbances of internal plumbing and


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In November 1885, Pemberton decided to remove the wine

and offer it as a syrup based medicine or a fountain drink,

after Atlanta voted to become a dry city effective

July 1886.6. He began experimenting. When he started out the

overall taste was very bitter due to the caffeine and

cocaine. He added a lot of sugar to cover these flavors, but

that proved to make it a very sickening kind of sweet. TO

counter-balance that he added various fruit flavors and

citric acids. The final products ingredients included: 1 oz.

Citric Caffeine, 1oz. Ext. Vanilla, 2 ½ oz. Flavoring, 4 oz.

F.E. Coco, Caramel Sufficient, 3 oz. Citric Acid, 1 Qt. Lime

Juice, 30 lbs. Sugar, & 2 ½ gal. Water. The flavoring was

made of 80 Oil Orange, 120 Oil Lemon, 40 Oil Nutmeg, 1 Qt.

Alcohol, 40 Oil Cinnamon, 20 Oil Coriander, & 40 Oil

Neroli. The original directions were quite short and simple.

They read as follows: Mix Caffeine Acid and Lime Juice 1 Qt.

Boiling water add vanilla and flavoring when cool. Let stand

for 24 hours.7

A few months later he finally settled on the final

recipe of what would later be known as Coca-Cola.

Frank Robinson and David Roe were introduced into a

partnership with Pemberton a few months before he created

the final product.

Instead of Robinson and Roe selling him a device that was

able to print two colors with the same pressing, he sold

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them on his product. The three of them along with an old

partner of Pemberton's, Ed Holland, created the original

Coca-Cola corporation.8. Robinson immediately took over

advertising, manufacture, and promotion of the product. He

is the one who created the white spencarian handwriting on

red background. Today it is the most widely recognized

trademark in the world. The first ad for the new product was

placed by Robison in the Atlanta daily Journal on May 29th,

1886. It read

"Coca-Cola, delicious! Refreshing Invigorating!

The new and Popular Soda Fountain Drink,

containing properties of the wonderful coca plant and

the famous cola nuts.

For sale by Willis Venable and Nunnally & Rawson."

Official Coca-Cola folklore states that it was merely a

medicine mixed with plain water.9. Not only does this

advertisement state otherwise but it also gives the reason

for the name.

Coca-Cola started off well but, Pemberton had serious

problems involving health. He was severely addicted to

morphine and cocaine and it wasn't long before this started

to interfere with his business.10. Pemberton cheated

Robinson out of his interests in Coca-Cola and sold them to

other individuals, which when added together totaled over

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100%. Robison consulted a lawyer but wasn't able to win a

case. He

did, however, convince his lawyer's brother, Asa Candler, to

buy the business. He then went to work for Candler in


Asa Candler was born on December 10th, 1851. Growing up

Asa decided that he didn't want to attend school, so instead

he became a apprentice to Dr. Best & Dr. Kirkpatrick in

Carterville, to become a pharmacist. Three years later, he

left the doctors and went to Atlanta with $1.75 to his name,

in hopes of finding some opportunities. Although he applied

for many jobs, ironically one of which was Mr. Pemberton's

drugstore, he was unable to find work at first. Eventually

he did find work in a position with a George Jefferson

Howard and found himself as the stores chief clerk. Although

he had such a great position he quit shortly after promoted.

Apparently he had fallen in love with his boss's 15 year old

daughter, Lizzie. This had caused a falling out with his boss

so he went in search for new work. Asa partnered up with

Marcellus B. Hall and together they founded their own

wholesale druggist shop. A year later he went back and

married Lizzie and bought out his partner three more later.

He tried to smooth things out with his father in law by

selling him ½ of the business. The attempt was successful and


the business had become one of the largest drug businesses

in Atlanta by 1888.12.

Asa made a few changes to the original recipe to

improve it. Around 1903 he removed the cocaine from the

beverage, after it was proven to be addictive.13. Robison

continued his part in advertising for the company. He is

greatly responsible for the success in the product. By 1890,

advertising and sales were equal.

Asa employed many family members, one such was, his

nephew, Sam Dobbs. Dobbs was working in advertising until

his views began to conflict with that of Robinson.

Asa, forced to chose between the two, went to his family.

Robinson dealt with it maturely and continued working until

his retirement in. Candler later found out that he

had made a mistake, when Dobbs stabbed him the back.14.

Candler was not knowledgeable in bottling and feared he

would give Coca-Cola a bad name by creating a product not

worthy of the name. Therefore he gave the bottling

rights to two lawyers whom had gained his trust, Benjamin

Franklin Thomas and Joseph Brown Whitehead.15. They were

allowed a gallon of syrup for only one dollar a gallon and

any it was arranged to be kept at that price for any

bottling company for forever. The lawyers sold franchises to

other bottlers and by 1919 every major city in the U.S. had

a bottling plant.16.

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The Coca-Cola comp any had been going on with

comparatively little legal problems. Unfortunately, their

luck changed and by 1917 they were being attacked in

many places. The contract with the bottling companies was

hurting them because the cost to make one gallon of the

syrup had increased significantly. They were fighting their

former nickname of "dope". They were constantly fighting to

keep their product from being banned because the cocaine was

a serious health risk. Their biggest problem with the law
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