Industrial revolution

This essay has a total of 1203 words and 5 pages.

industrial revolution

The Industrial revolution was a time of drastic change and transformation from hand tools,
and hand made items to machine manufactured and mass produced goods. This change helped
life, but also hindered it as well. Pollution, such as CO2 levels in the atmosphere, rose,
working conditions declined, and the number of women and children working increased. The
government, the arts, literature, music and architecture and man's way of looking at life
all changed during the period. Two revolutions took place, both resulting in productive
but also dire consequences.

Before the first industrial revolution, England's economy was based on its cottage
industry. Workers would buy raw materials from merchants, take it back to their cottages,
hence the name, and produce the goods at their home. It was usually was owned and managed
by one or more people, who were generally close to the workers. There was a good
worker/boss relationship, which was demolished and destroyed by capitalism. This industry
was efficient but the workers productivity was low, making costs higher. The longer it
took one person to manufacture a product, the higher the price. Subsequently, goods were
high in price and exclusive only to the wealthy people. The year was 1733, the demand for
cotton cloth was high, but production was low. This crisis had to be solved or England's
economy would be hindered. The answer came from a British weaver, John Kay, who invented
and fashioned the flying shuttle, which cut weaving time in half. John Kay was a pioneer
and his invention paved the way for numerous inventors. Although at first, many workers
didn't accept machines, in fact, many inventions were destroyed, but what was inevitable,
couldn't be stopped. The machines had made their way to England, and nothing could stop
them.

By the 1750's, the industrial Revolution had begun. At first, inventions were strictly
limited to cotton weaving. Inventions such as the spinning jenny and the water-powered
frame, both of which provided spinning yarn faster, the spinning mule, the power loom and
the cotton gin, all helped the manufacture of cotton goods by speeding up the process.
Mass production had begun, along with capitalism. Capitalist, people who have their own
materials, money and space, bought many machines and stored them in a factory, where hired
people worked the whole day manufacturing goods. The factory system had replaced the
cottage industry. Mass production made usually expensive items, such as shoes, less
expensive and easily affordable by lower class and less wealthy people. The quality of
life had improved. In the 1800's, inventions weren't just limited to the cotton industry.
Steam engines were invented, providing a faster mode of transportation, instead of the use
of horses and carriages. With steam engines, cities were able to move farther away from
rivers and sources of water. The second Industrial revolution proved more drastic, not
only in inventions, but in social and government policies and reforms. Art and culture
flourished and was transformed into many different and unique styles. The first industrial
revolution had forever changed England, and later the world. England was now ready for
another change, as life with machinery had already been assimilated into society. The
second industrial revolution utilized the power of electricity to help them develop their
technology and help social and home life. Michael Faraday, a British scientist,
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