John Locke Criticism

This essay has a total of 4042 words and 13 pages.

John Locke

John Locke believes that man ought to have more freedom in political society than John
Stuart Mill does. John Locke's The Second Treatise of Government and John Stuart Mill's On
Liberty are influential and potent literary works which while outlining the conceptual
framework of each thinkers ideal state present two divergent visions of the very nature of
man and his freedom. John Locke and John Stuart Mill have different views regarding how
much freedom man ought to have in political society because they have different views
regarding man's basic potential for inherently good or evil behavior, as well as the ends
or purpose of political societies. In order to examine how each thinker views man and the
freedom he ought to have in political society it is necessary to define freedom or liberty
from each philosophers perspective. In The Second Treatise of Government, John Locke
states his belief that all men exist in "a state of perfect freedom to order their actions
and dispose of their possessions and person as they think fit, within the bounds of the
law of nature, without asking leave or depending upon the will of any other man. " (Locke
4) Locke believes that man exists in a state of nature and thus exists in a state of
uncontrollable liberty which has only the law of nature to restrict it, which is reason.
(Locke 5) However Locke does state that man does not have the license to destroy himself
or any other creature in his possession unless a legitimate purpose requires it. Locke
emphasizes the ability and opportunity to own and profit from property as being necessary
to be free. In On Liberty John Stuart Mill defines liberty in relation to three spheres;
each successive sphere progressively encompasses and defines more elements relating to
political society. The first sphere consists of the individuals "inward domain of
consciousness; demanding liberty of conscious in the most comprehensive sense; liberty of
thought and feeling; absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, practical
or speculative, scientific, moral, or theological." (Mill 13) The second sphere of Mill's
definition encompasses the general freedoms which allow an individual to freely peruse a
"...life to suit our own character; of doing as we like..." (Mill 13). Mill also states
that these freedoms must not be interfered with by "fellow creatures, so long as what we
do does not harm them..." (Mill 13), no matter how odd, offensive and or immoral they may
seem to others. The final sphere of Mill's definition of liberty is a combination of the
first two. He states that "...the freedom to unite, for any purpose not involving harm to
others: the persons combining being supposed to be of full age, and not forced and or
deceived." (Mill 14) Locke and Mill's definitions of freedom must be qualified. Since the
definitions they present in their respective literature are distinct from one another,
when each philosopher refers to freedom or liberty they are not citing the same concept.
This distinction is necessary when comparing their positions regarding the amount of
freedom man should have in a political society. What one philosopher considers an overt an
perverse abuse of liberty the other may consider the action completely legitimate and
justifiable. John Locke believes that men should be virtually unrestricted and free in
political society. Locke's rational for this liberal position lies in the twin foundation
of man's naturally good inclinations and the specific and limited ends Locke believes
political societies ought to have. According to Locke the only freedoms men should lose
when entering into a political society are "equality, liberty and executive power they has
in the state of nature into the hands of society." (Locke 73) In Locke's ideal society
this fails to limit or remove any freedom from the individual, it only removes the
responsibility of protecting these freedoms from the individual and places it on the
state. John Stuart Mill believes that man's should be strictly limited in political
society. Mill differs from Locke in the basic principle that individual who enjoy the
benefits of living in political societies owe a return for the protection society offers.
Mill believes for society to function properly conduct of societies members should "not
injuring the interests of one another; or rather certain interests; which either by
express legal provision, or by tacit understanding, ought to be considered rights" (Mill
70) Mill furthers this statement by proclaiming that society may go even further. "As soon
as any part of a person's conduct affects prejudicial the interests of others, society has
jurisdiction over it, and the general question whether the general welfare will or will
not be promoted by interfering in it, becomes open to discussion." (Mill 70) This
declaration virtually allows the state the authority to intervene in every instance of
human interaction and have total power to alter the exchange as it sees fit. If this
function of the state is considered supreme or is allowed jurisdiction over even the first
sphere of freedoms any further discussion of liberty is ineffective and redundant. Mill
clearly seeks to limit the freedom of men and guaranteeing some measure of residual power
to exercised by the state at will. Having examined the level or amount of freedom Locke
and Mill advocate for man in political society a closer examination of the rational or
reasoning which Locke and Mill used to develop their position will clarify the issue
further. How Locke and Mill viewed man and his natural inclination toward good or evil was
a crucial and fundamental in the formation of their views regarding political society in
general and how much freedom man should have in it. The importance of this issue lies in
the ability of Locke and Mill to legitimize their conclusion about society based on the
necessity of accommodating the natural inclinations of man. Tyranny can easily be
justified under the guise of protecting the weak from the natural predatory tendencies of
stronger men. John Locke is clear and adamant in his declaration that man is naturally
inclined toward good. Locke belief in the value of man and his ability to act
independently in compliance with natural law contributed more to his views regarding
freedom than did his positions regarding the function of the state. Several positions
which Locke holds to be true regarding man warrant this conclusion. First is Locke's
definition of the state of nature as "men living together according to reason, without a
common superior on earth with authority to judge between them, is properly the state of
nature." (Locke 19) Secondly Locke's contention that in the state of nature that man has
the right to punish "the crime for restraint and preventing the like offense, which right
of punishing is in everybody; the other of taking reparation, which belongs only to the
injured party..." (Locke 8) Locke does not halt the rights of men to punish transgressions
against them, this right of all men in a state of nature even if it entails the "power to
kill a murderer, both to deter others from doing he like injury, which no reparation can
compensate..." (Locke 8) However Locke does recognize that the right of punishing of
transgressions against oneself has great potential and temptation for abuse and corruption
this is why Locke contends that "God has certainly appointed government to restrain the
partiality and violence of men." (Locke 9) Locke's definite optimism concerning the nature
of man is clearly transferred to his opinion regarding man's freedom in political society.
John Stuart Mill does not have the same optimistic view of the nature of man which Locke
holds. However he clearly has more faith in humans than the portrait Thomas Hobbes
presents of man in Leviathan. A case can be made for Mill's negative view of humans
because of his utilitarian themes throughout On Liberty which implies that if left to
their own devices man will peruse his own interests even at the costs of his fellow man.
Mill does not make a clear declaration exalting or condemning the nature of man. However,
Mill does make clearly negative statements about the nature of man. "There has been a time
when the element of spontaneity and individuality was in excess, and the social principle
had a hard struggle with it." (Mill 57) Mill's insinuation that the free and unrestricted
actions of men can cause conflict is to be expected nonetheless it disguises Mill's true
position on man's nature. It is the subtly inference that the use of spontaneity and
individuality as a method of ordering one's actions somehow runs contrary to the social
principle, which shows a clear mistrust of man's unrestricted and uninhibited side.
Another crucial factor which undoubtedly influenced the amount of freedom Mill an Locke
believed man ought to have in political society was their view regarding the purpose of
the state. Mill and Locke held completely opposite views regarding who should benefit from
the existence of the state the individual or the community. According to Locke men are
driven to congregate and form societies for "necessity, connivance and inclination..."
(Locke 44) Locke believes that the purpose or end of the state is provide the necessities
and convinces which drove men to form communities. The state for all intents and purposes
is designed to serve the individual and provide a free and unrestricted environment in
which man who is naturally free may prosper and own property. The constant threat of
interference by other men in a man's freedom and enjoyment of his property has driven men
to seek the safety of a community which exists "for the mutual preservation of their
lives, liberties, and estates which I call by the general name "property"." (Locke 71)
Locke cites three specific reasons for the formation of political society. "First, there
wants an established, settled, known law, received and allowed by common consent to be
standard....Secondly, in the state nature there wants a known and indifferent judge with
authority to determine all differences according to the established law...Thirdly, in the
state of nature there often wants power to back and support the sentence when right, and
to give it due execution." (Locke 71) Other necessities and conveniences which Locke
refers to are specifically and clearly defined to prevent any interpretation and or
expansion of the power of the state. According to Mill the purpose of the state is to
facilitate a beneficial two way relationship between individual and the community. The
ends of the state are definitely not devoted to the promotion of the individuals freedom
as they are in Locke's writings. Mill contends the collective interests of the community
render greater reward than the promotion of individual interests. John Locke and John
Stuart Mill are two philosophers who have left an indelible mark on the concept of freedom
in political societies. John Locke favours greater freedom for man in political society
than does John Stuart Mill does. Their beliefs regarding the nature of man and the purpose
of the state are bound to their respective views regarding freedom because one position
perpetuates and demands a conclusion regarding another. Locke system for dealing with man
freedom and all other related matters severely limits the role of state to strictly
guaranteeing individual freedom. This is the best method of preventing the perversion and
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