History Outline

This essay has a total of 2068 words and 13 pages.

history outline

Mrs. S Chris Johnson
History 10-H November 14, 1999

History Outline

A world of Progress and Reason
 Enlightenment grew out of the scientific revolution of the 1500’s and 1600’s
 Joseph Preistly and Antoine Lavoisier built framework for modern chemistry
 Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox
 Natural Laws – Laws that govern human nature

Two views of the social contract
 Thomas Hobbes and John Locke made ideas key to the Enlightenment
 Thomas Hobbes put ideas into his book, Leviathan
 He argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish
 Thought life in a “state of nature” would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
 Hobbes supported the Stuart kings in struggle against parliament
 John Locke optimistic view of nature
 Thought people were basically reasonable and moral
 Believed that all people had Natural Rights – rights that belonged to all humans from birth
 Theses rights included: right to life, liberty, and property
 Wrote Two Treatises of Government
 It said that people formed governments to protect their natural rights
 He rejected absolute monarchy
 Also believed that people had the right to overthrow the government
Montesquieu’s spirit of the laws
 1700’s France saw a flowering of enlightenment
 early and influential thinker was Baron de Montesquieu
 he studied the governments of Europe
 often gave sharp criticism of absolute monarchy
 wrote, The Spirit of the Laws
 discussed governments throughout history and complimented England’s monarchy
 his ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in government were written into the constitution of the United States
The world of the Philosophes
 Philosophes– which means “ lovers of wisdom”
 Most famous Philosophes was Francois-Marie Arouet who later took the name of Voltaire
 His outspoken attacks offended the government and the catholic church
 He was imprisoned and exiled
 Encyclopedia written by Denis Diderot
 Took 25 years to write the 28 volumes
 The purpose was to change the general way of thinking
 Included articles by leading thinkers of the day including Montesquieu and Voltaire
 Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and argued education for all
 French government thought the book was an attack on public morals
 20,000 copies were printed
Rousseau: A controversial figure
 Most controversial Philosophe was Jean-Jacques Rousseau
 Believed people in “natural state” were basically good
 Thought natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society
 Set forth his ideas on government and society in The Social Contract
 Thought the individual should be subordinate to the community
 Hatred of political and economic oppression woven through out his works
 Helped fan the flames of revolt in centuries to come
Limited Natural Rights for Women
 Women did have natural rights
 These rights were limited to the home and family
 Notion that women were by nature inferior to men
 Germaine deStael in France and Catherine Macauly and Mary Wollstonecraft in England argued that women had been excluded from the social contract itself
 Wollenstonecraft best known British female critic
 Accepted that a woman’s first duty was to be a good mother
 Felt that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interest and should not be completely dependent on her husband
 She published, Vindication of the Rights of Woman
 Called for same education for girls and boys
 Argued only education can give women the tools to participate equally with men in public life
New Economic thinking
 Physiocrats – looked for Natural Laws to define a rational economic system
 Laissez faire – allowed businesses to operate with little or no government interference
 Claimed that real wealth came from making the land more productive
 Extractive industries such as agriculture, mining, and logging produced new wealth
 Physiocrats supported free trade and wanted to lift all tariffs
 Adam Smith a British economist admired the physiocrats
 He argued that Free market – natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business
 A strong supporter of Laissez faire
 Believed that the marketplace was better off with out any government regulation
 However he did believe that the government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works
 His ideas gained increasing influenced as the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe
The challenge of new ideas
 The ideas of the enlightenment spread quickly through many levels of society
 Coffeehouses were often where people met to discuss new ideas
 Europeans had accepted without question a society based on divine right rule, a strict class system and a belief in heavenly reward for earthly suffering
 In the Age of Reason such ideas seemed unscientific and irrational
 Government and church authorities felt they had a sacred duty to defend the old order
 They waged a war of censorship, banning and burning books and imprisoning writers
 Writers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction
 Salons – informal social gatherings
 Originated in 1600’s
 Noblewomen started the idea by inviting a few friends over to their homes for poetry readings
 Only the most witty, intelligent, and well-read people were invited to salons
 By 1700’s some middle class women began holding salons
 Gave middle class citizens the ability to meet with the nobility on an equal footing to discuss and spread enlightenment ideas.
The Salon in the Rue Saint Honore
 Inspired from previous visits to Salons Madame Geoffrin eventually set up her own salon in the house on Rue Saint Honore
 She entertained poets and philosophers, artists and musicians
 On Mondays Geoffrin welcomed artists and musicians
 Wednesdays, philosophers and poets came for discussion
 Madame donated large sums of money to help support the Encyclopedia
 Visiting monarchs paid their respects at what came to be called the “kingdom” of Rue Saint Honore
 Catherine 2nd of Russia and Maria Theresa of Austria often visited
Enlightened Despots
 Some monarchs did accept enlightenment ideas
 They became Enlightened Despots – absolute rulers who used their power to bring about social and political change
 Frederick the Great King of Prussia from 1740 – 1786 saw himself as the “the first servant of the state” with a duty to work for the common good
 He admired Voltaire tolerated religious differences welcoming victims of religious persecution
 His reforms were directed mainly at making the Prussian government more efficient

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