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This essay has a total of 873 words and 5 pages.


Cody Harris
World History - 3 March 24, 2002

Chapter 21 Vocabulary

1. Philip II- son of Charles V, he inherited Spain, and Spanish Netherlands, and the
American colonies. He was shy, serious and deeply religious. When the king of Portugal
died without an heir, he gained the empire by being a nephew. His empire provided him with
a enormous wealth. He also helped to drive the Muslims out of Spain. 1588, he launched the
Spanish Armada but was defeated.

2. El Greco- real name Domenikos Theotokopoulos but called by the Greeks as El Greco
meaning "the Greek". His art often puzzled the people of his time. He used brilliant
colors, sometimes clashing. His paintings showed deep Catholic faith of Spain, painting
saints and martyrs as huge long-limbed figures that have a supernatural air.

3. Divine Right- the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth
4. Absolute monarch- kings or queens who believed that all power within their state's boundaries rested in their hands.
5. Edict of Nantes- a declaration that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set
up their own houses of worship in some cities.

6. Cardinal Richelieu- the ruler, in effect, of France under Louis XIII (1624), he had
been a hard-working leader of the Catholic Church in France. He tried sincerely to lead
according to moral principles, he was also ambitious and enjoyed exercising authority. He
moved against the Huguenots, believing that Protestantism often served as an excuse for
political conspiracies. He also sought to weaken the nobles' power. He ordered nobles to
take down their fortified castles. He increased the power of government agents who came
from the middle class. He also wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe, and in
order to do this he involved France in the Thirty Years' War.

7. Skepticism- the idea that nothing can ever be know for certain
8. Descartes- a brilliant thinker wrote Meditations of First Philosophy. Later became an
important role in the Enlightenment.

9. Louis XIV- the most powerful ruler in French history. His reign began as a 5-year-old
boy. He became king in 1643, with the true ruler of France being Cardinal Mazarin, since
Louis was so young. Mazarin's greatest triumph was ending the Thirty Years' War in 1648.
Louis gained control at the age of 23 when the cardinal died. He made it a point to be
surrounded by nobles for two reasons, it made the nobility totally dependent on Louis. It
also took them from their homes, thereby giving more power to the intendants. Also removed
the Edict of Nantes.

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