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info on tedd and wilson



Fun Fact: Sheep on the White House lawn? A flock of sheep grazed during Woodrow Wilson's
term. Their wool was sold to raise money for the Red Cross during World War I.

Fast Fact: Woodrow Wilson tried in vain to bring the United States into the League of Nations.
Biography: Like Roosevelt before him, Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal
representative of the people. "No one but the President," he said, "seems to be expected
... to look out for the general interests of the country." He developed a program of
progressive reform and asserted international leadership in building a new world order. In
1917 he proclaimed American entrance into World War I a crusade to make the world "safe
for democracy."

Wilson had seen the frightfulness of war. He was born in Virginia in 1856, the son of a
Presbyterian minister who during the Civil War was a pastor in Augusta, Georgia, and
during Reconstruction a professor in the charred city of Columbia, South Carolina.

After graduation from Princeton (then the College of New Jersey) and the University of
Virginia Law School, Wilson earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University and entered
upon an academic career. In 1885 he married Ellen Louise Axson.

Wilson advanced rapidly as a conservative young professor of political science and became
president of Princeton in 1902.

His growing national reputation led some conservative Democrats to consider him
Presidential timber. First they persuaded him to run for Governor of New Jersey in 1910.
In the campaign he asserted his independence of the conservatives and of the machine that
had nominated him, endorsing a progressive platform, which he pursued as governor.

He was nominated for President at the 1912 Democratic Convention and campaigned on a
program called the New Freedom, which stressed individualism and states' rights. In the
three-way election he received only 42 percent of the popular vote but an overwhelming
electoral vote.

Wilson maneuvered through Congress three major pieces of legislation. The first was a
lower tariff, the Underwood Act; attached to the measure was a graduated Federal income
tax. The passage of the Federal Reserve Act provided the Nation with the more elastic
money supply it badly needed. In 1914 antitrust legislation established a Federal Trade
Commission to prohibit unfair business practices.

Another burst of legislation followed in 1916. One new law prohibited child labor; another
limited railroad workers to an eight-hour day. By virtue of this legislation and the
slogan "he kept us out of war," Wilson narrowly won re-election.

But after the election Wilson concluded that America could not remain neutral in the World
War. On April 2,1917, he asked Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.

Massive American effort slowly tipped the balance in favor of the Allies. Wilson went
before Congress in January 1918, to enunciate American war aims--the Fourteen Points, the
last of which would establish "A general association of nations...affording mutual
guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states
alike."

After the Germans signed the Armistice in November 1918, Wilson went to Paris to try to
build an enduring peace. He later presented to the Senate the Versailles Treaty,
containing the Covenant of the League of Nations, and asked, "Dare we reject it and break
the heart of the world?"

But the election of 1918 had shifted the balance in Congress to the Republicans. By seven
votes the Versailles Treaty failed in the Senate.

The President, against the warnings of his doctors, had made a national tour to mobilize
public sentiment for the treaty. Exhausted, he suffered a stroke and nearly died. Tenderly
nursed by his second wife, Edith Bolling Galt, he lived until 1924

By 1910 Taft's party was divided, and an overwhelming vote swept the Democrats back into
control of Congress. Two years later, Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic, progressive governor
of the state of New Jersey, campaigned against Taft, the Republican candidate, and against
Roosevelt who, rejected as a candidate by the Republican convention, had organized a third
party, the Progressives.

Wilson, in a spirited campaign, defeated both rivals. Under his leadership, the new
Congress enacted one of the most notable legislative programs in American history. Its
first task was tariff revision. "The tariff duties must be altered," Wilson said. "We must
abolish everything that bears any semblance of privilege." The Underwood Tariff, signed on
October 3, 1913, provided substantial rate reductions on imported raw materials and
foodstuffs, cotton and woolen goods, iron and steel, and removed the duties from more than
a hundred other items. Although the act retained many protective features, it was a
genuine attempt to lower the cost of living.

The second item on the Democratic program was a long overdue, thorough reorganization of
the inflexible banking and currency system. "Control," said Wilson, "must be public, not
private, must be vested in the government itself, so that the banks may be the
instruments, not the masters, of business and of individual enterprise and initiative."

The Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913, was one of Wilson's most enduring
legislative accomplishments. It imposed upon the existing banking system a new
organization that divided the country into 12 districts, with a Federal Reserve Bank in
each, all supervised by a Federal Reserve Board. These banks were to serve as depositories
for the cash reserves of those banks that joined the system. Until the Federal Reserve
Act, the U.S. government had left control of its money supply largely to unregulated
private banks. While the official medium of exchange was gold coins, most loans and
payments were carried out with bank notes, backed by the promise of redemption in gold.
The trouble with this system was that the banks were tempted to reach beyond their cash
reserves, prompting periodic panics during which fearful depositors raced to turn their
bank paper into coin. With the passage of the act, greater flexibility in the money supply
was assured, and provision was made for issuing federal reserve notes to meet business
demands.

The next important task was trust regulation and investigation of corporate abuses.
Congress authorized a Federal Trade Commission to issue orders prohibiting "unfair methods
of competition" by business concerns in interstate trade. A second law, the Clayton
Antitrust Act, forbade many corporate practices that had thus far escaped specific
condemnation -- interlocking directorates, price discrimination among purchasers, use of
the injunction in labor disputes and ownership by one corporation of stock in similar
enterprises.

Farmers and other workers were not forgotten. A federal loan act made credit available to
farmers at low rates of interest. The Seamen's Act of 1915, improved living and working
Continues for 6 more pages >>




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