Isreal Conflict Essay

This essay has a total of 7732 words and 39 pages.

Isreal Conflict

1. Where did the Jews get their name. 2 compare and contrast Arab tribes to
Hebrews and the people of Muhammad.

The term Judaism came about after the establishment of the state of Israel

when the tribes divided into two, the northern and Judas kingdoms, ca

922-587 B.C.E. The customs and belief systems of these nomadic tribes to be

later identified as Arab tribes were very similar to the Hebrews'; however, the

Arab tribes developed in some subtle ways. They remained nomadic,

whereas the Hebrews tended to follow the teachings of the Holy Scriptures to

the achievement of The Promised Land. As for the Arab nomadic tribes

because of this development, a centralized governing agent which organized

the religion did not develop as it did with the Hebrews. In approximately ca

1290-1250 B.C.E., Moses further supplemented both traditions with a covenant

between God and his believers. Moses, married Zipphora, from a different

Semitic tribe, (Ishmael descendants?) as they referred to God as the God of

Abraham, this would indicate the strong similarity of beliefs and customs

between the Hebrew and Arab tribes at that time. In approximately 600 C.E.,

a somewhat modified revival of the beliefs and traditions of Abraham

occurred, due to the persuasions of Mohammed. He disagreed with the

commonly held belief that Isaac and his descendents were the chosen ones.

3. What do the Islamic people follow. Why are they significant.

Mohammed redefined the Arabic religious tradition on this point into the

tradition of Islam. Islamic belief centered on "submission to the will of Allah

by fulfilling the five duties know as the Pillars of Islam". Within the organized

movement of Islam, ca 570-632 B.C.E., a written tradition, as well as a central


controlling agent of the Arab tribes, developed through compilation of the

Qur'an. The Qur'an, although in some ways similar to the teachings in the

Hebrew Holy Scriptures, totally and distinctly separated the Islamic belief

system as a new, and competing,

4. What is one of the offspring's of Judaism and what does it believe.

Another offspring of Judaism was Christianity. The belief that a Messiah would
appear amongst the Jews by the end of the millennium came to life with the
crucifixion of Jesus in Jerusalem ca 29 B.C.E. Jesus was believed by many
followers of Judaism to be the long-awaited Messiah, and served to divide
Judaism once again. In contrast to Judaism, Christians believe that the
appearance and teaching of Jesus represents a new covenant superseding the
previous covenant between God and Moses. The Jews that chose to believe in
this new covenant began the Christian movement. A focused Christian
movement began based on the documentation of his teachings by men who
lived during the two to three generations following Jesus' death. The written
tradition was called the New Testament, and was considered an addition to the
Hebrew Holy Scriptures. Developments of Christianity, are chiefly attributed
to Paul, for his contributions to the New Testament, and Peter, the leader of the
Roman Church. The influence of the Christian belief system is great - the
socio-economic traditions of the western world revolve around traditions
derived from Christianity (Catholicism).

5. How has women played and important role in these three religions and
how halve the religions effected gender.
." While women played a key role in all three of these religious systems, they
have been historically mistreated and overshadowed by their male

counterparts. In Hebrew society, women were excluded from the priesthood,
for the exception of a few, who played an active role in the religious
observances and politics of the times. For example, Deborah was responsible
for claiming territory for her tribe due to the defeat of the Canaates in 1125
B.C.E. Throughout the history of Christianity, women were also restrained
from achieving equality amongst men, with few exceptions, such as St.
Catherine of Siena, who lived between 1347-1380 B.C.E. She became
involved with Church policy at the highest level, thus, playing a very
important role in Church politics. In Islamic society, women were important in
the home and yet subordinate to men. They could neither claim nor inherit
what their husbands won in the battlefield and had no right to divorce. "Baby
girls were regarded with such disdain that in some instances they were buried
alive at birth." Although Mohammed tried to improve their treatment, women
enjoyed no equality with men. Despite any differences between Judaism,
Christianity and Islam, one incredible belief has remained - the decreased
value and respect of women. This belief regarding women is responsible for
the current status of women in modern society. Despite advancements in
knowledge and technology, women are not currently recognized as equal to
men in western civilization. This is attributed to the teachings of the Holy
Scriptures, the New Testament, and the Qur'an, which reinforce the
subordination of women to men.

6. What distinctions are found among these three religions.
are many distinctions between the three belief systems. One of the main
distinctions of Islam from Judaism and Christianity is the emphasis of Islam's
last great prophet Mohammed - not acknowledged by either Judaism or

Christianity. While both Islam and Christianity recognize Jesus as a prophet,

Christianity further exalt Jesus as the Messiah. Judaism does not recognize
Jesus as a significant person. Since the establishment of Catholicism and
Islam, Jews have been a migrating minority and in spite of the many wars and
battles fought amongst Catholics and Muslims during the Crusades, Jews
seem to be a prime target of discrimination from both Catholics and Muslims
of the times. The differences between Islam and Christianity flared during one
period of history, primarily due to reasons of influence and power. The
expansion of Islam looked with favor on commerce and developed trading
routes which extended from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and from central Africa
to Russia. The Islamic world brought expanded economic opportunities to
Europe and also benefited Muslim culture in science, medicine and
philosophy. This created a sense of competition between followers of Islam
and the Christians, who had established huge followings and social-economic
monopolies. The competition was transformed into hatred by Pope Urban II in
1095, who depicted Muslims as a wicked race, and so the Crusades began,
one of the bloodiest and destined conflicts to occur between followers of
Christianity and Islam. Most of the disagreements within these three religions
have been used to gain political power and the control of trading routes in the
West. Manifestations of these disagreements are the great influence that
Catholicism has had on Western Civilization

7. How are all of these religions linked together through fathers.

. Although the key figures are different, it is noticeable that organization is the

most important factor in the development of all of these movements. These

three movements are also linked by a need to justify and resolve issues of

morality, as well as to assert an identity with a God. The essential need to

believe and describe in the existence of a higher force or supreme being has

been present in all western civilizations from the time of Mesopotamia to this

day. All three religions place importance on a grand occurrence - a

representation of God will come and rescue them from the evils of society,

leading them to eternal life. Believers of Judaism awaits the coming of the

Messiah. Christians await the second coming of Christ, and followers of Islam

await the return of Mohammed. The importance placed on a future occurrence

is one of the strongest factors responsible for the continuance of these

religions, as it reinforces the need to follow the customs, ethics, morals of the

particular belief system, and helps to stimulate conversions to each of the

belief systems. Another major difference is the competition of Islam and

Christianity for converts, whereas Judaism carefully evaluates a family lineage

as to establish the relation to Judaism or in cases of conversions one must

adhere to a detailed set of covenants in order to be accepted. Islam and

Christianity actively seek converts, whereas Judaism doesn't. The final

outcome of all of these religious beliefs is continuance of the structures they

prescribe, and their profound impact on the development of western

civilization. Judaism currently manifests itself as the final achievement of the

state of Israel, and the catalyst for the basis of the influential world religions of

Islam and Christianity.

8. How halve these religions influenced western civilizations.

Christianity influenced western culture through establishment and

continuance of the Roman Catholic Church, its powerful infrastructures which

controlled the Roman Empire and to present day influences of it are still

strong. Islam created distinctive civilizations such as Damascus, Bhagdad,

Cairo, Cordiva, and Delhi and has substantially impacted the people of

Europe and Asia through their systems of trade and culture. Through their

unique and combined interactions, the entire socio-political ideologies of

western civilization have been affected. Importance should be placed on both

the disagreements and agreements between Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

As the current socio-economic status of western civilization, as well as eastern

civilization, revolves around influences of the leaders that subscribe to one

the above religions, it is extremely difficult to change outdated beliefs such as

subordination of women and discrimination of humans due to their belief

systems, specifically in current world events such as the situation of Israel in

the Middle East and the wars taking place in former Yugoslavia. Judaism

comprises less than two per cent of western society, and yet has contributed in

field after field.(www.ask.com/islam/religion.html)


9. How does the middle east play a role in the struggle between these
religions.

The middle east plays a very large role in the struggle between these

religions. The Islamic people believe the dome of the rock is the place were

Muhammad. The Israelis believe the walls to the old city is the closest we can

get to the old temple which was destroyed by the Romans. The Christians

believe Jerusalem is the site of the "Church of the holy seplecure" which is the

site where Jesus resurrected from the grave. Now as you can see to halve all of

these clashing forces together in such a small area someone is bound to get

Alltel greedy and want to much. There has always been this friction between

the tribes of Abraham and the Levi tribe so it is understandable why there is a

clash now. (Mirkham 24)


10. Why do the Jews feel it necessary to separate themselves from all
other religions, and why do they wear those funny hats.

The Jewish people believe they are G-D's children and in order to show

respect the strive on following G-D's books and his commandments. They

follow his 316 directions to the T. The Jews wear the funny hat to make them

selves different from the other religions. However there is no law in the Jewish

religion that states to wear a head covering. There is a law however that states

one should remove their shoes in the holy places to show respect for
g-d.(Mirkham 72-73)

11. Why are the struggles between the Arabs and Israelis so potent today?

The Arab-Israeli conflict is the continuation of an Arab-Jewish struggle that
began in the early 1900's for control of Palestine. Palestine today consists of
Israel and the areas known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The
Palestinians lived in the region long before Jews began moving there in large
numbers in the late 1800's. The Arab-Israeli conflict has been hard to resolve.(
Ian Mirkham p 58-60)

12. when and why did the conflicts start?
In the mid-1800's, Jewish intellectuals in Europe began to support the idea t
hat Jews should settle in Palestine, which the Bible describes as the Jews'
ancient homeland. The word Palestine does not appear in the Bible. But it has
long been used to refer to the area the Bible describes. The idea that Jews
should settle in Palestine became known as Zionism. In the 1800's, Palestine
was controlled by the Ottoman Empire, which was centered in present-day
Turkey.(www.ask.com/moses/hebrew.html)
14. What is Zionism and why does it affect the middle east?
Zionism became an important political movement among Jews in
Europe because of increasing anti-Semitism (prejudice against Jews) there.
The anti-Semitism resulted in violent attacks on Jews and their property. In the
1800's, the immigration of European Jews to Palestine accelerated. At first,
many of the immigrants and the Palestinian Arabs lived together peacefully.
But as more Jews arrived, conflicts between the two groups increased.( Stugart
P 105- 103)
15. What role did Egypt play in the conflicts in the middle east.
The History of the conflict in the Middle East is long and well
documented. To both, and to many biased observers the history of the
Egyptian/Israeli conflict is very one sided, with one government, or one
people causing the continued wars between the two neighboring states. But,
as any social scientist of any reputation will state, all international conflicts
have more than one side, and usually are the result of events surrounding, and
extending over the parties involved. Thus, using this theory as a basis, we
must assume that the conflict between Israel and Egypt is more complicated
than a partial observer would see it. For the purpose of this paper, we are
going to examine the basic factors of Egypt's Involvement and conflict with
Israel, with some emphasis on the involvement of the United State, and the
Western Nation in this conflict. Also, I wish to pay particular attention to the
question of who, or what brought these countries into conflict. Were they both
victims of their situation, or did they become actively involved in promoting
conflict, or perhaps a third party source, such as the US pushed them into
conflict? ( Stugart p 101-103)

16. where were the Iranians during all this?

Iran is a country located in the Middle East. The main source

of income for the country is oil, the one object that had greatly

influenced its history. Iran's present government is run as an Islamic

Republic. A president, cabinet, judicial branch, and Majilesor or

legislative branch, makes up the governmental positions. A revolution

that overthrew the monarch, which was set in 1930, lasted over 15

years. Crane Brentano's book, An Anatomy of a Revolution, explains set

of four steps a country experiences when a revolution occurs.

Symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence are the steps that

occur. The Iranian Revolution followed the four steps in Crane

Brentano's theory, symptoms, rising fever, crisis, and convalescence

occurred.( Stugart p 21-26)

21. When did the Palestinians rule and when did they decline there power.

Persia ruled in Palestine until the country was captured by Alexander the
Great in 333BC. His successors -- the Egyptian Ptolemies and the Syrian
Seleucids -- tried without success to force Greek culture and religion on
the people.
Eventually in the second century BC, the Jews revolted and established an
independent state (141-63BC). This lasted until Pompey the Great
conquered Palestine for Rome and made it a province of the Roman Empire
ruled by Jewish kings


22. Who was in Israel before the Palestinians or the Israelites?
Even before the Palestinians or the Jews were in Palestine, a group of
people known as Canaanites had established themselves there.
By the third millennium BC they were living in cities, one of which was
Jericho. They developed an alphabet from which other writing systems
originated and their religion had a major influence on that of the Jews and
through them on both Christianity and Islam.

23. What did able men do 1 month a year?
The descendants of able men who established a dynasty or tradition would
worship the God of their father, or fathers, and adhere to the original
covenant. Genesis 31 portrays and swearing by their respective ancestral
gods: Jacob by the god(s) of Abraham and Laban by the god(s) of Nahor.
Once a group expanded into a federation of clans or , religious organization
became necessary. A central shrine (such as the one at Shiloh in Israel) for
amphictyonic (religious confederational) pilgrimage festivals required a
professional and other religious personnel to take care of sacrifices, give
oracular guidance, interpret dreams and omens, as well as to provide
instruction. In an amphictyony of 12 tribes, each tribe could render federal
service for religious and secular purposes, one month each year. A special
tribe (such as the Levites in Israel, or the Magians in Iran) could be dedicated
full-time to cultic duties.

24. What happened to Israel and how did it become a commercialized city?
A greater degree of centralization and organization of the cult would
generally follow from the establishment of a powerful state. The cult of of
Babylon spread in importance and influence because Babylon became the

capital of a powerful kingdom in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BC) and
of a mighty empire during the reign of Nebuchadrezzar (604-562 BC). The
Egyptian cult of not only became powerful but took on the form of a universal
religion as a result of the military and political triumphs of the rulers of
Thebes, particularly during the reign of Thutmose III (1479-26 BC). Under ,
Jerusalem became the centre of a great commercial empire. The Temple of
Solomon and its God, the God of Israel, were catapulted into an international
prominence that was quite different from the national status that marked the
extent of Hebraic religion previously. The new internationalism of Israel's
involvements paved the way for the universality of the views of the prophets.
The God of Israel was subsequently concerned with all mankind and not
merely with one people in one small land. This ultimately meant the
transformation of biblical religion from the cult of a single people to a more
subtle, spiritual movement that required different organization and different
personnel. The priesthood became defunct with the destruction of Herod's
Temple and the cessation of sacrifices in AD 70. (Frank Mead p 34 - 42)

25. How would you hold an ethnic group together?

There were various devices for holding an ethnic-religious group together
even though it might be fragmentized into scattered communities. Laws of
purity, especially those pertaining to diet, kept different groups apart. Each
normally respected the other's rules, but the fact that each group had different
taboos kept them from breaking bread together and mingling socially. They
could do business with each other in the marketplace, but they could not
fraternize in each other's homes. Above all, laws of purity were deterrents to
intermarriage, the major factor that breaks up religious communities and
encourages homogenization.

26. what are the essentials of the cristian faith.
Roman Catholicism is one of the largest religions in the world, with over a
billion adherents distributed all over the world. It is characterized by it's
highly developed doctrinal and organizational structure. Catholicism's history
began when adherents of Judaism accepted Jesus Christ as not just a prophet,
but as the Son of God and the Savior of the world. Founded: Roman
Catholicism was reputedly started with the commissioning of the Apostle
Peter "as the rock on which the church is to be built" (Matt. 16:18).
Catholicism, which means universal, received the adjective "Roman" due to
the Church's adoption of the organizational grid of the Roman empire. The
adjective was also used because of the tradition that Peter had founded the
Church in Rome and that he and Paul were buried there.
Adherents: With few exceptions, Roman Catholics are found throughout the
world, out of many nations and peoples. Roman Catholics are found
concentrated in several areas of world such as southern Europe, South
America and certain areas of Asia such as the Philippines. Please see the
distribution chart below.

27. How do we label our religions?
The first question in studying religion is how we approach religion. To best
understand religion, we should approach the world's religions with the
attitude of religious pluralism; that is, with the view that all religions are equal.
Continues for 20 more pages >>




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