Industrial Revolution Except

This essay has a total of 980 words and 4 pages.

Industrial Revolution

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the movement in
which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. About
the time of the American Revolution, English People began to use machines to make cloth
and steam engines to run the machines. Sometime later they invented locomotives.
Productivity began a steep climb. By 1850 most Englishmen were laboring in industrial
towns and Great Britain had become the workshop of the world. From Britain the Industrial
Revolution spread gradually throughout Europe and to the United States. The most important
of the changes that the Industrial Revolution brought were: 1. The invention of machines
to do the work of hand tools. 2. The use of steam, and later of other kinds of power, in
place of the muscles. 3. The adoption of the factory system. The Industrial Revolution
came gradually. However, when measured against the centuries people had worked entirely by
hand, it happened in a short span of time. Until the inventions of the flying shuttle in
1733 and the spinning jenny in 1764, the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been
much the same for thousands of years. By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in
use in both manufacture and transportation. Several systems of making goods had grown up
by the time of the Industrial Revolution. In country districts families produced most of
the supplies that they used, while in the cities merchandise was made in shops, and
manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. The goods made
in these shops were limited and costly. The merchants needed cheaper items, as well as
larger quantities, for their growing trade. They had to establish another system of
producing goods. The cottage or domestic industry filled in the gap for some time, because
it gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price. It provided
employment for every member of a craft worker's family and gave jobs to skilled workers
who had no capital to start businesses for themselves. A few merchants who had enough
capital had gone a step further. They brought workers together under one roof and supplied
machines. These establishments were factories. After centuries of the craft guilds and the
government having controlled commerce and industry, began the belief that it was better to
let business be regulated by the free play of supply and demand rather than by laws The
English government started to leave business free to adopt the new inventions and the
methods of production which were best suited to them. The new methods increased the amount
of goods produced and decreased the cost. British merchants no longer found it a problem
to obtain enough goods to supply their markets and, at times, the markets were flooded
with more goods than could be sold. As conditions in industry changed, social and
political conditions changed with them. Cities grew rapidly, and the percentage of farmers
in the total population declined. A person had to have a lot of capital to buy machines
and open a factory. The men who controlled these enterprises formed a powerful new class
in England called industrial capitalists. Due to the "laissez-faire, factory owners could
arrange working conditions in whatever way they pleased. Grave difficulties arose for the
workers. They had problems with working hours, wages, unemployment, accidents, employment
of women and children, and housing conditions. The revolution began in England for various
reasons. English merchants were leaders in developing a commerce. There also were new
ideas in England which aided the movement, such as the growing interest in scientific
investigation and invention. Another was the doctrine of "laissez-faire", or letting
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