International Terrorism Essay

This essay has a total of 1488 words and 8 pages.

International Terrorism



INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM By John Freel.

This was a very difficult project for me to carry out, coming from an area were racial
discrimination is almost non existent were only sometimes does religious bigotry raise
it's ugly head, but not nearly in the proportions of this project.


KU KLUX KLAN.

Ku Klux Klan, is a secret terrorist organisation that originated in the southern states
during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War and was reactivated
on a wider geographic basis in the 20th century. The original Klan was organised in
Pulaski, Tennessee, on December 24, 1865, by six former Confederate army officers who gave
their society a name taken from the Greek word kuklos, which means circle. Although the Ku
Klux Klan began as a prankish social organisation, its activities soon were directed
against the Republican Reconstruction governments and their leaders, both black and white,
which came into power in the southern states in 1867.

ORIGINAL TARGETS AND TACTICS.
The Klan regarded the government at the time as being hostile and oppressive. They also
generally believed that the black people were inferior and therefore they mistrusted the
rise to civil equality and sometimes to the position of political power, so the Klan
became an illegal organisation who were committed to the destruction of the new government
from the Carolinas to Arkansas.


Dressed in robes or white sheets and wearing a mask which came to a point, the Klan
terrorised officials to try and scare them from office and any black person to intimidate
them into not voting or holding any type of civil position or using any of their newly
acquired political rights. It would be a usual sight to see a Klansman burning a wooden
cross on hills or near to the home of someone that they were trying to intimidate or were
just trying to frighten. When this type of intimidation failed their victims might be
flogged, mutilated or murdered. The Klan believed these measures to be justified as
necessary in the defence of white supremacy and the sanctity of woman.


A secret convention of the Klan held in Tennessee, in 1867, adopted a declaration of
principles expressing loyalty to the United States Constitution and its government and
declaring the determination of the Klan to protect the weak, the innocent and the
defenceless; to relieve the injured and oppressed; [and] to succour the suffering The
convention designated the Klan as an Invisible Empire and provided for a supreme official,
called Grand Wizard of the Empire, who wielded virtually autocratic power and who was
assisted by ten Genii. Other principal officials of the Klan were the Grand Dragon of the
Realm, who was assisted by eight Hydras; the Grand Titan of the Dominion, assisted by six
Furies; and the Grand Cyclops of the Den, assisted by two Nighthawks. In 1868 until the
end of 1870 whilst the occupational troops were being withdrawn from the southern states
and the extremist regimes replaced with Democratic administrations, the rougher sections
of the population were now ruling the Klan. The local organisations, called Klaverns
became so violent and uncontrollable that the Grand Wizard, who was then the former
Ex-confederate officer General Nathan B Forrest, officially disbanded Klan in 1869.


Klaverns however continued to operate on their own. In 1871 congress passed the bill to
implement the 14th amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the rights of all
citizens. In the same year President U.S.Grant issued a proclamation calling on members of
the Klan and any other illegal secret organisation to disarm and disband, not soon after
hundreds of Klansmen were arrested under this new law. The remaining Klaverns gradually
faded as the political and social acceptance of blacks were being socially accepted.


The name, rituals, and some of the attitudes of the original Klan were adopted by a new
fraternal organisation incorporated in Georgia in 1915. The official name of the new
society, which was organised by a former preacher, Colonel William Simmons, was Invisible
Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Membership was open to native-born, white, Protestant
males, 16 years of age or older; blacks, Roman Catholics, and Jews were excluded and were
increasingly made targets of defamation and persecution by the Klan. Until 1920 the
society exercised little influence. Then, in the period of economic dislocation and
political and social unrest that followed World War I, the Klan expanded rapidly in urban
areas and became active in many states, notably Colorado, Oregon, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas,
Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Although the Klan
everywhere fiercely preached white supremacy, it focused its attack on what it considered
to be alien outsiders, particularly the Roman Catholic church, which it believed was
threatening traditional American ways and values. All non-Protestants, aliens, liberals,
trade unionists, and striking workers were denounced as radicals.



Like it's fore-fathers this new Klan burned crosses to frighten their victims, masked men
marched up and down the streets of many communities, carrying placards threatening any one
who even spoke to blacks that they would be punished or murdered and forcing others to
leave town. Many people were kidnapped, flogged, and mutilated and hundreds killed by Klan
members. Only a few of the Klan members were brought to trial but many more were being
praised by some local community officials for the good work that they did to clean up the
town's.

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