International Law a different point of view Essay

This essay has a total of 3341 words and 18 pages.


International Law a different point of view





International law is the body of legal rules that apply
between sovereign states and such other entities as have been granted
international personality (status acknowledged by the international
community). The rules of international law are of a normative
character, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are
potentially designed for authoritative interpretation by an
international judicial authority and by being capable of enforcement
by the application of external sanctions. The International Court of
Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, which
succeeded the Permanent Court of International Justice after World
War II. Article 92 of the charter of the United Nations states:

The International Court of justice shall be the principal
judicial organ of the United nations. It shall function in accordance
with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the
Permanent court of International Justice and forms an integral part of
the present Charter.

The commands of international law must be those that the
states impose upon themselves, as states must give consent to the
commands that they will follow. It is a direct expression of raison
d'etat, the "interests of the state", and aims to serve the state, as
well as protect the state by giving its rights and duties. This is
done through treaties and other consensual engagements which are
legally binding.

The case-law of the ICJ is an important aspect of the UN's
contribution to the development of international law. It's judgements
and advisory opinions permeates into the international legal community
not only through its decisions as such but through the wider
implications of its methodology and reasoning.

The successful resolution of the border dispute between
Burkina Faso and Mali in the 1986 Frontier Dispute case illustrates
the utility of judicial decision as a means of settlement in
territorial disputes. The case was submitted to a Chamber of the ICJ
pursuant to a special agreement concluded by the parties in 1983. In
December 1985, while written submissions were being prepared,
hostilities broke out in the disputed area. A cease-fire was agreed,
and the Chamber directed the continued observance of the cease-fire,
the withdrawal of troops within twenty days, and the avoidance of
actions tending to aggravate the dispute or prejudice its eventual
resolution. Both Presidents publicly welcomed the judgement and
indicated their intention to comply with it.

In the Fisheries Jurisdiction case (United Kingdom v. Iceland,
1974) the ICJ contributed to the firm establishment in law of the idea
that mankind needs to conserve the living resources of the sea and
must respect these resources. The Court observed:

It is one of the advances in maritime international law,
resulting from the intensification of fishing, that the former
laissez-faire treatment of the living resources of the sea in the high
seas has been replaced by a recognition of a duty to have due regard
of the rights of other States and the needs of conservation for the
benefit of all. Consequently, both parties have the obligation to keep
inder review the fishery resources in the disputed waters and to
examine together, in the light of scientific and other available
information, the measures required for the conservation and
development, and equitable exploitation, of these resources, taking
into account any international agreement in force between them, such
as the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Convention of 24 January 1959, as
well as such other agreements as may be reached in the matter in the
course of further negotiation.

The Court also held that the concept of preferential rights in
fisheries is not static. This is not to say that the preferential
rights of a coastal State in a special situation are a static concept,
in the sense that the degree of the coastal State's preference is to
be considered as for ever at some given moment. On the contrary, the
preferential rights are a function of the exceptional dependence of
such a coastal State on the fisheries in adjacent waters and may,
therefore, vary as the extent of that dependence changes. The Court's
judgement on this case contributes to the development of the law of
the sea by recognizing the concept of the preferential rights of a
coastal state in the fisheries of the adjacent waters, particularly if
that state is in a special situation with its population dependent on
those fisheries. Moreover, the Court proceeds further to recognise
that the law pertaining to fisheries must accept the primacy of the
requirement of conservation based on scientific data. The exercise of
preferential rights of the coastal state, as well as the hisoric
rights of other states dependent on the same fishing grounds, have to
be subject to the overriding consideration of proper conservation of
the fishery resources for the benefit of all concerned.

Some cases in which sanctions are threatened, however, see no
actual implementation. The United States, for example, did not impose
measures on those Latin American states that nationalized privately
owned American property, despite legislation that authorizes the
President to discontinue aid in the absence of adequate compensation.

Enforcement measures are not the sole means of UN sanction.
Skeptics of the coercive theory of international law note that
forceful sanctions through the United Nations are limited to
situations involving threats to the peace, breaches of peace, and acts
of aggressiion. In all other instances of noncompliance of
international law, the charter's own general provisions outlawing the
threat or use of force actually prevent forceful sanction. Those same
skeptics regard this as an appropriate paradox in a decentralized
state system of international politics. Nonetheless, other means of
collective sanction through the UN involve diplomatic intervention and
economic sanctions.

In 1967 the Security Council decided to isolate Southern
Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) for its policy of racial separation following
its unilateral declaration of independence from Britain. As in other
cases of economic sanctions, effectiveness in the Rhodesian situation
was limited by the problems of achieving universal participation, and
the resistance of national elites to external coercion. With respect
to universal participation, even states usually sympathetic to
Britain's policy demonstrated weak compliance.

The decentralization of sanctions remains one of the major
weaknesses of international law. Although international bodies
sometimes make decisions in the implementation of sanctions, member
states must implement them. The states are the importers and exporters
in the international system. They command industrial economies and the
passage of goods across national boundaries.

Furthermore, the UN is wholly dependent on its members on
operating funds, so no matter what decisional authority its members
give it, its ability to take action not only depends on its decision
but also on means. Without the support, the wealth and the material
assistance of national governments, the UN is incapable of effective
sanctions. The resistance of governments to a financially independent
UN arises principally on their insistence on maintaining control over
sanctioning processes in international politics.

Despite sweeping language regarding "threats to peace,
breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression", the role of the United
Nationsin the enforcement of international law is quite limited.
Indeed the purpose of the UN is not to enforce international law, but
to preserve, restore and ensure political peace and security. The role
of the Security Council is to enforce that part of international law
that is either created or encompassed by the Charter of the United
Nations. When aggression occurs, the members of the Council may decide
politically - but are not obliged legally - to undertake collective
action that will have sanctioning result. In instances of threats to
or breaches of the peace short of war, they may decide politically to
take anticipatory action short of force. Moreover, it is for the
members of the Security Council to determine when a threat to peace, a
breach of peace, or an act of aggression has occured. Even thi
determination is made on political rather than legal criteria. The
Security Council may have a legal basis for acting, but self-interst
determines how each of it members votes, irrespective of how close to
aggression the incident at issue may be. Hence by virtue of both its
constitutional limitations and the exercise of sovereign prerogatives
by its members, the security council's role as a sanctioning device in
international law is sharply restricted.

As the subject matter of the law becomes more politicized,
states are less willing to enter into formal regulation, or do so only
with loopholes for escape from apparent constraints. In this area,
called the law of community, governments are generally less willing
to sacrifice their soverein liberties. In a revolutionary
international system where change is rapid and direction unclear, the
integrity of the law of community is weak, and compliance of its often
flaccid norms is correspondingly uncertain.

The law of the political framework resides above these other
two levels and consists of the legal norms governing the ultimate
power relations of states. This is the most politicized level of
international relations; hence pertinent law is extremely primitive.
Those legal norms that do exist suffer from all the political
machinations of the states who made them. States have taken care to
see that their behaviour is only minimally constrained; the few legal
norms they have created always provide avenues of escape such as the
big-power veto in the UN Security Council.

Despite the many failures and restrictions of international
law, material interdpendence, especially among the states of
equivalent power, may foster the growth of positive legal principles.
In addition, as friendships and emnities change,, some bilateral law
may cease to be observed among new emnities, but new law may arise
among new friends who have newfound mutual interests. In the meantime,
some multicultural law may have been developed. Finally, research
suggests that the social effects of industrialization are universal
and that they result in intersocial tolerances that did not exist
during periods of disparate economic capability. On social, political,
ane economic grounds, therefore, international law is intrinsic to the
transformation and modernization of the international system, even
though the "law of the political context" has remained so far.



Bibliography:

International law is the body of legal rules that apply
between sovereign states and such other entities as have been granted
international personality (status acknowledged by the international
community). The rules of international law are of a normative
character, that is, they prescribe towards conduct, and are
Continues for 9 more pages >>




  • International Terrorism
    International Terrorism INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM By John Freel. This was a very difficult project for me to carry out, coming from an area were racial discrimination is almost non existent were only sometimes does religious bigotry raise it\'s ugly head, but not nearly in the proportions of this project. KU KLUX KLAN. Ku Klux Klan, is a secret terrorist organisation that originated in the southern states during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War and was reactivated on a
  • African Women
    African Women Introduction 70% of African women with disabilities get them from their husbands. In Africa, most women have little or no rights. This effects what they can do for work, how their family life is, and what future they have. Women throughout time, especially in African culture, have always been subservient to men. The status of women in Africa is second-rate. In countries like the United States, women have the same rights as men and are almost equal. But in Africa it’s totally differ
  • ALCATRAZ ISLAND AND PRISON
    ALCATRAZ ISLAND AND PRISON Alcatraz Island has quite a distinct history. Many people know that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, but most are reluctant to know that this island served as fort. Built before the Civil War, it served two main purposes. First, that it was to guard the San Francisco bay area from enemy ships against a foreign invasion, and second, to hold hostage prisoners of war or POW\'s as they were called. In this report, I\'ll show you how this fortress came to be a federal p
  • Andrew Carnegie
    Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie Essay written by aliciareagan@neo.tamu.edu A man of Scotland, a distinguished citizen of the United States, and a philanthropist devoted to the betterment of the world around him, Andrew Carnegie became famous at the turn of the twentieth century and became a real life rags to riches story. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, on November 25, 1835, Andrew Carnegie entered the world in poverty. The son of a hand weaver, Carnegie received his only formal education during
  • Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson
    Bitter Rivals Henry Cabot Lodge and Woodrow Wilson Bitter Rivals: Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge Political rivalries define American government. The dual-party system by nature sets up partisan rivalries between members of all three branches of our government – rivalries that have at times pushed our government to progress and at other times slowed it to a grinding halt. The contrasting backgrounds and resulting political ideologies of Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge created a modern
  • Black Americans
    Black Americans Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks declined from 19.3 in
  • Charles Dickens
    Charles Dickens Charles Dickens Dickens has always presented problems for literary criticism. For theorists whose critical presuppositions emphasize intelligence, sensitivity and an author in complete control of his work the cruder aspects of his popular art have often proved an insurmountable obstacle, while for the formulators of traditions his gigantic idiosyncrasies can never be made to conform. If difficulties such as these have been overcome by the awareness that Dickens sets his own stand
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Civil war
    civil war IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War. While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War, none has attempted a general synthesis of causes. This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the Association. Before attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War, first let me say wh
  • Education and Egalitarianism in America
    Education and Egalitarianism in America The American educator Horace Mann once said: "As an apple is not in any proper sense an apple until it is ripe, so a human being is not in any proper sense a human being until he is educated." Education is the process through which people endeavor to pass along to their children their hard-won wisdom and their aspirations for a better world. This process begins shortly after birth, as parents seek to train the infant to behave as their culture demands. The
  • Entrepreneurial Adventure
    Entrepreneurial Adventure Entrepreneurial Adventure: The Development of Economics in The United States “Capitalism came in the first ships.” -Carl N. Degler Barit Brown United States History Saturday, March 18, 2000 4,753 words The United States was a nation of development. It was a nation of growth and of innovation. From the signing of the Declaration of Independence, to the end of World War II and so forth, complex dilemmas called for complex solutions and complex solutions called for innovat
  • FDRs Influence as president
    FDRs Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new
  • Florence Kelley
    Florence Kelley Introduction Florence Kelley was born in Philadelphia in 1859 into a cultured and affluent family. Her family was actively devoted to social reform. Her father, Congressman William (Pig Iron) Kelley, fought passionately to persuade government to uphold the rights of the poor and weak. He strongly believed that every child in America, whether born rich or poor should be afforded the same opportunities and chances in life. Florence was conditioned from a very early age to despise t
  • None Provided4
    None Provided4 World War Two was a terrible and destructive war. Although many dynamics led to the advent of World War Two, the catalyst of the Second World War was actually the aftermath of the First World War. The First World War\'s aftermath set the stage for the rise of Hitler. On Nov. 11, 1918, an armistice was signed by the German commanders in the railcar of the French commander, Ferdinand Foch, ending the actual combat of World War One. The debacle of the First World War, which killed be
  • Rooselvelt
    Rooselvelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person to be elected president more than twice. Roosevelt held office during two of the greatest crises ever faced by the United States: the Great De
  • The Bay of Pigs
    The Bay of Pigs The Bay of Pigs Invasion. The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro,
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The Bay of Pigs Invasion The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence, and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency and a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers and ironically 34 years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in power
  • The Roaring Twenties
    The Roaring Twenties THE ROARING TWENTIES Americans, in the years following the end of World War I found themselves in an era, where the people simply wished to detach themselves from the troubles of Europeans and the rest of the world. During the years of the Twenties, the economy was prosperous, there was widespread social reform, new aspects of culture were established, and people found better ways to improve their lifestyle and enjoy life. The 1920\'s exemplified the changing attitudes of Am
  • Washington irving
    washington irving Irving, Washington (1783-1859), American writer, the first American author to achieve international renown, who created the fictional characters Rip Van Winkle and Ichabod Crane. The critical acceptance and enduring popularity of Irving\'s tales involving these characters proved the effectiveness of the as an American literary form. Born in New York City, Irving studied law at private schools. After serving in several law offices and traveling in Europe for his health from 1804
  • Western Expansion of the US
    Western Expansion of the US International borders have always been centers of conflict, and the U.S.-Mexican border is no exception. With the European colonizing the New World, it was a matter of time before the powers collided. The Spanish settled what is today Mexico, while the English settled what is to day the United States. When the two colonial powers did meet what is today the United States’ Southwest, it was not England and Spain. Rather the two powers were the United States and Mexico.
  • Animal cruelty
    Animal cruelty Jeff Albrecht Joseph Aimone Writing and Rhetoric 13 December 2000 Animal Cruelty One of the most touchy aspects of our relationship with animals is the use of animals in laboratory sciences. Some manufactures of cosmetics and household products still conduct painful and useless tests on live animals, even though no law requires them not to. Some people, called anti-vivisectionists, are at one extreme in their concern. They want an abolition of all experiments on live animals. At t
  • Blue Whales
    Blue Whales Abstract The Blue whale is the largest creature of the sea, in fact, it is the largest creature known to man. Contrary to what most people think, even though Blue whales live in the sea, they are mammals. They breathe air, have their babies born alive and can live anywhere from 30 to 70 years. The Blue whale is a baleen whale, and instead of having teeth, Blue whales have around 300-400 baleen plates in their mouths. They fall under the category of the rorquals, which are the largest
  • Parasitic wasps
    Parasitic wasps Introduction Malaria is one of the most prevalent and dangerous diseases known to man. It has existed for centuries and affects a myriad of people in the tropical region. Even today, with our newly discovered treatments for many of the tropical diseases, over 10% of the people that are infected with malaria each year and do not receive proper treatment die. In Africa alone, over 1 million children die each year because of malaria and new cases are reported frequently. Malaria is
  • Whales
    Whales Blue Whales The Blue whale is the largest creature of the sea; in fact, it’s the largest creature known to man. Contrary to what most people think, even though Blue whales live in the sea, they are mammals. They breathe air, have their babies born alive, and can live anywhere from 30 to 70 years. The Blue whale is a baleen whale, and instead of having teeth, Blue whales have around 300-400 baleen plates in their mouths. Baleen are rows of coarse, bristle-like fibers used to strain plankto
  • The American Indian Genocide
    The American Indian Genocide The American Indian Genocide Textbooks and movies are still hiding the genocide of Native American Indian cultures, which began five centuries ago. There were many friendly and close relationships between early immigrant settlers and native peoples, but these were not the main current in their relations. U.S. history is destroyed by acts of genocide against native people, made worse by the deadly impact of new diseases spread by contact between new settlers and nativ
  • Yanmamo
    Yanmamo There are many differences between the South American Yanomamo culture and the North American culture that we have adapted to, but just at there is culture diversity between us, we have some similarities. The ethnography, which is chose, was Yanomamo written by Napoleon A. Chagnon, anthropologists. Chagnon tells us how to it was to live among the Yanomamo family, political and warfare system versus the American Culture. The Yanomamo are of patrilineal culture, male oriented and very se
  • Between Silence and Light
    Between Silence and Light Between The Silence and The Light Introduction Architecture is a meeting place between the measurable and the unmeasurable. The art of design is not only rooted in the aesthetic form, but in the soul of the work. In Phenomena and Idea, Stephen Holl once wrote, " The thinking-making couple of architecture occurs in silence. Afterward, these "thoughts" are communicated in the silence of phenomenal experiences. We hear the "music" of architecture as we move through spaces
  • Ayasofya
    ayasofya Architecture, the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to those designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: "Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight." More prosaically,
  • Cockpit Video CamerasThe Issues
    Cockpit Video CamerasThe Issues Introduction The National Transportation Board has recommended to the Federal Aviation Administration that all FAR Part 121, 125, and 135 passenger-carrying aircraft be equipped with cockpit video recorders, cockpit voice recorders and digital flight data recorders (Rimmer, 2000). The use of flight data information has been very useful to the National Transportation Safety Board for solving countless aircraft accidents and mishaps. The recent surge for the upgrade
  • Bill Gates1
    Bill Gates1 ENCONIUM OF WILLIAM H. GATES III Nicholas G. Huff English 15 Essay #3 William H. Gates III Bill Gates? When most people hear that name they think of money, power, and computers. These thoughts aren’t necessarily incorrect, but rather insufficient. Sure, Bill Gates has money, thirty-two billion and growing to be exact, and yes he has power, being the CEO of Microsoft as well as the wealthiest man in the country. But people can’t look through their jealousy and envy to see what Mr. Gat
  • Bill Gates1
    Bill Gates1 ENCONIUM OF WILLIAM H. GATES III Nicholas G. Huff English 15 Essay #3 William H. Gates III Bill Gates? When most people hear that name they think of money, power, and computers. These thoughts aren’t necessarily incorrect, but rather insufficient. Sure, Bill Gates has money, thirty-two billion and growing to be exact, and yes he has power, being the CEO of Microsoft as well as the wealthiest man in the country. But people can’t look through their jealousy and envy to see what Mr. Gat
  • Charles Lindbergh
    Charles Lindbergh One of the greatest heroes the world has ever known Charles Augustus Lindbergh. He is most famous for his transatlantic flight from New York to Paris. Lindbergh acquired great fame for doing “good will” tours in Latin America. Other than politicians and war heroes no one has yet quite matched his fame. He was a genus when it came to aviation and mechanics. He advised the making and design of several planes from ones made of wood and wire to supersonic jets. He helped several co
  • FDRs influence as president
    FDRs influence as president Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Influence as president Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world\'s most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen
  • Kafka
    kafka Franz Kafka was born in Prague, Bohemia, July 3, 1883 and died June 3, 1924 of tuberculosis at the age of 40. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father was a shopkeeper and tried to climb up the social ladder by working hard at his shop and sending Franz to a prestigious German high school. He went on to get a law degree and worked for two insurance companies (not at the same time) When his .tuberculosis got bad in 1917 he was put on temporary retirement with a pension. German
  • Karl Marx
    Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him people are more open to
  • Malcolm X
    Malcolm X Malcolm X Throughout history there have been many people who have stood out and made an impact in the way we think and comprehend things. During the late 1950\'s and early 1960\'s, Malcolm X was no exception. His militant views that Western nations were inherently racist and that black people must join together to build their own society and value system had an important influence on black nationalist and black separatist movements of the 1950s and 1960s. At the beginning of the movie,
  • Malcolm X
    Malcolm X Malcolm X Throughout history there have been many people who have stood out and made an impact in the way we think and comprehend things. During the late 1950\'s and early 1960\'s, Malcolm X was no exception. His militant views that Western nations were inherently racist and that black people must join together to build their own society and value system had an important influence on black nationalist and black separatist movements of the 1950s and 1960s. At the beginning of the movie,
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Mohandas Gandhi was born in Porbandar (In the state of Gujarat) on the 2nd of October, 1869. He was educated at university College, London. After this, he went back to India to begin his Law profession but had no luck and moved to South Africa. Gandhi found that in South Africa he was considered as a second class citizen even though he was a well educated Lawyer. This started his first \'mission\'. To get India\'s residing in South Africa equal rights. In this action h
  • None Provided
    None Provided JIMI HENDRIX Jimi Hendrix was one of the most influential musicians in music history. Jimi Hendrix was one of the most exciting and creative guitar players ever. He mixed Blues and Rock & Roll together to create some of the most unique music ever played. Jimi had only four years of fame, but unlike others, has become even bigger in the 20 years after his death. Jimi’s parents, Al Hendrix and Lucille Jeter got married in Seattle, Washington on March 31, 1942. Soon after Johnny (Jimi
  • Thomas Jefferson2
    Thomas Jefferson2 The third president of the United States, a diplomat, statesman, architect, scientist, and philosopher, Thomas Jefferson is one of the most eminent figures in American history. No leader in the period of the American Enlightenment was as articulate, wise, or conscious of the implications and consequences of a free society as Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a tobacco plantation in Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a self-made
  • 1984 misc 12 00
    1984 misc 12 00 Books related to Summary of Orwell\'s 1984- Summary of Orwell\'s 1984- Summary Chapter 1 and 2 We are introduced to Winston Smith the main character of the story. Works at Ministry of truth. Ministry of truth is one of four government buildings in destroyed London, the main city of Airstrip One, a province of Oceania. Year is 1984 and three contries are at war, Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia. Oceania is run by the party whose leader is Big Brother. Winston is sick of his life in t
  • Money laundering
    money laundering Money Laundering The word money laundering, according to the myth, is derived from Al Capone\'s practice of using a string of coin-operated launderettes in Chicago to disguise his revenues from gambling, prostitution and protection rackets. It\'s a nice story but not true, money laundering is so called because it perfectly describes the process of removing the stains and smells which money acquires when criminals earn it. In this report I will go on to discuss the topic of money
  • Rising Sun
    Rising Sun I read the novel Rising Sun by Michael Crichton. The story is about the grand opening of the Nakamoto Tower in Los Angeles, the new American headquarters of a Japanese corporation. On the night of the opening a young girl was killed on the forty-sixth floor, one story above the floor of the party. The Japanese liaison, Lieutenant Peter James Smith, was called to help the investigation begin, as the Japanese businessmen tried to stall the police. Though the story is about a homicide in
  • Secrets unrevealed
    secrets unrevealed The first study of clandestine operations was initiated 1988 in hopes of learning about the relationship between the President and the intelligence committees of Congress. Stephan F. Knott, an Assistance Professor of Political Science at the Untied States Air Force Academy, picked up this study of clandestine operations. In Knott\'s recently published book (1996) Secret and Sanctioned, he unveils the reality that not only were clandestine operations in the Cold War recently, b
  • Tess of the DUrbervilles
    Tess of the DUrbervilles name teacher English IV 20 March 1998 Tess of the D’Urbervilles Thomas Hardy was considered a fatalist. Fatalism is a view of life which insists that all action everywhere is controlled by nature of things or by a power superior to things. It grants the existence of Fate, a great impersonal, primitive force, existing from all eternity, absolutely independent of human wills, superior even to any god whom humanity may have invented. The power of Fate is embracing and is mo
  • Tess of the DUrbervilles
    Tess of the DUrbervilles name teacher English IV 20 March 1998 Tess of the D’Urbervilles Thomas Hardy was considered a fatalist. Fatalism is a view of life which insists that all action everywhere is controlled by nature of things or by a power superior to things. It grants the existence of Fate, a great impersonal, primitive force, existing from all eternity, absolutely independent of human wills, superior even to any god whom humanity may have invented. The power of Fate is embracing and is mo
  • The Jungle2
    The Jungle2 In the Book The Jungle by Upton Sinclair the extreme horrors of the meat packing industry in the 1900’s were exposed to all. He vividly displayed the hardships that new immigrants had faced upon their arrival to this great nation. Also I found that this book was a huge promoter of socialism, and it was believed that this method of economy would be the end of poverty in America. The book goes through the life a Lithuanian family that just moved to America in pursuit of wealth and pros
  • The slaughter house five
    The slaughter house five THE NOVEL - THE PLOT - Billy Pilgrim, like Kurt Vonnegut, was an American soldier in Europe in the last year of World War II. If you come to know a combat veteran well- a veteran of that war, of the Korean War, or of the war in Vietnam- you will almost always find that his war experience was the single most important event in his life. The sights and scars of war remain with the soldier for the rest of his days, and his memories of death and killing help to shape whateve
  • Webonomics
    Webonomics Introduction Webonomics, by Evan I. Schwartz, is a practical, strategic tool for positioning and growing your business in the today’s exploding World Wide Web economy. Schwartz addresses the unique problems and rewards businesses can expect to encounter when conducting business in cyberspace. He also dispels some of the most common misconceptions about doing business on the Web. More importantly, Schwartz targets the key to business success on the Web: understanding consumer behaviors
  • Accounting differences
    Accounting differences General Comments about the Insurance Industry Insurance Companies generate revenues by selling insurance policies. These policies provide a known amount of revenue for an unknown amount of losses offsetting that revenue. This can make the matching principle difficult. Some of the potential losses can come years after the insurance policy was written and the premiums received. The liabilities for these future losses are estimated by actuaries and are subject to a certain am