Innovation In Business

This essay has a total of 1047 words and 6 pages.

innovation in business




Introduction
The growth of franchising in America and Europe since the 1970s[1-4] has led to this business form assuming increasing impor-tance in a number of academic debates, including the fields of law, marketing, organi-zation theory, services growth, etc. One of the most interesting issues here is the potential of franchising to provide self-employment opportunities. After all, not only are most franchisees small businesses, but so are most franchisors. For instance, in Britain, half of the franchise systems in existence in 1995 were less than five years old and 43 per cent had ten outlets or less[5]. Franchises are based, ideally, on a proven and tried-and-tested recipe for business success. The importance of replication and standardization which this implies would appear to offer a short-lived licence for success in a world undergoing an ever-accelerating rate of change. Thus, the question arises – how do franchise organizations innovate and cope with change? An adjunct to this question is the issue of the role of franchisees who, while not independent in the sense of the conventional small business person, certainly do not see themselves as conventional employees either, and have certain expectations of participation in the processes of which they are an integral part. In today’s environment of rapid technological and market change, shortening product life cycles and changing customer tastes, the strategic management of innovation has attracted increased attention among researchers, particularly pertaining to innovation management and implementation. For example, recent strategic management discourse has been emphatic on how sustainable competitive advantages and superior economic rents derive from the process of innovation. Much of this debate has concentrated on structural, environmental and individual correlates of innovation, rather than developing an eclectic or multidimensional model of the correlates of innovation.Further, while this stream of research and debate has added to the level of understanding of the process of innovation within organizations generally, few texts have examined the causes of, and barriers to, innovation within franchises specifically. This article begins to redress this issue. In particular, it suggests that franchisee autonomy can have a major influence on rates of franchise system innovation. The article represents a distilled overview of what the authors see as the key literature relating to the overridingly important challenge of franchise system innovation.
It does not claim to offer franchise practitioners prescriptive check-lists and "quick-fix"
solutions to their everyday operational problems,though it does point in the direction of broader policy directives. It presents 12 general propositions, distilled from a welter of research conducted, largely, on operational franchise systems, and is intended as a step forward in the task of developing a general model of franchising.
Innovation
It has been inferred by agency theorists[14,15] that franchising, in itself, is a form of innovation deriving from resource constraints[16].This arises from two perspectives. Initially,franchising permits the parent company to overcome problems of "shirking" and motivation,and thus is a method of reducing the costs associated with managing employees.Others argue that, of ultimate significance to the franchisor, is that franchising is a hybrid capital market[17]. Franchising not only entails semi-ownership, without incurring costs, but provides a constant stream of finance to

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