Human developing Essay

This essay has a total of 3298 words and 19 pages.

Human developing

1. Chaper 1: Briefly define the multidimensional approach to studying human behavior.
Include all and define all of the dimensions found in this approach.

A multidimensional approach means that you see human behavior change depending on the
person, the environment around the person and in a time aspect. Even though it is
difficult at times to separate one dimension from another, and all are
interdependent,these three dimensions of human behavior can not be understood fully
separately, one has to look at all three combined, if one wants to use the approach in the
daily social work.

The study employed a naturalistic approach and focused on several dimensions, rather than
on isolated factors or variables. It pointed to a variety of factors that influenced the
information behavior of the users involved.

The Personal Dimension; the psychological approach focuses primarily on the study of
psychological states and processes in relation to information behavior.

For every story a client tells you, you have to think about the various dimensions of the
people who are involved in that story, and that have affected the client. For many years
where there used a psychosocial approach, like in Freud's theory with ego, superego and
id. Emotions, feelings, personality and cognition where important features. But currently
social workers have taken on a different approach, a biopsychosocial approach. Human
behavior is here seen as a result of interactions between biological, psychological and
social systems. It means that emotions and feeling affects the body's health and
wellbeing, that additional factors that are't psychological such as the physical
environment, cultural background, and goals of a search affect information behavior.

The Environmental Dimension; has always been thought of as multidimensional, from as early
as 1901 by Mary Richmond. Anderson and Carter developeded a classification of
environmental dimensions which has had an impact on the way that social workers think
about the environment today. They divide it in to 5 dimensions; culture and society,
communities, organizations, groups and families.

An other famous social work scientist, Bronfenbrenner, who is huge in social work in
Norway too, developed an ecological perspective which identifies four levels of systems;

Micro, Meso, Exo and Macro-systems.

The Time Dimension; the interaction between person and environment are always changing and
ongoing. Nancy Yattaw has written about four ways to think about time in changing, which

Constants - you move in one direction, no moving back, like aging.
Trends - also moves in one direction, but not as constant as the one above. It can be
explained as if you are member of a group which lifestyle that's drifting towards a more
understanding among the general population, like the gays or the Hispanics.

Cycles - as the names says, a behavior which recur repeatedly in different patterns, like
weekly or monthly, such as the cycle from spring to summer and so on.

This is a stabile direction, yet it's never exactly the same pattern that is repeated.
Shifts - is the last one and are sudden changes is direction, which can make us change
patterns long-termed in the long run.

2. Chapter 2: Many theories or perspectives are needed to understand human behavior in
the social environment. Select four of the theories/perspectives discussed in this
chapter. Briefly summarize them and state why you think these theories would be helpful
for social workers.

The Conflict perspective has become a popular theory again and again through history,
drawing our attention to conflict, dominance and oppression in social life. This theory
looks after sources of conflict and why people behave like they do based on the economic
and political arenas. The textbook lists 6 ideas of the conflict perspective which I would
like to write here because I think they describe the theory so well.

1. Groups and individuals try to advance their own interests over the interests of others.
2. Power is unequally divided, and some social groups dominate others.
3. Social order is based on the manipulation and control of nondominant groups by dominant groups.
4. Lack of open conflict is a sign of exploitation.
5. Members of nondominant groups become alienated from society.
6. Social change is driven by conflict, with periods of change interrupting long periods of stability.
(E. Hutchinson, "Dimensions of Human Behavior", page 56)

I think conflict theory would be helpful to social worker because of the world we live in
today. Its chaos and conflicts everywhere, and we as social workers need to handle that.
Let me take an example; there are a lot of race conflicts, and that will not go away with
the first, so we need to know how to cope with different races and their experiences with
race conflicts. There will always be groups with more power that will dominate other
groups, and we need to know that this exist and then we can help our clients from there.
Human beings are a selfish race, so individuals in general will try to advance their own
interests over the interests of others.

The term Humanistic perspective is used to include humanistic psychology and existential
psychology because both of them teach about the individuals' right to choose and the
search for meaning. This perspective is richly influenced by great philosophers like Soren
Kierkegaard, Jean Paul Sartre and Abraham Maslow. This perspective has some values which I
think is important, at least to me, that's why I choose this one. These values are;

 Each person is unique and has value. This it's so important to belive in
this, no one has more or less value then others, and at least I would like it to be that
way in theory. I don't think anyone would agree that Hitler was valuable to humanity…

 People always have the capacity to change themselves, even to make radical
change. I think this statement is important for social workers. If we don't belive that
people can change, then why do we do re-habs and managing classes? We need to belive that
it works.

Developmental perspective defines age stages as human development. They belive that every
stage in life is a special one and different from the other stages. Erikson is the most
famous developmental theorist; his model includes child and adults in the stages of
development, not just children as with Freud. Human development is a complex interaction
between our biological systems, psychological and social factors, and in this perspective
they occur in defined stages. The focus is on how our behavior changes and stays the same
across our life cycle. Each new stage we develop in to we also change our social status
and roles, like from teenager to an adult.

I think it's useful to know about that perspective; we have had a lot teaching about Freud
and Erikson back in Norway. It's an interesting way to see human developing and it's
useful to know, especially in working with children, where you can follow the child's
development or how it should have developed. That can help us to detect developments which
are unusual or directly dangerous for the child if it doesn't get changed.

Social Behavioral perspective is based on that human behavior is learned when individuals
interact with their environment and that even dough our learning processes takes place in
different environments, we do have similar learning processes. Every child in the world
will learn how to eat, to dress one self and to understand its culture. The theory is also
sometimes called social learning perspective. The perspective also teaches that all human
behavior can be defined and changed, Changes and behavior comes with association of
environmental stimuli, or by reinforcement, by imitation of others or by personal
expectations and meanings. But behaviorist discuss among themselves about the process by
which behavior is learned. There are today three different versions of behavioral theory,
and that is; classical conditioning theory, operant conditioning and cognitive social
learning theory.

The reason why I picked this one is because social workers have used social behavioral
methods to modify undesirable behavior of individuals for decades. They point at the
person also, not just the system around the person for causing problems. Growing up is a
big point here, you learn from others as you observe and imitate and get reactions to your

3. Chapter 3: There is a strong relationship among physical health, psychological
health and social functioning. Select one of the biological systems that you feel would be
important for you to be familiar with. Briefly describe the system and then state why this
system is important to you at this particular time in your life cycle.

I will write about the reproductive system because I think that this is the biological
system that I feel are important as a social worker to know about and to myself.

The organs of the female reproductive system produce and sustain the female egg cells (or
ova), transport these cells to a site where they may be fertilized by sperm, provide a
favorable environment for the developing fetus, move the fetus to the outside at the end
of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The female reproductive
system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and external genital organs.

The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose
function is to produce a new individual, as to accomplish a reproduction. This system
consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts (epididymis, ductus deferens
(vas deferens), and ejaculatory ducts), seminal vesicles, the prostate, the bulbourethral
glands, and the penis.

The four functions of the reproductive system are: to produce egg and sperm cells, to
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