Israeli Occupation Of South Essays and Papers

This essay has a total of 2626 words and 11 pages.

Israeli Occupation Of South

On May 14, 1948 British troops that were occupying portions of Palestine withdrew from the
territory. As Britain withdrew from Palestine, they handed the land over to the Zionists
to create Israel. Upon creation of the State of Israel, thousands of Palestinians were
driven from their homes to make room for the Jews who were immigrating into the State.
Many of the Palestinians fled to Lebanon to make new homes and start a new life.

Soon after the formation of Israel, war broke out between the Palestinians and the
Israeli's. The war lasted about 8 months and an armistice agreement was negotiated,
between January and July of 1949. For the next twenty years tension would continue to rise
between the two nations. Palestinians and Israeli's committed numerous terrorist acts
against each other until 1968. In 1968, Israel made its first significant incursion into
Lebanon. On April 21, 1968 Israel blew up 13 airplanes at Beirut airport (Barrett). The
Israeli's justification for the Beirut airport bombing was repayment for the Lebanese
trained Palestinian civilians who had made an attack in Athens. For the next ten years
there were numerous small terrorist acts from both countries.

Then in March 1978, Israel launched the first of four major attacks on southern Lebanon.
The attacks have set up an Israeli zone of occupation, a "security zone", in southern
Lebanon that is still present today. The Israeli occupation and the attack on southern
Lebanon has never been legitimately justified.

The first major Israeli incursion into south Lebanon came on March 14, 1978. The military
action was named "Operation Litany". The Israeli army attacked PLO positions that were in
south Lebanon. As the Israeli's moved through southern Lebanon they occupied a 6-mile
strip of land. The Israeli's killed 1500 people who were Lebanese and Palestinian
civilians. The Israeli's attempted to justify the killing of 1500 civilians and the
occupation of Lebanon because PLO backed guerillas had killed 30 bus riders in a raid near
Tel Aviv. The world and the UN strongly objected to this harsh move by the Israeli's
(Reuters, "Chronology…").

The UN then put resolution 425 into effect. The resolution called for " strict respect for
the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and political independence of Lebanon" and also
"called upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial
integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory." The Israeli's
refused to leave so the UN created UNIFIL. UNIFIL stands for "United Nations Interim Force
in Lebanon." It is a 5000 person peacekeeping force that was set up to push the Israeli
army back to the border (Reuters, "Intervention…"). Israel pulled back some of its
military forces due to the world condemnation of the act and the UN's objection to the
invasion. However, the Israeli's kept some of their troops posted in southern Lebanon.
Israel also brought in Muslim leftists and the Lebanese Christian militia, a Lebanese
group opposed to the PLO. UNIFIL slowly pushed the Israeli's back but never successfully
got them to withdraw all the way back to the Israeli-Lebanese border.

In 1981, Israeli forces were still occupying a portion of southern Lebanon. The Lebanese
people and the PLO were infuriated that this direct violation of Lebanon's freedom had
lasted so long and finally took action. PLO guerrillas and Lebanese trained civilians
fired Katyusha rockets into the occupied portion of southern Lebanon and into northern
Israel. The Israeli's retaliated by launching air raids on Beirut that killed a large
number of Lebanese and Palestinian civilians. It seemed that the conflict was going to
erupt into a full scale war but the UN, and countries such as the US, France, and Britain,
stepped up to apply diplomatic intervention.

Follo wing the diplomatic resolution there was a lull in the back and forth fighting.
Then, in July of 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon stating that they were going to oust the PLO
from Lebanon. The Israeli's said that the PLO had seriously wounded one of their
ambassadors in London and felt that they could no longer feel secure with the PLO in power
in Lebanon.

The invasion of Lebanon in 1982 was named "Peace for Galilee" and marked the second major
military incursion into Lebanon. The invasion was supposed to involve 25 miles of southern
Lebanon to eradicate the PLO. Israeli Prime Minister of Defense Aril Sharon assured that
the invasion would go no deeper into Lebanon. However, the invasion moved an additional 25
miles further into Lebanon and circled Beirut. The Israeli army killed more than 15,700
Lebanese and Palestinian civilians during their invasion. Besides the horrific death toll
another 30,000 people were wounded. Then between the dates of September 16th and 18th the
Israeli army, who surrounded the refugee camps of Sabra and Chatila, allowed Lebanese
Christian militiamen to enter the camps and slaughter 3000 Palestinians and 167 Lebanese
refugees (Chomsky).

Over the next 3 years Israel would maintain its presence deep within Lebanon. During this
time there was political outrage and condemnation of the atrocities the Israeli army was
committing in Lebanon. Besides the political objection to the occupation, Lebanese
Hezbollah guerrillas began attacking the Israeli army on a regular basis. Finally in 1985,
under newly appointed Prime Minister Shimon Peres, Israeli forces were withdrawn to a
9-mile so called "security zone." The "security zone" was kept in place to stop the border
attacks that Hezbollah guerrillas were making on Israel. The Lebanese despised the Israeli
occupation and Hezbollah continued attacking the Israeli army in the security zone and in
northern Israel. Hezbollah was ready to fight to the death against the Israel occupation
and vowed to drive the Israeli's from southern Lebanon.

Until 1992 there was localized feuding between the Israeli army and Hezbollah but there
were no large-scale confrontations. That would all change in February of 1992. Israeli
helicopter gunships fired at the car of Hezbollah leader Sheik Abbas Musawi. The Israeli
helicopter blew up the car and killed Musawi, his wife, and son who were also in the car.
Hezbollah retaliated by rocketing the Israeli's. The Israeli army then proceeded to take
over two more villages outside the security zone. The UN, IRAN and the US negotiated a
truce between the two groups for a short period until Hezbollah fired on the Israeli army
in southern Lebanon killing 7 soldiers in 1993.

The attack on the Israeli army and death of 7 soldiers caused the Israeli's to launch its
3rd military action on Lebanon. Israel launched "Operation Accountability" on July 25,
1993 (Barrett). The military action lasted 7 days. During this period, 123 Lebanese
civilians were killed and only 11 Hezbollah guerrillas were killed (Barrett). Additionally
500 civilians were wounded and half a million were displaced as refugees during the
bombing and shelling of Lebanon. After the Israeli's announced a cease-fire, Hezbollah
stated that for every Lebanese civilian killed they would retaliate by rocketing northern
Israel (Chomsky). Over the next three years Hezbollah kept its promise of retaliation and
retribution. Every time a Lebanese or Palestinian civilian was killed, Hezbollah rocketed
northern Israel and the Israeli army.

On April 11, 1996 the most recent and violent military action since,
"Operation Litany" was initiated by the Israeli army. The Israeli's launched "Operation
Grapes of Wrath" as the 4th major incursion and bombing of Lebanon. The operation lasted
16 days (Amnesty). The Israeli's blasted southern Lebanon and Beirut killing about 200
civilians and wounding 500 more (Amnesty). On April 13th an Israeli helicopter fired on an
ambulance carrying refugees. The ambulance was destroyed, killing 2 women and 4 girls
(Amnesty). The Israeli government justified the killing by saying that a Hezbollah
guerrilla was travelling with them. On the 14th of April Israel ordered those Lebanese
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