Kama Sutra Essay

This essay has a total of 61427 words and 254 pages.

Kama Sutra

IN the literature of all countries there will be found a certain number of works treating
especially of love. Everywhere the subject is dealt with differently, and from various
points of view. In the present publication it is proposed to give a complete translation
of what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, and which is
called the 'Vatsyayana Kama Sutra', or Aphorisms on Love, by Vatsyayana.

While the introduction will deal with the evidence concerning the date of the writing, and
the commentaries written upon it, the chapters following the introduction will give a
translation of the work itself. It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis
of works of the same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years after
Vatsyayana had passed away, but who still considered him as the great authority, and
always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo erotic literature.

Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same subject are procurable in India:
The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love
The Panchasakya, or the five arrows
The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love
The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love
The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love
The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love.
The author of the 'Secrets of Love' was a poet named Kukkoka. He composed his work to
please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king. When writing his own name at the end of each
chapter he calls himself 'Siddha patiya pandita', i.e. an ingenious man among learned men.
The work was translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's name was written as
Koka. And as the same name crept into all the translations into other languages in India,
the book became generally known, and the subject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or
doctrines of Koka, which is identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of love, and the
words Koka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used indiscriminately.

The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into ten chapters, which are
called Pachivedas. Some of the things treated of in this work are not to be found in the
Vatsyayana, such as the four classes of women, the Padmini, Chitrini, Shankini and
Hastini, as also the enumeration of the days and hours on which the women of the different
classes become subject to love, The author adds that he wrote these things from the
opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara, both of whom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but
their works are not now extant. It is difficult to give any approximate idea as to the
year in which the work was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was written after
that of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this subject that are still extant.
Vatsyayana gives the names of ten authors on the subject, all of whose works he had
consulted, but none of which are extant, and does not mention this one. This would tend to
show that Kukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly have mentioned him
as an author in this branch of literature along with the others.

The author of the 'Five Arrows' was one Jyotirisha. He is called the chief ornament of
poets, the treasure of the sixty-four arts, and the best teacher of the rules of music. He
says that he composed the work after reflecting on the aphorisms of love as revealed by
the gods, and studying the opinions of Gonikaputra, Muladeva, Babhravya, Ramtideva,
Nundikeshwara and Kshemandra. It is impossible to say whether he had perused all the works
of these authors, or had only heard about them; anyhow, none of them appear to be in
existence now. This work contains nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into five
chapters, called Sayakas or Arrows.

The author of the 'Light of Love' was the poet Gunakara, the son of Vechapati. The work
contains four hundred verses, and gives only a short account of the doctrines of love,
dealing more with other matters.

'The Garland of Love' is the work of the famous poet Jayadeva, who said about himself that
he is a writer on all subjects. This treatise is, however, very short, containing only one
hundred and twenty-five verses.

The author of the 'Sprout of Love' was a poet called Bhanudatta. It appears from the last
verse of the manuscript that he was a resident of the province of Tirhoot, and son of a
Brahman named Ganeshwar, who was also a poet. The work, written in Sanscrit, gives the
descriptions of different classes of men and women, their classes being made out from
their age, description, conduct, etc. It contains three chapters, and its date is not
known, and cannot be ascertained.

'The Stage of Love' was composed by the poet Kullianmull, for the amusement of Ladkhan,
the son of Ahmed Lodi, the same Ladkhan being in some places spoken of as Ladana Mull, and
in others as Ladanaballa. He is supposed to have been a relation or connection of the
house of Lodi, which reigned in Hindostan from A.D. 1450-1526. The work would, therefore,
have been written in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. It contains ten chapters, and has
been translated into English but only six copies were printed for private circulation.
This is supposed to be the latest of the Sanscrit works on the subject, and the ideas in
it were evidently taken from previous writings of the same nature.

The contents of these works are in themselves a literary curiosity. There are to be found
both in Sanscrit poetry and in the Sanscrit drama a certain amount of poetical sentiment
and romance, which have, in every country and in every language, thrown an immortal halo
round the subject. But here it is treated in a plain, simple, matter of fact sort of way.
Men and women are divided into classes and divisions in the same way that Buffon and other
writers on natural history have classified and divided the animal world. As Venus was
represented by the Greeks to stand forth as the type of the beauty of woman, so the
Hindoos describe the Padmini or Lotus woman as the type of most perfect feminine
excellence, as follows:

She in whom the following signs and symptoms appear is called a Padmini. Her face is
pleasing as the full moon; her body, well clothed with flesh, is soft as the Shiras or
mustard flower, her skin is fine, tender and fair as the yellow lotus, never dark
coloured. Her eyes are bright and beautiful as the orbs of the fawn, well cut, and with
reddish corners. Her bosom is hard, full and high; she has a good neck; her nose is
straight and lovely, and three folds or wrinkles cross her middle - about the umbilical
region. Her yoni resembles the opening lotus bud, and her love seed (Kama salila) is
perfumed like the lily that has newly burst. She walks with swan-like gait, and her voice
is low and musical as the note of the Kokila bird, she delights in white raiments, in fine
jewels, and in rich dresses. She eats little, sleeps lightly, and being as respectful and
religious as she is clever and courteous, she is ever anxious to worship the gods, and to
enjoy the conversation of Brahmans. Such, then, is the Padmini or Lotus woman.

Detailed descriptions then follow of the Chitrini or Art woman; the Shankhini or Conch
woman, and the Hastini or Elephant woman, their days of enjoyment, their various seats of
passion, the manner in which they should be manipulated and treated in sexual intercourse,
along with the characteristics of the men and women of the various countries in Hindostan.
The details are so numerous, and the subjects so seriously dealt with, and at such length,

IT may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana was first
brought to light and translated into the English language. It happened thus. While
translating with the pundits the 'Anunga Runga, or the stage of love', reference was
frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that
opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage
was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in
Sanscrit literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it
was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The copy of the manuscript obtained
in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta and Jeypoor for
copies of the manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in those places. Copies having been
obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called
'Jayamangla' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the
English translation was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:

'The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four different copies of
the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called "Jayamangla" for correcting the
portion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining
portion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all
the other copies I had were far too incorrect. However, I took that portion as correct in
which the majority of the copies agreed with each other.'

The 'Aphorisms on Love' by Vatsyayana contain about one thousand two hundred and fifty
slokas or verses, and are divided into parts, parts into chapters, and chapters into
paragraphs. The whole consists of seven parts, thirty-six chapters, and sixty-four
paragraphs. Hardly anything is known about the author. His real name is supposed to be
Mallinaga or Mrillana, Vatsyayana being his family name. At the close of the work this is
what he writes about himself:

'After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancient authors, and
thinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, this treatise was composed,
according to the precepts of the Holy Writ, for the benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana,
while leading the life of a religious student at Benares, and wholly engaged in the
contemplation of the Deity. This work is not to be used merely as an instrument for
satisfying our desires. A person acquainted with the true principles of this science, who
preserves his Dharma (virtue or religious merit), his Artha (worldly wealth) and his Kama
(pleasure or sensual gratification), and who has regard to the customs of the people, is
sure to obtain the mastery over his senses. In short, an intelligent and knowing person
attending to Dharma and Artha and also to Kama, without becoming the slave of his
passions, will obtain success in everything that he may do.'

It is impossible to fix the exact date either of the life of Vatsyayana or of his work. It
is supposed that he must have lived between the first and sixth century of the Christian
era, on the following grounds. He mentions that Satakarni Satavahana, a king of Kuntal,
killed Malayevati his wife with an instrument called kartari by striking her in the
passion of love, and Vatsya quotes this case to warn people of the danger arising from
some old customs of striking women when under the influence of this passion. Now this king
of Kuntal is believed to have lived and reigned during the first century A.D., and
consequently Vatsya must have lived after him. On the other hand, Virahamihira, in the
eighteenth chapter of his 'Brihatsanhita', treats of the science of love, and appears to
have borrowed largely from Vatsyayana on the subject. Now Virahamihira is said to have
lived during the sixth century A.D., and as Vatsya must have written his works previously,
therefore not earlier than the first century A.D., and not later than the sixth century
A.D., must be considered as the approximate date of his existence.

On the text of the 'Aphorisms on Love', by Vatsyayana, only two commentaries have been
found. One called 'Jayamangla' or 'Sutrabashya', and the other 'Sutra vritti'. The date of
the 'Jayamangla' is fixed between the tenth and thirteenth century A.D., because while
treating of the sixty-four arts an example is taken from the 'Kavyaprakasha' which was
written about the tenth century A.D. Again, the copy of the commentary procured was
evidently a transcript of a manuscript which once had a place in the library of a
Chaulukyan king named Vishaladeva, a fact elicited from the following sentence at the end
of it.

'Here ends the part relating to the art of love in the commentary on the "Vatsyayana Kama
Sutra", a copy from the library of the king of kings, Vishaladeva, who was a powerful
hero, as it were a second Arjuna, and head jewel of the Chaulukya family.'

Now it is well known that this king ruled in Guzerat from 1244 to 1262 A.D., and founded a
city called Visalnagur. The date, therefore, of the commentary is taken to be not earlier
than the tenth and not later than the thirteenth century. The author of it is supposed to
be one Yashodhara, the name given him by his preceptor being Indrapada. He seems to have
written it during the time of affliction caused by his separation from a clever and shrewd
woman, at least that is what lie himself says at the end of each chapter. It is presumed
that he called his work after the name of his absent mistress, or the word may have some
connection with the meaning of her name.

This commentary was most useful in explaining the true meaning of Vatsyayana, for the
commentator appears to have had a considerable knowledge of the times of the older author,
and gives in some places very minute information. This cannot be said of the other
commentary, called 'Sutra vritti', which was written about A.D. 1789, by Narsing Shastri,
a pupil of a Sarveshwar Shastri; the latter was a descendant of Bhaskur, and so also was
our author, for at the conclusion of every part he calls himself Bhaskur Narsing Shastri.
He was induced to write the work by order of the learned Raja Vrijalala, while he was
residing in Benares, but as to the merits of this commentary it does not deserve much
commendation. In many cases the writer does not appear to have understood the meaning of
the original author, and has changed the text in many places to fit in with his own

A complete translation of the original work now follows. It has been prepared in complete
accordance with the text of the manuscript, and is given, without further comments, as
made from it.

her time nor space will permit of their being given here.
One work in the English language is somewhat similar to these works of the Hindoos. It is
called 'Kalogynomia: or the Laws of Female Beauty', being the elementary principles of
that science, by T. Bell, M.D., with twenty-four plates, and printed in London in 1821. It
treats of Beauty, of Love, of Sexual Intercourse, of the Laws regulating that Intercourse,
of Monogamy and Polygamy, of Prostitution, of Infidelity, ending with a catalogue
raisonnée of the defects of female beauty.

Other works in English also enter into great details of private and domestic life: The
Elements of Social Science, or Physical, Sexual and Natural Religion, by a Doctor of
Medicine, London, 1880, and Every Woman's Book, by Dr Waters, 1826. To persons interested
in the above subjects these works will be found to contain such details as have been
seldom before published, and which ought to be thoroughly understood by all
philanthropists and benefactors of society.

After a perusal of the Hindoo work, and of the English books above mentioned, the reader
will understand the subject, at all events from a materialistic, realistic and practical
point of view. If all science is founded more or less on a stratum of facts, there can be
no harm in making known to mankind generally certain matters intimately connected with
their private, domestic, and social life.

Alas! complete ignorance of them has unfortunately wrecked many a man and many a woman,
while a little knowledge of a subject generally ignored by the masses would have enabled
numbers of people to have understood many things which they believed to be quite
incomprehensible, or which were not thought worthy of their consideration.

Salutation to Dharma, Artha and Kama
IN the beginning, the Lord of Beings created men and women, and in the form of
commandments in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rules for regulating their
existence with regard to Dharma,1 Artha,2 and Kama.3 Some of these commandments, namely
those which treated of Dharma, were separately written by Swayambhu Manu; those that
related to Artha were compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred to Kama were
expounded by Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva, in one thousand chapters.

Now these 'Kama Sutra' (Aphorisms on Love), written by Nandi in one thousand chapters,
were reproduced by Shvetaketu, the son of Uddvalaka, in an abbreviated form in five
hundred chapters, and this work was again similarly reproduced in an abridged form, in one
hundred and fifty chapters, by Babhravya, an inheritant of the Punchala (South of Delhi)
country. These one hundred and fifty chapters were then put together under seven heads or
parts named severally

1. Sadharana (general topics)
2. Samprayogika (embraces, etc.)
3. Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and females)
4. Bharyadhikarika (on one's own wife)
5. Paradika (on the wives of other people)
6. Vaisika (on courtesans)
7. Aupamishadika (on the arts of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.)
The sixth part of this last work was separately expounded by Dattaka at the request of the
public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the same way Charayana explained the first
part of it. The remaining parts, viz. the second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh, were
each separately expounded by

Suvarnanabha (second part)
Ghotakamukha (third part)
Gonardiya (fourth part)
Gonikaputra (fifth part)
Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.
Thus the work being written in parts by different authors was almost unobtainable and, as
the parts which were expounded by Dattaka and the others treated only of the particular
branches of the subject to which each part related, and moreover as the original work of
Babhravya was difficult to be mastered on account of its length, Vatsyayana, therefore,
composed his work in a small volume as an abstract of the whole of the works of the above
named authors.

1. Preface
2. Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue, Wealth, and Love
3. On the study of the Sixty-four Arts
4. On the Arrangements of a House, and Household Furniture; and about the Daily Life of a
Citizen, his Companions, Amusements, etc.

5. About classes of Women fit and unfit for Congress with the Citizen, and of Friends, and Messengers
1. Kinds of Union according to Dimensions, Force of Desire, and Time; and on the different kinds of Love
2. Of the Embrace
3. On Kissing
4. On Pressing or Marking with the Nails
5. On Biting, and the ways of Love to be employed with regard to Women of different countries
6. On the various ways of Lying down, and the different kinds of Congress
7. On the various ways of Striking, and of the Sounds appropriate to them
8. About females acting the part of Males
9. On holding the Lingam in the Mouth
10. How to begin and how to end the Congress. Different kinds of Congress, and Love Quarrels
1. Observations on Betrothal and Marriage
2. About creating Confidence in the Girl
3. Courtship, and the manifestation of the feelings by outward signs and deeds
4. On things to be done only by the Man, and the acquisition of the Girl thereby. Also
what is to be done by a Girl to gain over a Man and subject him to her

5. On the different Forms of Marriage
1. On the manner of living of a virtuous Woman, and of her behaviour during the absence of her Husband
2. On the conduct of the eldest Wife towards the other Wives of her Husband, and of the
younger Wife towards the elder ones. Also on the conduct of a Virgin Widow remarried; of a
Wife disliked by her Husband; of the Women in the King's Harem; and of a Husband who has
more than one Wife

1. On the Characteristics of Men and Women, and the reason why Women reject the Addresses
of Men. About Men who have Success with Women, and about Women who are easily gained over

2. About making Acquaintance with the Woman, and of the efforts to gain her over
3. Examination of the State of a Woman's mind
4. The Business of a Go-Between
5. On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other People
6. About the Women of the Royal Harem, and of the keeping of one's own Wife
1. Of the Causes of a Courtesan resorting to Men; of the means of Attaching to herself the
Man desired, and the kind of Man that it is desirable to be acquainted with

2. Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife
3. Of the Means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is beginning to be Weary, and of the way to get rid of him
4. About a Reunion with a former Lover
5. Of different kinds of Gain
6. Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts; and lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans
1. On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of tonic medicines
2. Of the means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging the Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts


Dharma is acquisition of religious merit, and is fully described in Chapter 5, volume III,
of Talboys Wheeler's History of India, and in the edicts of Asoka.

Artha is acquisition of wealth and property, etc.

Kama is love, pleasure and sensual gratification. These three words are retained
throughout in their original, as technical terms. They may also be defined as virtue,
wealth and pleasure, the three things repeatedly spoken of in the Laws of Manu.

MAN, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise Dharma, Artha and Kama
at different times and in such a manner that they may harmonize together and not clash in
any way. He should acquire learning in his childhood, in his youth and middle age he
should attend to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma, and thus
seek to gain Moksha, i.e. release from further transmigration. Or, on account of the
uncertainty of life, he may practise them at times when they are enjoined to be practised.
But one thing is to be noted, he should lead the life of a religious student until he
finishes his education.

Dharma is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of the Hindoos to do
certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices, which are not generally done,
because they do not belong to this world, and produce no visible effect; and not to do
other things, such as eating meat, which is often done because it belongs to this world,
and has visible effects.

Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from those conversant with it.
Artha is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth, equipages and friends. It
is, further, the protection of what is acquired, and the increase of what is protected.

Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants who may be versed in the ways of commerce.
Kama is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of hearing, feeling,
seeing, tasting and smelling, assisted by the mind together with the soul. The ingredient
in this is a peculiar contact between the organ of sense and its object, and the
consciousness of pleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama.

Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from the practice of citizens.
When all the three, viz. Dharma, Artha and Kama, come together, the former is better than
the one which follows it, i.e. Dharma is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama.
But Artha should always be first practised by the king for the livelihood of men is to be
obtained from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public women, they should
prefer it to the other two, and these are exceptions to the general rule.

Objection 1
Some learned men say that as Dharma is connected with things not belonging to this world,
it is appropriately treated of in a book; and so also is Artha, because it is practised
only by the application of proper means, and a knowledge of those means can only be
obtained by study and from books. But Kama being a thing which is practised even by the
brute creation, and which is to be found everywhere, does not want any work on the

This is not so. Sexual intercourse being a thing dependent on man and woman requires the
application of proper means by them, and those means are to be learnt from the Kama
Shastra. The non-application of proper means, which we see in the brute creation, is
caused by their being unrestrained, and by the females among them only being fit for
sexual intercourse at certain seasons and no more, and by their intercourse not being
preceded by thought of any kind.

Objection 2
The Lokayatikas1 say: Religious ordinances should not be observed, for they bear a future
fruit, and at the same time it is also doubtful whether they will bear any fruit at all.
What foolish person will give away that which is in his own hands into the hands of
another? Moreover, it is better to have a pigeon today than a peacock tomorrow; and a
copper coin which we have the certainty of obtaining, is better than a gold coin, the
possession of which is doubtful.

It is not so. 1st. Holy Writ, which ordains the practice of Dharma, does not admit of a doubt.
2nd. Sacrifices such as those made for the destruction of enemies, or for the fall of rain, are seen to bear fruit.
3rd. The sun, moon, stars, planets and other heavenly bodies appear to work intentionally for the good of the world.
4th. the existence of this world is effected by the observance of the rules respecting the
four classes of men and their four stages of life.2

5th. We see that seed is thrown into the ground with the hope of future crops.
Vatsyayana is therefore of opinion that the ordinances of religion must be obeyed.

Objection 3
Those who believe that destiny is the prime mover of all things say: We should not exert
ourselves to acquire wealth, for sometimes it is not acquired although we strive to get
it, while at other times it comes to us of itself without any exertion on our part.
Everything is therefore in the power of destiny, who is the lord of gain and loss, of
success and defeat, of pleasure and pain. Thus we see that Bali3 was raised to the throne
of Indra by destiny, and was also put down by the same power, and it is destiny only that
call reinstate him.

It is not right to say so. As the acquisition of every object presupposes at all events
some exertion on the part of man, the application of proper means may be said to be the
cause of gaining all our ends, and this application of proper means being thus necessary
(even where a thing is destined to happen), it follows that a person who does nothing will
enjoy no happiness.

Objection 4
Those who are inclined to think that Artha is the chief object to be obtained argue thus.
Pleasures should not be sought for, because they are obstacles to the practice of Dharma
and Artha, which are both superior to them, and are also disliked by meritorious persons.
Pleasures also bring a man into distress, and into contact with low persons; they cause
him to commit unrighteous deeds, and produce impurity in him; they make him regardless of
the future, and encourage carelessness and levity. And lastly, they cause him to be
disbelieved by all, received by none, and despised by everybody, including himself. It is
notorious, moreover, that many men who have given themselves up to pleasure alone, have
been ruined along with their families and relations. Thus, king Dandakya, of the Bhoja
dynasty, carried off a Brahman's daughter with evil intent, and was eventually ruined and
lost his kingdom. Indra, too, having violated the chastity of Ahalya, was made to suffer
for it. In a like manner the mighty Kichaka, who tried to seduce Draupadi, and Ravana, who
attempted to gain over Sita, were punished for their crimes. These and many others fell by
reason of their pleasures.4

This objection cannot be sustained, for pleasures, being as necessary for the existence
and well being of the body as food, are consequently equally required. They are, moreover,
the results of Dharma and Artha. Pleasures are, therefore, to be followed with moderation
and caution. No one refrains from cooking food because there are beggars to ask for it, or
from sowing seed because there are deer to destroy the corn when it is grown up.

Thus a man practising Dharma, Artha and Kama enjoys happiness both in this world and in
the world to come. The good perform those actions in which there is no fear as to what is
to result from them in the next world, and in which there is no danger to their welfare.
Any action which conduces to the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama together, or of any
two, or even one of them, should be performed, but an action which conduces to the
practice of one of them at the expense of the remaining two should not be performed.


These were certainly materialists who seemed to think that a bird in the hand was worth two in the bush.

Among the Hindoos the four classes of men are the Brahmans or priestly class, the Kshutrya
or warlike class, the Vaishya or agricultural and mercantile class, and the Shoodra or
menial class. The four stages of life are, the life of a religious student, the life of a
householder, the life of a hermit, and the life of a Sunyasi or devotee.

Bali was a demon who had conquered Indra and gained his throne, but was afterwards
overcome by Vishnu at the time of his fifth incarnation.

Dandakya is said to have abducted from the forest the daughter of a Brahman, named
Bhargava, and, being cursed by the Brahman, was buried with his kingdom under a shower of
dust. The place was called after his name the Dandaka forest, celebrated in the Bamayana,
but now unknown.

Ahalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. Indra caused her to believe that he was Gautama,
and thus enjoyed her. He was cursed by Gautama and subsequently afflicted with a thousand
ulcers on his body.

Kichaka was the brother-in-law of King Virata, with whom the Pandavas had taken refuge for
one year. Kichaka was killed by Bhima, who assumed the disguise of Draupadi. For this
story the Mahabarata should be referred to.

The story of Ravana is told in the Ramayana, which with the Mahabarata form the two great
epic poems of the Hindoos; the latter was written by Vyasa, and the former by Valmiki.

MAN should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinate thereto, in addition
to the study of the arts and sciences contained in Dharma and Artha. Even young maids
should study this Kama Sutra along with its arts and sciences before marriage, and after
it they should continue to do so with the consent of their husbands.

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed to study any
science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good, for women already
know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice is derived from the Kama Shastra, or
the science of Kama itself. Moreover, it is not only in this but in many other cases that,
though the practice of a science is known to all, only a few persons are acquainted with
the rules and laws on which the science is based. Thus the Yadnikas or sacrificers, though
ignorant of grammar, make use of appropriate words when addressing the different Deities,
and do not know how these words are framed. Again, persons do the duties required of them
on auspicious days, which are fixed by astrology, though they are not acquainted with the
science of astrology. In a like manner riders of horses and elephants train these animals
without knowing the science of training animals, but from practice only. And similarly the
people of the most distant provinces obey the laws of the kingdom from practice, and
because there is a king over them, and without further reason.1 And from experience we
find that some women, such as daughters of princes and their ministers, and public women,
are actually versed in the Kama Shastra.

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a part of it, by studying
its practice from some confidential friend. She should study alone in private the
sixty-four practices that form a part of the Kama Shastra. Her teacher should be one of
the following persons: the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and already married,2
or a female friend who can be trusted in everything, or the sister of her mother (i.e. her
aunt), or an old female servant, or a female beggar who may have formerly lived in the
family, or her own sister who can always be trusted.

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the Kama Sutra:
 Singing
 Playing on musical instruments
 Dancing
 Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music
 Writing and drawing
 Tattooing
 Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers
 Spreading and arranging beds or couches of flowers, or flowers upon the ground
 Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails and bodies, i.e. staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same
 Fixing stained glass into a floor
 The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions for reclining
 Playing on musical glasses filled with water
 Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns and reservoirs
 Picture making, trimming and decorating
 Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths
 Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots of flowers
 Scenic representations, stage playing Art of making ear ornaments Art of preparing perfumes and odours
 Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment in dress
 Magic or sorcery
 Quickness of hand or manual skill
 Culinary art, i.e. cooking and cookery
 Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituous extracts with proper flavour and colour
 Tailor's work and sewing
 Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs, etc., out of yarn or thread
 Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles and enigmatical questions
 A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one person finished, another
person had to commence at once, repeating another verse, beginning with the same letter
with which the last speaker's verse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to have
lost, and to be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind

 The art of mimicry or imitation
 Reading, including chanting and intoning
 Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a game chiefly by
women, and children and consists of a difficult sentence being given, and when repeated
quickly, the words are often transposed or badly pronounced

 Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff and bow and arrow
 Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring
 Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter
 Architecture, or the art of building
 Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems
 Chemistry and mineralogy
 Colouring jewels, gems and beads
 Knowledge of mines and quarries
 Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants, of nourishing
them, and determining their ages

 Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting
 Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak
 Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing the hair with
unguents and perfumes and braiding it

 The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of words in a peculiar way
 The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of various kinds. Some
speak by changing the beginning and end of words, others by adding unnecessary letters
between every syllable of a word, and so on

 Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects
 Art of making flower carriages
 Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms, and binding armlets
 Mental exercises, such as completing stanzas or verses on receiving a part of
them; or supplying one, two or three lines when the remaining lines are given
indiscriminately from different verses, so as to make the whole an entire verse with
regard to its meaning; or arranging the words of a verse written irregularly by separating
the vowels from the consonants, or leaving them out altogether; or putting into verse or
prose sentences represented by signs or symbols. There are many other such exercises.

 Composing poems
 Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies
 Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance of persons
 Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such as making cotton
to appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear as fine and good

 Various ways of gambling
 Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means of muntras or incantations
 Skill in youthful sports
 Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respect and compliments to others
 Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, etc.
 Knowledge of gymnastics
 Art of knowing the character of a man from his features
 Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses
 Arithmetical recreations
 Making artificial flowers
 Making figures and images in clay
A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and other winning qualities, and
also versed in the above arts, obtains the name of a Ganika, or public woman of high
quality, and receives a seat of honour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always
respected by the king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for by all,
she becomes an object of universal regard. The daughter of a king too as well as the
daughter of a minister, being learned in the above arts, can make their husbands
favourable to them, even though these may have thousands of other wives besides
themselves. And in the same manner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and
falls into distress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign country, by means
of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare knowledge of them gives attractiveness to a
woman, though the practice of them may be only possible or otherwise according to the
circumstances of each case. A man who is versed in these arts, who is loquacious and
acquainted with the arts of gallantry, gains very soon the hearts of women, even though he
is only acquainted with them for a short time.


The author wishes to prove that a great many things are done by people from practice and
custom, without their being acquainted with the reason of things, or the laws on which
they are based, and this is perfectly true.

The proviso of being married applies to all the teachers.

HAVING thus acquired learning, a man, with the wealth that he may have gained by gift,
conquest, purchase, deposit,1 or inheritance from his ancestors, should become a
householder, and pass the life of a citizen.2 He should take a house in a city, or large
village, or in the vicinity of good men, or in a place which is the resort of many
persons. This abode should be situated near some water, and divided into different
compartments for different purposes. It should be surrounded by a garden, and also contain
two rooms, an outer and an inner one. The inner room should be occupied by the females,
while the outer room, balmy with rich perfumes, should contain a bed, soft, agreeable to
the sight, covered with a clean white cloth, low in the middle part, having garlands and
bunches of flowers3 upon it, and a canopy above it, and two pillows, one at the top,
another at the bottom. There should be also a sort of couch besides, and at the head of
this a sort of stool, on which should be placed the fragrant ointments for the night, as
well as flowers, pots containing collyrium and other fragrant substances, things used for
perfuming the mouth, and the bark of the common citron tree. Near the couch, on the
ground, there should be a pot for spitting, a box containing ornaments, and also a lute
hanging from a peg made of the tooth of an elephant, a board for drawing, a pot containing
perfume, some books, and some garlands of the yellow amaranth flowers. Not far from the
couch, and on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toy cart, and a board for
playing with dice; outside the outer room there should be cages of birds,4 and a separate
place for spinning, carving and such like diversions. In the garden there should be a
whirling swing and a common swing, as also a bower of creepers covered with flowers, in
which a raised parterre should be made for sitting.

Now the householder, having got up in the morning and performed his necessary duties,5
should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity of ointments and perfumes to his body, put
some ornaments on his person and collyrium on his eyelids and below his eyes, colour his
lips with alacktaka,6 and look at himself in the glass. Having then eaten betel leaves,
with other things that give fragrance to the mouth, he should perform his usual business.
He should bathe daily, anoint his body with oil every other day, apply a lathering
substance7 to his body every three days, get his head (including face) shaved every four
days and the other parts of his body every five or ten days.8 All these things should be
done without fail, and the sweat of the armpits should also be removed. Meals should be
taken in the forenoon, in the afternoon, and again at night, according to Charayana. After
breakfast, parrots and other birds should be taught to speak, and the fighting of cocks,
quails, and rams should follow. A limited time should be devoted to diversions with
Pithamardas, Vitas, and Vidushakas,9 and then should be taken the midday sleep.10 After
this the householder, having put on his clothes and ornaments, should, during the
afternoon, converse with his friends. In the evening there should be singing, and after
that the householder, along with his friend, should await in his room, previously
decorated and perfumed, the arrival of the woman that may be attached to him, or he may
send a female messenger for her, or go for her himself. After her arrival at his house, he
and his friend should welcome her, and entertain her with a loving and agreeable
conversation. Thus end the duties of the day.

The following are the things to be done occasionally as diversions or amusements:
 Holding festivals11 in honour of different Deities
 Social gatherings of both sexes
 Drinking parties
 Picnics
 Other social diversions
On some particular auspicious day, an assembly of citizens should be convened in the
temple of Saraswati.12 There the skill of singers, and of others who may have come
recently to the town, should be tested, and on the following day they should always be
given some rewards. After that they may either be retained or dismissed, according as
their performances are liked or not by the assembly. The members of the assembly should
act in concert, both in times of distress as well as in times of prosperity, and it is
also the duty of these citizens to show hospitality to strangers who may have come to the
assembly. What is said above should be understood to apply to all the other festivals
which may be held in honour of the different Deities, according to the present rules.

Social Gatherings
When men of the same age, disposition and talents, fond of the same diversions and with
the same degree of education, sit together in company with public women,13 or in an
assembly of citizens, or at the abode of one among themselves, and engage in agreeable
discourse with each other, such is called a Sitting in company or a social gathering. The
subjects of discourse are to be the completion of verses half composed by others, and the
testing the knowledge of one another in the various arts. The women who may be the most
beautiful, who may like the same things that the men like, and who may have power to
attract the minds of others, are here done homage to.

Drinking Parties
Men and women should drink in one another's houses. And here the men should cause the
public women to drink, and should then drink themselves, liquors such as the Madhu,
Aireya, Sara and Asawa, which are of bitter and sour taste; also drinks concocted from the
barks of various trees, wild fruits and leaves.

Going to Gardens or Picnics
In the forenoon, men having dressed themselves should go to gardens on horseback,
accompanied by public women and followed by servants. And having done there all the duties
of the day, and passed the time in various agreeable diversions, such as the fighting of
quails, cocks and rams, and other spectacles, they should return home in the afternoon in
the same manner, bringing with them bunches of flowers, etc.

The same also applies to bathing in summer in water from which wicked or dangerous animals
have previously been taken out, and which has been built in on all sides.

Other Social Diversions
Spending nights playing with dice. Going out on moonlight nights. Keeping the festive day
in honour of spring. Plucking the sprouts and fruits of the mango trees. Eating the fibres
of lotuses. Eating the tender ears of corn. Picnicing in the forests when the trees get
their new foliage. The Udakakashvedika or sporting in the water. Decorating each other
with the flowers of some trees. Pelting each other with the flowers of the Kadamba tree,
and many other sports which may either be known to the whole country, or may be peculiar
to particular parts of it. These and similar other amusements should always be carried on
by citizens.

The above amusements should be followed by a person who diverts himself alone in company
with a courtesan, as well as by a courtesan who can do the same in company with her maid
servants or with citizens.

A Pithamarda14 is a man without wealth, alone in the world, whose only property consists
of his Mallika,15 some lathering substance and a red cloth, who comes from a good country,
and who is skilled in all the arts; and by teaching these arts is received in the company
of citizens, and in the abode of public women.

A Vita16 is a man who has enjoyed the pleasures of fortune, who is a compatriot of the
citizens with whom he associates, who is possessed of the qualities of a houseliolder, who
has his wife with him, and who is honoured in the assembly of citizens and in the abodes
of public women, and lives on their means and on them. A Vidushaka17 (also called a
Vaihasaka, i.e. one who provokes laughter) is a person only acquainted with some of the
arts, who is a jester, and who is trusted by all.

These persons are employed in matters of quarrels and reconciliations between citizens and public women.
This remark applies also to female beggars, to women with their heads shaved, to
adulterous women, and to public women skilled in all the various arts.

Thus a citizen living in his town or village, respected by all, should call on the persons
of his own caste who may be worth knowing. He should converse in company and gratify his
friends by his society, and obliging others by his assistance in various matters, he
should cause them to assist one another in the same way.

There are some verses on this subject as follows:
'A citizen discoursing, not entirely in the Sanscrit language,18 nor wholly in the
dialects of the country, on various topics in society, obtains great respect. The wise
should not resort to a society disliked by the public, governed by no rules, and intent on
the destruction of others. But a learned man living in a society which acts according to
the wishes of the people, and which has pleasure for its only object is highly respected
in this world.'


Gift is peculiar to a Brahman, conquest to a Kshatrya, while purchase, deposit, and other
means of acquiring wealth belongs to the Vaishya.

This term would appear to apply generally to an inhabitant of Hindoostan. it is not meant
only for a dweller in a city, like the Latin Urbanus as opposed to Rusticus.

Natural garden flowers.
Such as quails, partridges, parrots, starlings, etc.
The calls of nature are always performed by the Hindoos the first thing in the morning.
A colour made from lac.
This would act instead of soap, which was not introduced until the rule of the Mahomedans.
Ten days are allowed when the hair is taken out with a pair of pincers.
These are characters generally introduced in the Hindoo drama; their characteristics will be explained further on.
Noonday sleep is only allowed in summer, when the nights are short.
These are very common in all parts of India.
In the 'Asiatic Miscellany', and in Sir W. Jones's works, will be found a spirited hymn
addressed to this goddess, who is adored as the patroness of the fine arts, especially of
music and rhetoric, as the inventress of the Sanscrit language, etc. etc. She is the
goddess of harmony, eloquence and language, and is somewhat analogous to Minerva. For
farther information about her, see Edward Moor's Hindoo Pantheon.

The public women, or courtesans (Vesya), of the early Hindoos have often been compared
with the Hetera of the Greeks. The subject is dealt with at some length in H. H. Wilson's
Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindoos, in two volumes, Trubner and Co., 1871. It
may be fairly considered that the courtesan was one of the elements, and an important
element too, of early Hindoo society, and that her education and intellect were both
superior to that of the women of the household. Wilson says, 'By the Vesya or courtesan,
however, we are not to understand a female who has disregarded the obligation of law or
the precepts of virtue, but a character reared by a state of manners unfriendly to the
admission of wedded females into society, and opening it only at the expense of reputation
to women who were trained for association with men by personal and mental acquirements to
which the matron was a stranger.'

According to this description a Pithamarda would be a sort of professor of all the arts,
and as such received as the friend and confidant of the citizen

A seat in the form of the letter T.
The Vita is supposed to represent somewhat the character of the Parasite of the Greek
comedy. It is possible that he was retained about the person of the wealthy and dissipated
as a kind of private instructor, as well as an entertaining companion.

Vidushaka is evidently the buffoon and jester. Wilson says of him that he is the humble
companion, not the servant, of a prince or man of rank, and it is a curious peculiarity
that he is always a Brahman. He bears more affinity to Sancho Panza, perhaps than any
other character in western fiction, imitating him in his combination of shrewdness and
simplicity, his fondness of good living and his love of ease. In the dramas of intrigue he
exhibits some of the talents of Mercury, but with less activity and ingenuity, and
occasionally suffers by his interference. According to the technical definition of his
attributes he is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person, age, and attire.

This means, it is presumed, that the citizen should be acquainted with several languages.
The middle part of this paragraph might apply to the Nihilists and Fenians of the day, or
to secret societies. It was perhaps a reference to the Thugs. CHAPTER 5

WHEN Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the rules of the Holy Writ
(i.e. by lawful marriage) with virgins of their own caste, it then becomes a means of
acquiring lawful progeny and good fame, and it is not also opposed to the customs of the
world. On the contrary the practice of Kama with women of the higher castes, and with
those previously enjoyed by others, even though they be of the same caste, is prohibited.
But the practice of Kama with women of the lower castes, with women excommunicated from
their own caste, with public women, and with women twice married,1 is neither enjoined nor
prohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasure only.

Nayikas,2 therefore, are of three kinds, viz. maids, women twice married, and public
women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion that there is a fourth kind of Nayika, viz. a
woman who is resorted to on some special occasion even though she be previously married to
another. These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:

This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many others besides myself.
I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to a public woman though she belongs to a higher
caste than mine, and, in so doing, I shall not be violating the ordinances of Dharma.

Or thus:
This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before me; there is,
therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.

Or thus:
This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband, and exercises a mastery
over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if, therefore, she becomes united with me she will
cause her husband to abandon my enemy.

Or thus:
This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful, in my favour, he being
at present disaffected towards me, and intent on doing me some harm.

Or thus:
By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some friend of mine, or shall be
able to effect the ruin of some enemy, or shall accomplish some other difficult purpose.

Or thus:
By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so obtain his vast riches which I covet.
Or thus:
The union of this woman with me is not attended with any danger, and will bring me wealth,
of which, on account of my poverty and inability to support myself, I am very much in
need. I shall therefore obtain her vast riches in this way without any difficulty.

Or thus:
This woman loves me ardently, and knows all my weak points; if therefore, I am unwilling
to be united with her, she will make my faults public, and thus tarnish my character and
reputation. Or she will bring some gross accusation against me, of which it may be hard to
clear myself, and I shall be ruined. Or perhaps she will detach from me her husband who is
powerful, and yet under her control, and will unite him to my enemy, or will herself join
the latter.

Or thus:
The husband of this woman has violated the chastity of my wives, I shall therefore return
that injury by seducing his wives.

Or thus:
By the help of this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king, who has taken shelter with
her, and whom I am ordered by the king to destroy.

Or thus:
The woman whom I love is under the control of this woman. I shall, through the influence
of the latter, be able to get at the former.

Or thus:
This woman will bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and beauty, but who is hard to
get at, and under the control of another.

Or lastly thus:
My enemy is a friend of this woman's husband, I shall therefore cause her to join him, and
will thus create an enmity between her husband and him.

For these and similar other reasons the wives of other men may be resorted to, but it must
be distinctly understood that is only allowed for special reasons, and not for mere carnal

Charayana thinks that under these circumstances there is also a fifth kind of Nayika, viz.
a woman who is kept by a minister, or who repairs to him occasionally; or a widow who
accomplishes the purpose of a man with the person to whom she resorts.

Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who passes the life of an ascetic and in the condition of a
widow may be considered as a sixth kind of Nayika.

Ghotakamukha says that the daughter of a public woman, and a female servant, who are still
virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika.

Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine that any woman born of good family, after she has come
of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika.

But these four latter kinds of Nayikas do not differ much from the first four kinds of
them, as there is no separate object in resorting to them. Therefore, Vatsyayana is of
opinion that there are only four kinds of Nayikas, i.e. the maid, the twice-married woman,
the public woman, and the woman resorted to for a special purpose.

The following women are not to be enjoyed:
 A leper
 A lunatic
 A woman turned out of caste
 A woman who reveals secrets
 A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse
 A woman who is extremely white
 A woman who is extremely black
 A bad-smelling woman
 A woman who is a near relation
 A woman who is a female friend
 A woman who leads the life of an ascetic
 And, lastly the wife of a relation, of a friend, of a learned Brahman, and of the king
The followers of Babhravya say that any woman who has been enjoyed by five men is a fit
and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra is of opinion that even when this is the
case, the wives of a relation, of a learned Brahman and of a king should be excepted.

The following are of the kind of friends:
 One who has played with you in the dust, i.e. in childhood
 One who is bound by an obligation
 One who is of the same disposition and fond of the same things
 One who is a fellow student
 One who is acquainted with your secrets and faults, and whose faults and secrets are also known to you
 One who is a child of your nurse
 One who is brought up with you one who is an hereditary friend
These friends should possess the following qualities:
 They should tell the truth
 They should not be changed by time
 They should be favourable to your designs
 They should be firm
 They should be free from covetousness
 They should not be capable of being gained over by others
 They should not reveal your secrets
Charayana says that citizens form friendship with washermen, barbers, cowherds, florists,
druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers, beggars, Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas,
as also with the wives of all these people.

A messenger should possess the following qualities:
 Skilfulness
 Boldness
 Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward signs
 Absence of confusion, i.e. no shyness
 Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or say
 Good manners
 Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing different things
 Ingenuity in business
 Quick comprehension
 Quick application of remedies, i.e. quick and ready resources
And this part ends with a verse:
'The man who is ingenious and wise, who is accompanied by a friend, and who knows the
intentions of others, as also the proper time and place for doing everything, can gain
over, very easily, even a woman who is very hard to be obtained.'


This term does not apply to a widow, but to a woman who has probably left her husband, and
is living with some other person as a married woman, maritalement, as they say in France.

Any woman fit to be enjoyed without sin. The object of the enjoyment of women is twofold,
viz. pleasure and progeny. Any woman who can be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of
accomplishing either the one or the other of these two objects is a Nayika. The fourth
kind of Nayika which Vatsya admits further on is neither enjoyed for pleasure or for
progeny, but merely for accomplishing some special purpose in hand. The word Nayika is
retained as a technical term throughout.

Kind of Union
MAN is divided into three classes, viz. the hare man, the bull man, and the horse man,
according to the size of his lingam.

Woman also, according to the depth of her yoni, is either a female deer, a mare, or a female elephant.
There are thus three equal unions between persons of corresponding dimensions, and there
are six unequal unions, when the dimensions do not correspond, or nine in all, as the
following table shows:

Hare Deer Hare Mare
Bull Mare Hare Elephant
Horse Elephant Bull Deer
Bull Elephant
Horse Deer
Horse Mare
In these unequal unions, when the male exceeds the female in point of size, his union with
a woman who is immediately next to him in size is called high union, and is of two kinds;
while his union with the woman most remote from his size is called the highest union, and
is of one kind only. On the other hand, when the female exceeds the male in point of size,
her union with a man immediately next to her in size is called low union, and is of two
kinds; while her union with a man most remote from her in size is called the lowest union,
and is of one kind only.

In other words, the horse and mare, the bull and deer, form the high union, while the
horse and deer form the highest union. On the female side, the elephant and bull, the mare
and hare, form low unions, while the elephant has and the hare make the lowest unions.
There are, then, nine kinds of union according to dimensions. Amongst all these, equal
unions are the best, those of a superlative degree, i.e. the highest and the lowest, are
the worst, and the rest are middling, and with them the high1 are better than the low.

There are also nine kinds of union according to the force of passion or carnal desire, as follows:

Small Small Small Middling
Middling Middling Small Intense
Intense Intense Middling Small
Middling Intense
Intense Small
Intense Middling
A man is called a man of small passion whose desire at the time of sexual union is not
great, whose semen is scanty, and who cannot bear the warm embraces of the female.

Those who differ from this temperament are called men of middling passion, while those of
intense passion are full of desire.

In the same way, women are supposed to have the three degrees of feeling as specified above.
Lastly, according to time there are three kinds of men and women, the short-timed, the
moderate-timed, and the long-timed; and of these, as in the previous statements, there are
nine kinds of union.

But on this last head there is a difference of opinion about the female, which should be stated.
Auddalika says, 'Females do not emit as males do. The males simply remove their desire,
while the females, from their consciousness of desire, feel a certain kind of pleasure,
which gives them satisfaction, but it is impossible for them to tell you what kind of
pleasure they feel. The fact from which this becomes evident is, that males, when engaged
in coition, cease of themselves after emission, and are satisfied, but it is not so with

This opinion is however objected to on the grounds that, if a male be a long-timed, the
female loves him the more, but if he be short-timed, she is dissatisfied with him. And
this circumstance, some say, would prove that the female emits also.

But this opinion does not hold good, for if it takes a long time to allay a woman's
desire, and during this time she is enjoying great pleasure, it is quite natural then that
she should wish for its continuation. And on this subject there is a verse as follows:

'By union with men the lust, desire, or passion of women is satisfied, and the pleasure
derived from the consciousness of it is called their satisfaction.'

The followers of Babhravya, however, say that the semen of women continues to fall from
the beginning of the sexual union to its end, and it is right that it should be so, for if
they had no semen there would be no embryo.

To this there is an objection. In the beginning of coition the passion of the woman is
middling, and she cannot bear the vigorous thrusts of her lover, but by degrees her
passion increases until she ceases to think about her body, and then finally she wishes to
stop from further coition.

This objection, however, does not hold good, for even in ordinary things that revolve with
great force, such as a potter's wheel, or a top, we find that the motion at first is slow,
but by degrees it becomes very rapid. In the same way the passion of the woman having
gradually increased, she has a desire to discontinue coition, when all the semen has
fallen away. And there is a verse with regard to this as follows:

'The fall of the semen of the man takes place only at the end of coition, while the semen
of the woman falls continually, and after the semen of both has all fallen away then they
wish for the discontinuance of coition.'2

Lastly, Vatsyayana is of opinion that the semen of the female falls in the same way as that of the male.
Now some may ask here: If men and women are beings of the same kind, and are engaged in
bringing about the same results, why should they have different works to do?

Vatsya says that this is so, because the ways of working as well as the consciousness of
pleasure in men and women are different. The difference in the ways of working, by which
men are the actors, and women are the persons acted upon, is owing to the nature of the
male and the female, otherwise the actor would be sometimes the person acted upon, and
vice versa. And from this difference in the ways of working follows the difference in the
consciousness of pleasure, for a man thinks, 'this woman is united with me', and a woman
thinks, 'I am united with this man'.

It may be said that, if the ways of working in men and women are different, why should not
there be a difference, even in the pleasure they feel, and which is the result of those

But this objection is groundless, for, the person acting and the person acted upon being
of different kinds, there is a reason for the difference in their ways of working; but
there is no reason for any difference in the pleasure they feel, because they both
naturally derive pleasure from the act they perform.3

On this again some may say that when different persons are engaged in doing the same work,
we find that they accomplish the same end or purpose; while, on the contrary, in the case
of men and women we find that each of them accomplishes his or her own end separately, and
this is inconsistent. But this is a mistake, for we find that sometimes two things are
done at the same time, as for instance in the fighting of rams, both the rams receive the
shock at the same time on their heads. Again, in throwing one wood apple against another,
and also in a fight or struggle of wrestlers. If it be said that in these cases the things
employed are of the same kind, it is answered that even in the case of men and women, the
nature of the two persons is the same. And as the difference in their ways of working
arises from the difference of their conformation only, it follows that men experience the
same kind of pleasure as women do.

There is also a verse on this subject as follows:
'Men and women, being of the same nature, feel the same kind of pleasure, and therefore a
man should marry such a woman as will love him ever afterwards.'

The pleasure of men and women being thus proved to be of the same kind, it follows that,
in regard to time, there are nine kinds of sexual intercourse, in the same way as there
are nine kinds, according to the force of passion.

There being thus nine kinds of union with regard to dimensions, force of passion, and
time, respectively, by making combinations of them, innumerable kinds of union would be
produced. Therefore in each particular kind of sexual union, men should use such means as
they may think suitable for the occasion.4

At the first time of sexual union the passion of the male is intense, and his time is
short, but in subsequent unions on the same day the reverse of this is the case. With the
female, however, it is the contrary, for at the first time her passion is weak, and then
her time long, but on subsequent occasions on the same day, her passion is intense and her
time short, until her passion is satisfied.

On the different Kind of Love
Men learned in the humanities are of opinion that love is of four kinds:
Love acquired by continual habit
Love resulting from the imagination
Love resulting from belief
Love resulting from the perception of external objects
Love resulting from the constant and continual performance of some act is called love
acquired by constant practice and habit, as for instance the love of sexual intercourse,
the love of hunting, the love of drinking, the love of gambling, etc., etc.

Love which is felt for things to which we are not habituated, and which proceeds entirely
from ideas, is called love resulting from imagination, as for instance that love which
some men and women and eunuchs feel for the Auparishtaka or mouth congress, and that which
is felt by all for such things as embracing, kissing, etc., etc.

The love which is mutual on both sides, and proved to be true, when each looks upon the
other as his or her very own, such is called love resulting from belief by the learned.

The love resulting from the perception of external objects is quite evident and well known
to the world. because the pleasure which it affords is superior to the pleasure of the
other kinds of love, which exists only for its sake.

What has been said in this chapter upon the subject of sexual union is sufficient for the
learned; but for the edification of the ignorant, the same will now be treated of at
length and in detail.


High unions are said to be better than low ones, for in the former it is possible for the
male to satisfy his own passion without injuring the female, while in the latter it is
difficult for the female to be satisfied by any means.

The strength of passion with women varies a great deal, some being easily satisfied, and
others eager and willing to go on for a long time. To satisfy these last thoroughly a man
must have recourse to art. It is certain that a fluid flows from the woman in larger or
smaller quantities, but her satisfaction is not complete until she has experienced the
'spasme génêtique', as described in a French work recently published and called Brevaire
as l'Amour Experimental par le Dr Jules Guyot.

This is a long dissertation very common among Sanscrit authors, both when writing and
talking socially. They start certain propositions, and then argue for and against them.
What it is presumed the author means is that, though both men and women derive pleasure
from the act of coition, the way it is produced is brought about by different means, each
individual performing his own work in the matter, irrespective of the other, and each
deriving individually their own consciousness of pleasure from the act they perform. There
is a difference in the work that each does, and a difference in the consciousness of
pleasure that each has, but no difference in the pleasure they feel, for each feels that
pleasure to a greater or lesser degree.

This paragraph should be particularly noted, for it specially applies to married men and
their wives. So many men utterly ignore the feelings of the women, and never pay the
slightest attention to the passion of the latter. To understand the subject thoroughly, it
is absolutely necessary to study it, and then a person will know that, as dough is
prepared for baking, so must a woman be prepared for sexual intercourse, if she is to
derive satisfaction from it,

THIS part of the Kama Shastra, which treats of sexual union, is also called 'Sixty-four'
(Chatushshashti). Some old authors say that it is called so, because it contains
sixty-four chapters. Others are of opinion that the author of this part being a person
named Panchala, and the person who recited the part of the Rig Veda called Dashatapa,
which contains sixty-four verses, being also called Panchala, the name 'sixty-four' has
been given to the part of the work in honour of the Rig Vedas. The followers of Babhravya
say on the other hand that this part contains eight subjects, viz. the embrace, kissing,
scratching with the nails or fingers, biting, lying down, making various sounds, playing
the part of a man, and the Auparishtaka, or mouth congress. Each of these subjects being
of eight kinds, and eight multiplied by eight being sixty-four, this part is therefore
named 'sixty-four'. But Vatsyayana affirms that as this part contains also the following
subjects, viz. striking, crying, the acts of a man during congress, the various kinds of
congress, and other subjects, the name 'sixty-four' is given to it only accidentally. As,
for instance, we say this tree is 'Saptaparna', or seven-leaved, this offering of rice is
'Panchavarna', or five-coloured, but the tree has not seven leaves, neither has the rice
five colours.

However the part sixty-four is now treated of, and the embrace, being the first subject, will now be considered.
Now the embrace which indicates the mutual love of a man and woman who have come together is of four kinds:
The action in each case is denoted by the meaning of the word which stands for it.
When a man under some pretext or other goes in front or alongside of a woman and touches
her body with his own, it is called the 'touching embrace'.

When a woman in a lonely place bends down, as if to pick up something, and pierces, as it
were, a man sitting or standing, with her breasts, and the man in return takes hold of
them, it is called a 'piercing embrace'.

The above two kinds of embrace take place only between persons who do not, as yet, speak freely with each other.
When two lovers are walking slowly together, either in the dark, or in a place of public
resort, or in a lonely place, and rub their bodies against each other, it is called a
'rubbing embrace'.

When on the above occasion one of them presses the other's body forcibly against a wall or
pillar, it is called a 'pressing embrace'.

These two last embraces are peculiar to those who know the intentions of each other.
At the time of the meeting the four following kinds of embrace are used:
Jataveshtitaka, or the twining of a creeper.
Vrikshadhirudhaka, or climbing a tree.
Tila-Tandulaka, or the mixture of sesamum seed with rice.
Kshiraniraka, or milk and water embrace.
When a woman, clinging to a man as a creeper twines round a tree, bends his head down to
hers with the desire of kissing him and slightly makes the sound of sut sut, embraces him,
and looks lovingly towards him, it is called an embrace like the 'twining of a creeper'.

When a woman, having placed one of her feet on the foot of her lover, and the other on one
of his thighs, passes one of her arms round his back, and the other on his shoulders,
makes slightly the sounds of singing and cooing, and wishes, as it were, to climb up him
in order to have a kiss, it is called an embrace like the 'climbing of a tree'.

These two kinds of embrace take place when the lover is standing.
When lovers lie on a bed, and embrace each other so closely that the arms and thighs of
the one are encircled by the arms and thighs of the other, and are, as it were, rubbing up
against them, this is called an embrace like 'the mixture of sesamum seed with rice'.

When a man and a woman are very much in love with each other, and, not thinking of any
pain or hurt, embrace each other as if they were entering into each other's bodies either
while the woman is sitting on the lap of the man, or in front of him, or on a bed, then it
is called an embrace like a 'mixture of milk and water'.

These two kinds of embrace take place at the time of sexual union.
Babhravya has thus related to us the above eight kinds of embraces.
Suvarnanabha moreover gives us four ways of embracing simple members of the body, which are:
The embrace of the thighs.
The embrace of the jaghana, i.e. the part of the body from the navel downwards to the thighs.
The embrace of the breasts.
The embrace of the forehead.
When one of two lovers presses forcibly one or both of the thighs of the other between his
or her own, it is called the 'embrace of thighs'.

When a man presses the jaghana or middle part of the woman's body against his own, and
mounts upon her to practise, either scratching with the nail or finger, or biting, or
striking, or kissing, the hair of the woman being loose and flowing, it is called the
'embrace of the jaghana'.

When a man places his breast between the breasts of a of Vatsyayana woman and presses her
with it, it is called the 'embrace of the breasts'.

When either of the lovers touches the mouth, the eyes and the forehead of the other with
his or her own, it is called the 'embrace of the forehead'.

Some say that even shampooing is a kind of embrace, because there is a touching of bodies
in it. But Vatsyayana thinks that shampooing is performed at a different time, and for a
different purpose, and it is also of a different character, it cannot be said to be
included in the embrace.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
'The whole subject of embracing is of such a nature that men who ask questions about it,
or who hear about it, or who talk about it, acquire thereby a desire for enjoyment. Even
those embraces that are not mentioned in the Kama Shastra should be practised at the time
of sexual enjoyment, if they are in any way conducive to the increase of love or passion.
The rules of the Shastra apply so long as the passion of man is middling, but when the
wheel of love is once set in motion, there is then no Shastra and no order.'

IT is said by some that there is no fixed time or order between the embrace, the kiss, and
the pressing or scratching with the nails or fingers, but that all these things should be
done generally before sexual union takes place, while striking and making the various
sounds generally takes place at the time of the union. Vatsyayana, however, thinks that
anything may take place at any time, for love does not care for time or order.

On the occasion of the first congress, kissing and the other things mentioned above should
be done moderately, they should not be continued for a long time, and should be done
alternately. On subsequent occasions, however, the reverse of all this may take place, and
moderation will not be necessary, they may continue for a long time, and, for the purpose
of kindling love, they may be all done at the same time.

The following are the places for kissing: the forehead, the eyes, the cheeks, the throat,
the bosom, the breasts, the lips, and the interior of the mouth. Moreover the people of
the Lat country kiss also on the following places: the joints of the thighs, the arms and
the navel. But Vatsyayana thinks that though kissing is practised by these people in the
above places on account of the intensity of their love, and the customs of their country,
it is not fit to be practised by all.

Now in a case of a young girl there are three sorts of kisses:

The nominal kiss
The throbbing kiss
The touching kiss
When a girl only touches the mouth of her lover with her own, but does not herself do
anything, it is called the 'nominal kiss'.

When a girl, setting aside her bashfulness a little, wishes to touch the lip that is
pressed into her mouth, and with that object moves her lower lip, but not the upper one,
it is called the 'throbbing kiss'.

When a girl touches her lover's lip with her tongue, and having shut her eyes, places her
hands on those of her lover, it is called the 'touching kiss'.

Other authors describe four other kinds of kisses:

The straight kiss
The bent kiss
The turned kiss
The pressed kiss
When the lips of two lovers are brought into direct contact with each other, it is called a 'straight kiss'.
When the heads of two lovers are bent towards each other, and when so bent, kissing takes
place, it is called a 'bent kiss'.

When one of them turns up the face of the other by holding the head and chin, and then
kissing, it is called a 'turned kiss'.

Lastly when the lower lip is pressed with much force, it is called a 'pressed kiss'.
There is also a fifth kind of kiss called the 'greatly pressed kiss', which is effected by
taking hold of the lower lip between two fingers, and then, after touching it with the
tongue, pressing it with great force with the lip.

As regards kissing, a wager may be laid as to which will get hold of the lips of the other
first. If the woman loses, she should pretend to cry, should keep her lover off by shaking
her hands, and turn away from him and dispute with him saying, 'let another wager be
laid'. If she loses this a second time, she should appear doubly distressed, and when her
lover is off his guard or asleep, she should get hold of his lower lip, and hold it in her
teeth, so that it should not slip away, and then she should laugh, make a loud noise,
deride him, dance about, and say whatever she likes in a joking way, moving her eyebrows
and rolling her eyes. Such are the wagers and quarrels as far as kissing is concerned, but
the same may be applied with regard to the pressing or scratching with the nails and
fingers, biting and striking. All these however are only peculiar to men and women of
intense passion.

When a man kisses the upper lip of a woman, while she in return kisses his lower lip, it
is called the 'kiss of the upper lip'.

When one of them takes both the lips of the other between his or her own, it is called 'a
clasping kiss'. A woman, however, only takes this kind of kiss from a man who has no
moustache. And on the occasion of this kiss, if one of them touches the teeth, the tongue,
and the palate of the other, with his or her tongue, it is called the 'fighting of the
tongue'. In the same way, the pressing of the teeth of the one against the mouth of the
other is to be practised.

Kissing is of four kinds: moderate, contracted, pressed, and soft, according to the
different parts of the body which are kissed, for different kinds of kisses are
appropriate for different parts of the body.

When a woman looks at the face of her lover while he is asleep and kisses it to show her
intention or desire, it is called a 'kiss that kindles love'.

When a woman kisses her lover while he is engaged in business, or while he is quarrelling
with her, or while he is looking at something else, so that his mind may be turned away,
it is called a 'kiss that turns away'.

When a lover coming home late at night kisses his beloved, who is asleep on her bed, in
order to show her his desire, it is called a 'kiss that awakens'. On such an occasion the
woman may pretend to be asleep at the time of her lover's arrival, so that she may know
his intention and obtain respect from him.

When a person kisses the reflection of the person he loves in a mirror, in water, or on a
wall, it is called a 'kiss showing the intention'.

When a person kisses a child sitting on his lap, or a picture, or an image, or figure, in
the presence of the person beloved by him, it is called a 'transferred kiss'.

When at night at a theatre, or in an assembly of caste men, a man coming up to a woman
kisses a finger of her hand if she be standing, or a toe of her foot if she be sitting, or
when a woman is shampooing her lover's body, places her face on his thigh (as if she was
sleepy) so as to inflame his passion, and kisses his thigh or great toe, it is called a
'demonstrative kiss'.

There is also a verse on this subject as follows:
'Whatever things may be done by one of the lovers to the other, the same should be
returned by the other, i.e. if the woman kisses him he should kiss her in return, if she
strikes him he should also strike her in return.'

WHEN love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching the body with them is
practised, and it is done on the following occasions: on the first visit; at the time of
setting out on a journey; on the return from a journey; at the time when an angry lover is
reconciled; and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

But pressing with the nails is not a usual thing except with those who are intensely
passionate, i.e. full of passion. It is employed, together with biting, by those to whom
the practice is agreeable.

Pressing with the nails is of the eight following kinds, according to the forms of the marks which are produced:

 Sounding
 Half moon
 A circle
 A line
 A tiger's nail or claw
 A peacock's foot
 The jump of a hare
 The leaf of a blue lotus
The places that are to be pressed with the nails are as follows: the arm pit, the throat,
the breasts, the lips, the jaghana, or middle parts of the body, and the thighs. But
Suvarnanabha is of opinion that when the impetuosity of passion is excessive, the places
need not be considered.

The qualities of good nails are that they should be bright, well set, clean, entire,
convex, soft, and glossy in appearance. Nails are of three kinds according to their size:

Large nails, which give grace to the hands, and attract the hearts of women from their
appearance, are possessed by the Bengalees.

Small nails, which can be used in various ways, and are to be applied only with the object
of giving pleasure, are possessed by the people of the southern districts.

Middling nails, which contain the properties of both the above kinds, belong to the people of the Maharashtra.
When a person presses the chin, the breasts, the lower lip, or the jaghana of another so
softly that no scratch or mark is left, but only the hair on the body becomes erect from
the touch of the nails, and the nails themselves make a sound, it is called a 'sounding or
pressing with the nails'.

This pressing is used in the case of a young girl when her lover shampoos her, scratches
her head, and wants to trouble or frighten her.

The curved mark with the nails, which is impressed on the neck and the breasts, is called the 'half moon'.
When the half moons are impressed opposite to each other, it is called a 'circle'. This
mark with the nails is generally made on the navel, the small cavities about the buttocks,
and on the joints of the thigh.

A mark in the form of a small line, and which can be made on any part of the body, is called a 'line'.
This same line, when it is curved, and made on the breast, is called a 'tiger's nail'.
When a curved mark is made on the breast by means of the five nails, it is called a
'peacock's foot'. This mark is made with the object of being praised, for it requires a
great deal of skill to make it properly.

When five marks with the nails are made close to one another near the nipple of the
breast, it is called 'the jump of a hare'.

A mark made on the breast or on the hips in the form of a leaf of the blue lotus is called the 'leaf of a blue lotus'.
When a person is going on a journey, and makes a mark on the thighs, or on the breast, it
is called a 'token of remembrance'. On such an occasion three or four lines are impressed
close to one another with the nails.

Here ends the marking with the nails. Marks of other kinds than the above may also be made
with the nails, for the ancient authors say that, as there are innumerable degrees of
skill among men (the practice of this art being known to all), so there are innumerable
ways of making these marks. And as pressing or marking with the nails is independent of
love, no one can say with certainty how many different kinds of marks with the nails do
actually exist. The reason of this is, Vatsyayana says, that as variety is necessary in
love, so love is to be Produced by means of variety. It is on this account that
courtesans, who are well acquainted with various ways and means, become so desirable, for
if variety is sought in all the arts and amusements, such as archery and others, how much
more should it be sought after in the present case.

The marks of the nails should not be made on married women, but particular kinds of marks
may be made on their private parts for the remembrance and increase of love.

There are also some verses on the subject, as follows:
'The love of a woman who sees the marks of nails on the private parts of her body, even
though they are old and almost worn out, becomes again fresh and new. If there be no marks
of nails to remind a person of the passages of love, then love is lessened in the same way
as when no union takes place for a long time.'

Even when a stranger sees at a distance a young woman with the marks of nails on her
breast,1 he is filled with love and respect for her.

A man, also, who carries the marks of nails and teeth on some parts of his body,
influences the mind of a woman, even though it be ever so firm. In short, nothing tends to
increase love so much as the effects of marking with the nails, and biting.


From this it would appear that in ancient times the breasts of women were not covered, and
this is seen in the paintings of the Ajunta and other caves, where we find that the
breasts of even royal ladies and others are exposed.

ALL the places that can be kissed are also the places that can be bitten, except the upper
lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes.

The qualities of good teeth are as follows: They should be equal, possessed of a pleasing
brightness, capable of being coloured, of proper proportions, unbroken, and with sharp

The defects of teeth on the other hand are that they are blunt, protruding from the gums,
rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

The following are the different kinds of biting:

The hidden bite
The swollen bite
The point
The line of points
The coral and the jewel
The line of jewels
The broken cloud
The biting of the boar
The biting, which is shown only by the excessive redness of the skin that is bitten, is called the 'hidden bite'.
When the skin is pressed down on both sides, it is called the 'swollen bite'.
When a small portion of the skin is bitten with two teeth only, it is called the 'point'.
When such small portions of the skin are bitten with all the teeth, it is called the 'line of points'.
The biting, which is done by bringing together the teeth and the lips, is called the
'coral and the jewel'. The lip is the coral, and the teeth the jewel.

When biting is done with all the teeth, it is called the 'line of jewels'.
The biting, which consists of unequal risings in a circle, and which comes from the space
between the teeth, is called the 'broken cloud'. This is impressed on the breasts.

The biting, which consists of many broad rows of marks near to one another, and with red
intervals, is called the 'biting of a boar'. This is impressed on the breasts and the
shoulders; and these two last modes of biting are peculiar to persons of intense passion.

The lower lip is the place on which the 'hidden bite', the swollen bite', and the 'point'
are made; again the 'swollen bite' and the 'coral and the jewel' bite are done on the
cheek. Kissing, pressing with the nails, and biting are the ornaments of the left cheek,
and when the word cheek is used it is to be understood as the left cheek.

Both the 'line of points' and the 'line of jewels' are to be impressed on the throat, the
arm pit, and the joints of the thighs; but the 'line of points' alone is to be impressed
on the forehead and the thighs.

The marking with the nails, and the biting of the following things - an ornament of the
forehead, an ear ornament, a bunch of flowers, a betel leaf, or a tamala leaf, which are
worn by, or belong to the woman that is beloved - are signs of the desire of enjoyment.

Here end the different kinds of biting.
In the affairs of love a man should do such things as are agreeable to the women of different countries.
The women of the central countries (i.e. between the Ganges and the Jumna) are noble in
their character, not accustomed to disgraceful practices, and dislike pressing the nails
and biting.

The women of the Balhika country are gained over by striking.
The women of Avantika are fond of foul pleasures, and have not good manners.
The women of the Maharashtra are fond of practising the sixty-four arts, they utter low
and harsh words, and like to be spoken to in the same way, and have an impetuous desire of

The women of Pataliputra (i.e. the modern Patna) are of the same nature as the women of
the Maharashtra, but show their likings only in secret.

The women of the Dravida country, though they are rubbed and pressed about at the time of
sexual enjoyment, have a slow fall of semen, that is they are very slow in the act of

The women of Vanavasi are moderately passionate, they go through every kind of enjoyment,
cover their bodies, and abuse those who utter low, mean and harsh words.

The women of Avanti hate kissing, marking with the nails, and biting, but they have a
fondness for various kinds of sexual union.

The women of Malwa like embracing and kissing, but not wounding, and they are gained over by striking.
The women of Abhira, and those of the country about the Indus and five rivers (i.e. the
Punjab), are gained over by the Auparishtaka or mouth congress.

The women of Aparatika are full of passion, and make slowly the sound 'Sit'.
The women of the Lat country have even more impetuous desire, and also make the sound 'Sit'.
The women of the Stri Rajya, and of Koshola (Oude), are full of impetuous desire, their
semen falls in large quantities and they are fond of taking medicine to make it do so.

The women of the Andhra country have tender bodies, they are fond of enjoyment, and have a
liking for voluptuous pleasures.

The women of Ganda have tender bodies, and speak sweetly.
Now Suvarnanabha is of opinion that that which is agreeable to the nature of a particular
person, is of more consequence than that which is agreeable to a whole nation, and that
therefore the peculiarities of the country should not be observed in such cases. The
various pleasures, the dress, and the sports of one country are in time borrowed by
another, and in such a case these things must be considered as belonging originally to
that country.

Among the things mentioned above, viz. embracing, kissing, etc., those which increase
passion should be done first, and those which are only for amusement or variety should be
done afterwards.

There are also some verses on this subject as follows:
'When a man bites a woman forcibly, she should angrily do the same to him with double
force. Thus a "point" should be returned with a "line of points", and a "line of points"
with a "broken cloud", and if she be excessively chafed, she should at once begin a love
quarrel with him. At such a time she should take hold of her lover by the hair, and bend
his head down, and kiss his lower lip, and then, being intoxicated with love, she should
shut her eyes and bite him in various places. Even by day, and in a place of public
resort, when her lover shows her any mark that she may have inflicted on his body, she
should smile at the sight of it, and turning her face as if she were going to chide him,
she should show him with an angry look the marks on her own body that have been made by
him. Thus if men and women act according to each other's liking, their love for each other
will not be lessened even in one hundred years.'

On the occasion of a 'high congress' the Mrigi (Deer) woman should lie down in such a way
as to widen her yoni, while in a 'low congress' the Hastini (Elephant) woman should lie
down so as to contract hers. But in an 'equal congress' they should lie down in the
natural position. What is said above concerning the Mrigi and the Hastini applies also to
the Vadawa (Mare) woman. In a 'low congress the woman should particularly make use of
medicine, to cause her desires to be satisfied quickly.

The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down:

The widely opened position
The yawning position
The position of the wife of Indra
When she lowers her head and raises her middle parts, it is called the 'widely opened
position'. At such a time the man should apply some unguent, so as to make the entrance

When she raises her thighs and keeps them wide apart and engages in congress, it is called the 'yawning position'.
When she places her thighs with her legs doubled on them upon her sides, and thus engages
in congress, it is called the position of Indrani and this is learnt only by practice. The
position is also useful in the case of the 'highest congress'.

The 'clasping position' is used in 'low congress', and in the 'lowest congress', together
with the 'pressing position', the 'twining position', and the 'mare's position'.

When the legs of both the male and the female are stretched straight out over each other,
it is called the 'clasping position'. It is of two kinds, the side position and the supine
position, according to the way in which they lie down. In the side position the male
should invariably lie on his left side, and cause the woman to lie on her right side, and
this rule is to be observed in lying down with all kinds of women.

When, after congress has begun in the clasping position, the woman presses her lover with
her thighs, it is called the 'pressing position'.

When the woman places one of her thighs across the thigh of her lover it is called the 'twining position'.
When a woman forcibly holds in her yoni the lingam after it is in, it is called the
'mare's position'. This is learnt by practice only, and is chiefly found among the women
of the Andhra country.

The above are the different ways of lying down, mentioned by Babhravya. Suvarnanabha,
however, gives the following in addition:

When the female raises both of her thighs straight up, it is called the 'rising position'.
When she raises both of her legs, and places them on her lover's shoulders, it is called the 'yawning position'.
When the legs are contracted, and thus held by the lover before his bosom, it is called the 'pressed position'.
When only one of her legs is stretched out, it is called the 'half pressed position'.
When the woman places one of her legs on her lover's shoulder, and stretches the other
out, and then places the latter on his shoulder, and stretches out the other, and
continues to do so alternately, it is called the 'splitting of a bamboo'.

When one of her legs is placed on the head, and the other is stretched out, it is called
the 'fixing of a nail'. This is learnt by practice only.

When both the legs of the woman are contracted, and placed on her stomach, it is called the 'crab's position'.
When the thighs are raised and placed one upon the other, it is called the 'packed position'.
When the shanks are placed one upon the other, it is called the 'lotus-like position'.
When a man, during congress, turns round, and enjoys the woman without leaving her, while
she embraces him round the back all the time, it is called the 'turning position', and is
learnt only by practice.

Thus, says Suvarnanabha, these different ways of lying down, sitting, and standing should
be practised in water, because it is easy to do so therein. But Vatsyayana is of opinion
that congress in water is improper, because it is prohibited by the religious law.

When a man and a woman support themselves on each other's bodies, or on a wall, or pillar,
and thus while standing engage in congress, it is called the 'supported congress'.

When a man supports himself against a wall, and the woman, sitting on his hands joined
together and held underneath her, throws her arms round his neck, and putting her thighs
alongside his waist, moves herself by her feet, which are touching the wall against which
the man is leaning, it is called the 'suspended congress'.

When a woman stands on her hands and feet like a quadruped, and her lover mounts her like
a bull, it is called the 'congress of a cow'. At this time everything that is ordinarily
done on the bosom should be done on the back.

In the same way can be carried on the congress of a dog, the congress of a goat, the
congress of a deer, the forcible mounting of an ass, the congress of a cat, the jump of a
tiger, the pressing of an elephant, the rubbing of a boar, and the mounting of a horse.
And in all these cases the characteristics of these different animals should be manifested
by acting like them.

When a man enjoys two women at the same time, both of whom love him equally, it is called the 'united congress'.
When a man enjoys many women altogether, it is called the 'congress of a herd of cows'.
The following kinds of congress-sporting in water, or the congress of an elephant with
many female elephants which is said to take place only in the water, the congress of a
collection of goats, the congress of a collection of deer take place in imitation of these

In Gramaneri many young men enjoy a woman that may be married to one of them, either one
after the other, or at the same time. Thus one of them holds her, another enjoys her, a
third uses her mouth, a fourth holds her middle part, and in this way they go on enjoying
her several parts alternately.

The same things can be done when several men are sitting in company with one courtesan, or
when one courtesan is alone with many men. In the same way this can be done by the women
of the king's harem when they accidentally get hold of a man.

The people in the Southern countries have also a congress in the anus, that is called the 'lower congress'.
Thus ends the various kinds of congress. There are also two verses on the subject as follows:
'An ingenious person should multiply the kinds of congress after the fashion of the
different kinds of beasts and of birds. For these different kinds of congress, performed
according to the usage of each country, and the liking of each individual, generate love,
friendship, and respect in the hearts of women.'

SEXUAL intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of the contrarieties of love
and its tendency to dispute. The place of striking with passion is the body, and on the
body the special places are:

The shoulders
The head
The space between the breasts
The back
The jaghana, or middle part of the body
The sides
Striking is of four kinds:

Striking with the back of the hand
Striking with the fingers a little contracted
Striking with the fist
Striking with the open palm of the hand
On account of its causing pain, striking gives rise to the hissing sound, which is of
various kinds, and to the eight kinds of crying:

The sound Hin
The thundering sound
The cooing sound
The weeping sound
The sound Phut
The sound Phât
The sound Sût
The sound Plât
Besides these, there are also words having a meaning, such as 'mother', and those that are
expressive of prohibition, sufficiency, desire of liberation, pain or praise, and to which
may be added sounds like those of the dove, the cuckoo, the green pigeon, the parrot, the
bee, the sparrow, the flamingo, the duck, and the quail, which are all occasionally made
use of.

Blows with the fist should be given on the back of the woman while she is sitting on the
lap of the man, and she should give blows in return, abusing the man as if she were angry,
and making the cooing and the weeping sounds. While the woman is engaged in congress the
space between the breasts should be struck with the back of the hand, slowly at first, and
then proportionately to the increasing excitement, until the end.

At this time the sounds Hin and others may be made, alternately or optionally, according
to habit. When the man, making the sound Phât, strikes the woman on the head, with the
fingers of his hand a little contracted, it is called Prasritaka, which means striking
with the fingers of the hand a little contracted. In this case the appropriate sounds are
the cooing sound, the sound Phât and the sound Phut in the interior of the mouth, and at
the end of congress the sighing and weeping sounds. The sound Phât is an imitation of the
sound of a bamboo being split, while the sound Phut is like the sound made by something
falling into water. At all times when kissing and such like things are begun, the woman
should give a reply with a hissing sound. During the excitement when the woman is not
accustomed to striking, she continually utters words expressive of prohibition,
sufficiently, or desire of liberation, as well as the words 'father', 'mother',
intermingled with the sighing, weeping and thundering sounds.1 Towards the conclusion of
the congress, the breasts, the jaghana, and the sides of the woman should be pressed with
the open palms of the hand, with some force, until the end of it, and then sounds like
those of the quail or the goose should be made.

There are two verses on the subject as follows:
'The characteristics of manhood are said to consist of roughness and impetuosity, while
weakness, tenderness, sensibility, and an inclination to turn away from unpleasant things
are the distinguishing marks of womanhood. The excitement of passion, and peculiarities of
habit may sometimes cause contrary results to appear, but these do not last long, and in
the end the natural state is resumed.'

The wedge on the bosom, the scissors on the head, the piercing instrument on the cheeks,
and the pinchers on the breasts and sides, may also be taken into consideration with the
other four modes of striking, and thus give eight ways altogether. But these four ways of
striking with instruments are peculiar to the people of the southern countries, and the
marks caused by them are seen on the breasts of their women. They are local peculiarities,
but Vatsyayana is of opinion that the practice of them is painful, barbarous, and base,
and quite unworthy of imitation.

In the same way anything that is a local peculiarity should not always be adopted
elsewhere, and even in the place where the practice is prevalent, excess of it should
always be avoided. Instances of the dangerous use of them may be given as follows. The
king of the Panchalas killed the courtesan Madhavasena by means of the wedge during
congress. King Satakarni Satavahana of the Kuntalas deprived his great Queen Malayavati of
her life by a pair of scissors, and Naradeva, whose hand was deformed, blinded a dancing
girl by directing a piercing instrument in a wrong way.

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:
'About these things there cannot be either enumeration or any definite rule. Congress
having once commenced, passion alone gives birth to all the acts of the parties.'

'Such passionate actions and amorous gesticulations or movements, which arise on the spur
of the moment, and during sexual intercourse, cannot be defined, and are as irregular as
dreams. A horse having once attained the fifth degree of motion goes on with blind speed,
regardless of pits, ditches, and posts in his way; and in the same manner a loving pair
become blind with passion in the heat of congress, and go on with great impetuosity,
paying not the least regard to excess. For this reason one who is well acquainted with the
science of love, and knowing his own strength, as also the tenderness, impetuosity, and
strength of the young women, should act accordingly. The various modes of enjoyment are
not for all times or for all persons, but they should only be used at the proper time. and
in the proper countries and places.'


Men who are well acquainted with the art of love are well aware how often one woman
differs from another in her sighs and sounds during the time of congress. Some women like
to be talked to in the most loving way, others in the most lustful way, others in the most
abusive way, and so on. Some women enjoy themselves with closed eyes in silence, others
make a great noise over it, and some almost faint away. The great art is to ascertain what
gives them the greatest pleasure, and what specialities they like best.

WHEN a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress, without having his
desire satisfied, she should, with his permission, lay him down upon his back, and give
him assistance by acting his part. She may also do this to satisfy the curiosity of her
lover, or her own desire of novelty.

There are two ways of doing this, the first is when during congress she turns round, and
gets on the top of her lover, in such a manner as to continue the congress, without
obstructing the pleasure of it; and the other is when she acts the man's part from the
beginning. At such a time, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and her smiles broken
by hard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom with her own breasts, and
lowering her head frequently, should do in return the same actions which he used to do
before, returning his blows and chaffing him, should say, 'I was laid down by you, and
fatigued with hard congress, I shall now therefore lay you down in return.' She should
then again manifest her own bashfulness, her fatigue, and her desire of stopping the
congress. In this way she should do the work of a man, which we shall presently relate.

Whatever is done by a man for giving pleasure to a woman is called the work of a man, and is as follows:
While the woman is lying on his bed, and is as it were abstracted by his conversation, he
should loosen the knot of her undergarments, and when she begins to dispute with him, he
should overwhelm her with kisses. Then when his lingam is erect he should touch her with
his hands in various places, and gently manipulate various parts of the body. If the woman
is bashful, and if it is the first time that they have come together, the man should place
his hands between her thighs, which she would probably keep close together, and if she is
a very young girl, he should first get his hands upon her breasts, which she would
probably cover with her own hands, and under her armpits and on her neck. If however she
is a seasoned woman, he should do whatever is agreeable either to him or to her, and
whatever is fitting for the occasion. After this he should take hold of her hair, and hold
her chin in his fingers for the purpose of kissing her. On this, if she is a young girl,
she will become bashful and close her eyes. Anyhow he should gather from the action of the
woman what things would be pleasing to her during congress.

Here Suvarnanabha says that while a man is doing to the woman what he likes best during
congress, he should always make a point of pressing those parts of her body on which she
turns her eyes.

The signs of the enjoyment and satisfaction of the woman are as follows: her body relaxes,
she closes her eyes, she puts aside all bashfulness, and shows increased willingness to
unite the two organs as closely together as possible. On the other hand, the signs of her
want of enjoyment and of failing to be satisfied are as follows: she shakes her hands, she
does not let the man get up, feels dejected, bites the man, kicks him, and continues to go
on moving after the man has finished. In such cases the man should rub the yoni of the
woman with his hand and fingers (as the elephant rubs anything with his trunk) before
engaging in congress, until it is softened, and after that is done he should proceed to
put his lingam into her.

The acts to be done by the man are:

Moving forward
Friction or churning
Giving a blow
The blow of a boar
The blow of a bull
The sporting of a sparrow
When the organs are brought together properly and directly it is called 'moving the organ forward'.
When the lingam is held with the hand, and turned all round in the yoni, it is called 'churning'.
When the yoni is lowered, and the upper part of it is struck with the lingam, it is called 'piercing'.
When the same thing is done on the lower part of the yoni, it is called 'rubbing'.
When the yoni is pressed by the lingam for a long time, it is called 'pressing'.
When the lingam is removed to some distance from the yoni, and then forcibly strikes it, it is called 'giving a blow'.
When only one part of the yoni is rubbed with the lingam, it is called the 'blow of a boar'.
When both sides of the yoni are rubbed in this way, it is called the 'blow of a bull'.
When the lingam is in the yoni, and moved up and down frequently, and without being taken
out, it is called the 'sporting of a sparrow'. This takes place at the end of congress.

When a woman acts the part of a man, she has the following things to do in addition to the nine given above:

The pair of tongs
The top
The swing
When the woman holds the lingam in her yoni, draws it in, presses it, and keeps it thus in
her for a long time, it is called the 'pair of tongs'.

When, while engaged in congress, she turns round like a wheel, it is called the 'top'. This is learnt by practice only.
When, on such an occasion, the man lifts up the middle part of his body, and the woman
turns round her middle part, it is called the 'swing'.

When the woman is tired, she should place her forehead on that of her lover, and should
thus take rest without disturbing the union of the organs, and when the woman has rested
herself the man should turn round and begin the congress again.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
'Though a woman is reserved, and keeps her feelings concealed; yet when she gets on the
top of a man, she then shows all her love and desire. A man should gather from the actions
of the woman of what disposition she is, and in what way she likes to be enjoyed. A woman
during her monthly courses, a woman who has been lately confined, and a fat woman should
not be made to act the part of a man.'

THERE are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, and those that are
disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as females imitate their dress, speech, gestures,
tenderness, timidity, simplicity, softness and bashfulness. The acts that are done on the
jaghana or middle parts of women, are done in the mouths of these eunuchs, and this is
called Auparishtaka.1 These eunuchs derive their imaginable pleasure, and their livelihood
from this kind of congress, and they lead the life of courtesans. So much concerning
eunuchs disguised as females.

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they wish to do anything
they lead the life of shampooers. Under the pretence of shampooing, a eunuch of this kind
embraces and draws towards himself the thighs of the man whom he is shampooing, and after
this he touches the joints of his thighs and his jaghana, or central portions of his body.
Then, if he finds the lingam of the man erect, he presses it with his hands and chaffs him
for getting into that state. If after this, and after knowing his intention, the man does
not tell the eunuch to proceed, then the latter does it of his own accord and begins the
congress. If however he is ordered by the man to do it, then he disputes with him, and
only consents at last with difficulty.

The following eight things are then done by the eunuch one after the other:

The nominal congress
Biting the sides
Pressing outside
Pressing inside
Sucking a mango fruit
Swallowing up
At the end of each of these, the eunuch expresses his wish to stop, but when one of them
is finished, the man desires him to do another, and after that is done, then the one that
follows it, and so on.

When, holding the man's lingam with his hand, and placing it between his lips, the eunuch
moves about his mouth, it is called the 'nominal congress'.

When, covering the end of the lingam with his fingers collected together like the bud of a
plant or flower, the eunuch presses the sides of it with his lips, using his teeth also,
it is called 'biting the sides'.

When, being desired to proceed, the eunuch presses the end of the lingam with his lips
closed together, and kisses it as if he were drawing it out, it is called the 'outside

When, being asked to go on, he puts the lingam further into his mouth, and presses it with
his lips and then takes it out, it is called the 'inside pressing'.

When, holding the lingam in his hand, the eunuch kisses it as if he were kissing the lower lip, it is called 'kissing'.
When, after kissing it, he touches it with his tongue everywhere, and passes the tongue
over the end of it, it is called 'rubbing'.

When, in the same way, he puts the half of it into his mouth, and forcibly kisses and
sucks it, this is called 'sucking a mango fruit'.

And lastly, when, with the consent of the man, the eunuch puts the whole lingam into his
mouth, and presses it to the very end, as if he were going to swallow it up, it is called
'swallowing up'.

Striking, scratching, and other things may also be done during this kind of congress.
The Auparishtaka is practised also by unchaste and wanton women, female attendants and
serving maids, i.e. those who are not married to anybody, but who live by shampooing.

The Acharyas (i.e. ancient and venerable authors) are of opinion that this Auparishtaka is
the work of a dog and not of a man, because it is a low practice, and opposed to the
orders of the Holy Writ, and because the man himself suffers by bringing his lingam into
contact with the mouths of eunuchs and women. But Vatsyayana says that the orders of the
Holy Writ do not affect those who resort to courtesans, and the law prohibits the practice
of the Auparishtaka with married women only. As regards the injury to the male, that can
be easily remedied.

The people of Eastern India do not resort to women who practise the Auparishtaka.
The people of Ahichhatra resort to such women, but do nothing with them, so far as the mouth is concerned.
The people of Saketa do with these women every kind of mouth congress, while the people of
Nagara do not practise this, but do every other thing.

The people of the Shurasena country, on the southern bank of the Jumna, do everything
without any hesitation, for they say that women being naturally unclean, no one can be
certain about their character, their purity, their conduct, their practices, their
confidences, or their speech. They are not however on this account to be abandoned,
because religious law, on the authority of which they are reckoned pure, lays down that
the udder of a cow is clean at the time of milking, though the mouth of a cow, and also
the mouth of her calf, are considered unclean by the Hindoos. Again a dog is clean when he
seizes a deer in hunting, though food touched by a dog is otherwise considered very
unclean. A bird is clean when it causes a fruit to fall from a tree by pecking at it,
though things eaten by crows and other birds are considered unclean. And the mouth of a
woman is clean for kissing and such like things at the time of sexual intercourse.
Vatsyayana moreover thinks that in all these things connected with love, everybody should
act according to the custom of his country, and his own inclination.

There are also the following verses on the subject:
'The male servants of some men carry on the mouth congress with their masters. It is also
practised by some citizens, who know each other well, among themselves. Some women of the
harem, when they are amorous, do the acts of the mouth on the yonis of one another, and
some men do the same thing with women. The way of doing this (i.e. of kissing the yoni)
should be known from kissing the mouth. When a man and woman lie down in an inverted
order, i.e. with the head of the one towards the feet of the other and carry on this
congress, it is called the "congress of a crow".'

For the sake of such things courtesans abandon men possessed of good qualities, liberal
and clever, and become attached to low persons, such as slaves and elephant drivers. The
Auparishtaka, or mouth congress, should never be done by a learned Brahman, by a minister
that carries on the business of a state, or by a man of good reputation, because though
the practice is allowed by the Shastras, there is no reason why it should be carried on,
and need only be practised in particular cases. As for instance, the taste, and the
strength, and the digestive qualities of the flesh of dogs are mentioned in works on
medicine, but it does not therefore follow that it should be eaten by the wise. In the
same way there are some men, some places and some times, with respect to which these
practices can be made use of. A man should therefore pay regard to the place, to the time,
and to the practice which is to be carried out, as also as to whether it is agreeable to
his nature and to himself, and then he may or may not practise these things according to
circumstances. But after all, these things being done secretly, and the mind of the man
being fickle, how can it be known what any person will do at any particular time and for
any particular purpose.


This practice appears to have been prevalent in some parts of India from a very ancient
time. The Shustruta, a work on medicine some two thousand years old, describes the
wounding of the lingam with the teeth as one of the causes of a disease treated upon in
that work. Traces of the practice are found as far back as the eighth century, for various
kinds of the Auparishtaka are represented in the sculptures of many Shaiva temples at
Bhuvaneshwara, near Cuttack, in Orissa, and which were built about that period. From these
sculptures being found in such places, it would seem that this practice was popular in
that part of the country at that time. It does not seem to be so prevalent now in
Hindustan, its place perhaps is filled up by the practice of sodomy, introduced since the
Mahomedan period.

IN the pleasure-room, decorated with flowers, and fragrant with perfumes, attended by his
friends and servants, the citizen should receive the woman, who will come bathed and
dressed, and will invite her to take refreshment and to drink freely. He should then seat
her on his left side, and holding her hair, and touching also the end and knot of her
garment, he should gently embrace her with his right arm. They should then carry on an
amusing conversation on various subjects, and may also talk suggestively of things which
would be considered as coarse, or not to be mentioned generally in society. They may then
sing, either with or without gesticulations, and play on musical instruments, talk about
the arts, and persuade each other to drink. At last when the woman is overcome with love
and desire, the citizen should dismiss the people that may be with him, giving them
flowers, ointments, and betel leaves, and then when the two are left alone, they should
proceed as has been already described in the previous chapters.

Such is the beginning of sexual union. At the end of the congress, the lovers with
modesty, and not looking at each other, should go separately to the washing-room. After
this, sitting in their own places, they should eat some betel leaves, and the citizen
should apply with his own hand to the body of the woman some pure sandal wood ointment, or
ointment of some other kind. He should then embrace her with his left arm, and with
agreeable words should cause her to drink from a cup held in his own hand, or he may give
her water to drink. They can then eat sweetmeats, or anything else, according to their
likings and may drink fresh juice,1 soup, gruel, extracts of meat, sherbet, the juice of
mango fruits, the extract of the juice of the citron tree mixed with sugar, or anything
that may be liked in different countries, and known to be sweet, soft, and pure. The
lovers may also sit on the terrace of the palace or house, and enjoy the moonlight, and
carry on an agreeable conversation. At this time, too, while the woman lies in his lap,
with her face towards the moon, the citizen should show her the different planets, the
morning star, the polar star, and the seven Rishis, or Great Bear.

This is the end of sexual union.
Congress is of the following kinds:

Loving congress
Congress of subsequent love
Congress of artificial love
Congress of transferred love
Congress like that of eunuchs
Deceitful congress
Congress of spontaneous love
When a man and a woman, who have been in love with each other for some time, come together
with great difficulty, or when one of the two returns from a journey, or is reconciled
after having been separated on account of a quarrel, then congress is called the 'loving
congress'. It is carried on according to the liking of the lovers, and as long as they

When two persons come together, while their love for each other is still in its infancy,
their congress is called the 'congress of subsequent love'.

When a man carries on the congress by exciting himself by means of the sixty-four ways,
such as kissing, etc., etc., or when a man and a woman come together, though in reality
they are both attached to different persons, their congress is then called 'congress of
artificial love'. At this time all the ways and means mentioned in the Kama Shastra should
be used.

When a man, from the beginning to the end of the congress, though having connection with
the woman, thinks all the time that he is enjoying another one whom he loves, it is called
the 'congress of transferred love'.

Congress between a man and a female water carrier, or a female servant of a caste lower
than his own, lasting only until the desire is satisfied, is called 'congress like that of
eunuchs'. Here external touches, kisses, and manipulation are not to be employed.

The congress between a courtesan and a rustic, and that between citizens and the women of
villages, and bordering countries, is called 'deceitful congress'.

The congress that takes place between two persons who are attached to one another, and
which is done according to their own liking is called 'spontaneous congress'.

Thus end the kinds of congress.
We shall now speak of love quarrels.
A woman who is very much in love with a man cannot bear to hear the name of her rival
mentioned, or to have any conversation regarding her, or to be addressed by her name
through mistake. If such takes place, a great quarrel arises, and the woman cries, becomes
angry, tosses her hair about, strikes her lover, falls from her bed or seat, and, casting
aside her garlands and ornaments, throws herself down on the ground.

At this time, the lover should attempt to reconcile her with conciliatory words, and
should take her up carefully and place her on her bed. But she, not replying to his
questions, and with increased anger, should bend down his head by pulling his hair, and
having kicked him once, twice, or thrice on his arms, head, bosom or back, should then
proceed to the door of the room. Dattaka says that she should then sit angrily near the
door and shed tears, but should not go out, because she would be found fault with for
going away. After a time, when she thinks that the conciliatory words and actions of her
lover have reached their utmost, she should then embrace him, talking to him with harsh
and reproachful words, but at the same time showing a loving desire for congress.

When the woman is in her own house, and has quarrelled with her lover, she should go to
him and show how angry she is, and leave him. Afterwards the citizen having sent the Vita,
the Vidushaka or the Pithamarda2 to pacify her, she should accompany them back to the
house, and spend the night with her lover.

Thus end the love quarrels.
In conclusion.
A man, employing the sixty-four means mentioned by Babhravya, obtains his object, and
enjoys the woman of the first quality. Though he may speak well on other subjects, if he
does not know the sixty-four divisions, no great respect is paid to him in the assembly of
the learned. A man, devoid of other knowledge, but well acquainted with the sixty-four
divisions, becomes a leader in any society of men and women. What man will not respect the
sixty-four arts,3 considering they are respected by the learned, by the cunning, and by
the courtesans. As the sixty-four arts are respected, are charming, and add to the talent
of women, they are called by the Acharyas dear to women. A man skilled in the sixty-four
arts is looked upon with love by his own wife, by the wives of others, and by courtesans.


The fresh juice of the cocoa nut tree, the date tree, and other kinds of palm trees are
drunk in India. It will keep fresh very long, but ferments rapidly, and is then distilled
into liquor.

The characteristics of these three individuals have been given in Part I, page 117.
A definition of the sixty-four arts is given in Part I, Chapter III, pages 107-111.

WHEN a girl of the same caste, and a virgin, is married in accordance with the precepts of
Holy Writ, the results of such a union are the acquisition of Dharma and Artha, offspring,
affinity, increase of friends, and untarnished love. For this reason a man should fix his
affections upon a girl who is of good family, whose parents are alive, and who is three
years or more younger than himself. She should be born of a highly respectable family,
possessed of wealth, well connected, and with many relations and friends. She should also
be beautiful, of a good disposition, with lucky marks on her body, and with good hair,
nails, teeth, ears, eyes and breasts, neither more nor less than they ought to be, and no
one of them entirely wanting, and not troubled with a sickly body. The man should, of
course, also possess these qualities himself. But at all events, says Ghotakamukha, a girl
who has been already joined with others (i.e. no longer a maiden) should never be loved,
for it would be reproachable to do such a thing.

Now in order to bring about a marriage with such a girl as described above, thee parents
and relations of the man should exert themselves, as also such friends on both sides as
may be desired to assist in the matter. These friends should bring to the notice of the
girl's parents, the faults, both present and future, of all the other men that may wish to
marry her, and should at the same time extol even to exaggeration all the excellencies,
ancestral, and paternal, of their friend, so as to endear him to them, and particularly to
those that may be liked by the girl's mother. One of the friends should also disguise
himself as an astrologer, and declare the future good fortune and wealth of his friend by
showing the existence of all the lucky omens1 and signs,2 the good influence of planets,
the auspicious entrance of the sun into a sign of the Zodiac, propitious stars and
fortunate marks on his body. Others again should rouse the jealousy of the girl's mother
by telling her that their friend has a chance of getting from some other quarter even a
better girl than hers.

A girl should be taken as a wife, as also given in marriage, when fortune, signs, omens,
and the words3 of others are favourable, for, says Ghotakamukha, a man should not marry at
any time he likes. A girl who is asleep, crying, or gone out of the house when sought in
marriage, or who is betrothed to another, should not be married. The following also should
be avoided:

 One who is kept concealed
 One who has an ill-sounding name
 One who has her nose depressed
 One who has her nostril turned up
 One who is formed like a male
 One who is bent down
 One who has crooked thighs
 One who has a projecting forehead
 One who has a bald head
 One who does not like purity
 One who has been polluted by another
 One who is affected with the Gulma4
 One who is disfigured in any way
 One who has fully arrived at puberty
 One who is a friend
 One who is a younger sister
 One who is a Varshakari5
In the same way a girl who is called by the name of one of the twenty-seven stars, or by
the name of a tree, or of a river, is considered worthless, as also a girl whose name ends
in 'r' or 'l'. But some authors say that prosperity is gained only by marrying that girl
to whom one becomes attached, and that therefore no other girl but the one who is loved
should be married by anyone.

When a girl becomes marriageable her parents should dress her smartly, and should place
her where she can be easily seen by all. Every afternoon, having dressed her and decorated
her in a becoming manner, they should send her with her female companions to sports,
sacrifices, and marriage ceremonies, and thus show her to advantage in society, because
she is a kind of merchandise. They should also receive with kind words and signs of
friendliness those of an auspicious appearance who may come accompanied by their friends
and relations for the purpose of marrying their daughter, and under some pretext or other
having first dressed her becomingly, should then present her to them. After this they
should await the pleasure of fortune, and with this object should appoint a future day on
which a determination could be come to with regard to their daughter's marriage. On this
occasion when the persons have come, the parents of the girl should ask them to bathe and
dine, and should say, 'Everything will take place at the proper time', and should not then
comply with the request, but should settle the matter later.

When a girl is thus acquired, either according to the custom of the country, or according
to his own desire, the man should marry her in accordance with the precepts of the Holy
Writ, according to one of the four kinds of marriage.

Thus ends marriage.
There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
'Amusement in society, such as completing verses begun by others, marriages, and
auspicious ceremonies should be carried on neither with superiors, nor inferiors, but with
our equals. That should be known as a high connection when a man, after marrying a girl,
has to serve her and her relations afterwards like a servant, and such a connection is
censured by the good. On the other hand, that reproachable connection, where a man,
together with his relations, lords it over his wife, is called a low connection by the
wise. But when both the man and the woman afford mutual pleasure to each other, and when
the relatives on both sides pay respect to one another, such is called a connection in the
proper sense of the word. Therefore a man should contract neither a high connection by
which he is obliged to bow down afterwards to his kinsmen, nor a low connection, which is
universally reprehended by all.'


The flight of a blue jay on a person's left side is considered a lucky omen when one
starts on any business; the appearance of a cat before anyone at such a time is looked on
as a bad omen. There are many omens of the same kind.

Such as the throbbing of the right eye of men and the left eye of women, etc.
Before anything is begun it is a custom to go early in the morning to a neighbour's house,
and overhear the first words that may be spoken in his family, and according as the words
heard are of good or bad import, to draw an inference as to the success or failure of the

A disease consisting of any glandular enlargement in any part of the body.
A woman, the palms of whose hands and the soles of whose feet are always perspiring.

FOR the first three days after marriage, the girl and her husband should sleep on the
floor, abstain from sexual pleasures, and eat their food without seasoning it either with
alkali or salt. For the next seven days they should bathe amidst tire sounds of auspicious
musical instruments, should decorate themselves, dine together, and pay attention to their
relations as well as to those who may have come to witness their marriage. This is
applicable to persons of all castes. On the night of the tenth day the man should begin in
a lonely place with soft words, and thus create confidence in the girl. Some authors say
that for the purpose of winning her over he should not speak to her for three days, but
the followers of Babhravya are of opinion that if the man does not speak with her for
three days, the girl may be discouraged by seeing him spiritless like a pillar, and,
becoming dejected, she may begin to despise him as a eunuch. Vatsyayana says that the man
should begin to win her over, and to create confidence in her, but should abstain at first
from sexual pleasures. Women, being of a tender nature, want tender beginnings, and when
they are forcibly approached by men with whom they are but slightly acquainted, they
sometimes suddenly become haters of sexual connection, and sometimes even haters of the
male sex. The man should therefore approach the girl according to her liking, and should
make use of those devices by which he may be able to establish himself more and more into
her confidence. These devices are as follows:

He should embrace her first of all in a way she likes most, because it does not last for a long time.
He should embrace her with the upper part of his body because that is easier and simpler.
If the girl is grown up, or if the man has known her for some time, he may embrace her by
the light of a lamp, but if he is not well acquainted with her, or if she is a young girl,
he should then embrace her in darkness.

When the girl accepts the embrace, the man should put a tambula or screw of betel nut and
betel leaves in her mouth, and if she will not take it, he should induce her to do so by
conciliatory words, entreaties, oaths, and kneeling at her feet, for it is a universal
rule that however bashful or angry a woman may be she never disregards a man's kneeling at
her feet. At the time of giving this tambula he should kiss her mouth softly and
gracefully without making any sound. When she is gained over in this respect he should
then make her talk, and so that she may be induced to talk he should ask her questions
about things of which he knows or pretends to know nothing, and which can be answered in a
few words. If she does not speak to him, he should not frighten her, but should ask her
the same thing again and again in a conciliatory manner. If she does not then speak he
should urge her to give a reply because, as Ghotakamukha says, 'all girls hear everything
said to them by men, but do not themselves sometimes say a single word'. When she is thus
importuned, the girl should give replies by shakes of the head, but if she has quarrelled
with the man she should not even do that. When she is asked by the man whether she wishes
for him, and whether she likes him, she should remain silent for a long time, and when at
last importuned to reply, should give him a favourable answer by a nod of her head. If the
man is previously acquainted with the girl he should converse with her by means of a
female friend, who may be favourable to him, and in the confidence of both, and carry on
the conversation on both sides. On such an occasion the girl should smile with her head
bent down, and if the female friend say more on her part than she was desired to do, she
should chide her and dispute with her. The female friend should say in jest even what she
is not desired to say by the girl, and add, 'she says so', on which the girl should say
indistinctly and prettily, 'O no! I did not say so', and she should then smile and throw
an occasional glance towards the man.

If the girl is familiar with the man, she should place near him, without saying anything,
the tambula, the ointment, or the garland that he may have asked for, or she may tie them
up in his upper garment. While she is engaged in this, the man should touch her young
breasts in the sounding way of pressing with the nails, and if she prevents him doing this
he should say to her, ' I will not do it again if you will embrace me', and should in this
way cause her to embrace him. While he is being embraced by her he should pass his hand
repeatedly over and about her body. By and by he should place her in his lap, and try more
and more to gain her consent, and if she will not yield to him he should frighten her by
saying 'I shall impress marks of my teeth and nails on your lips and breasts, and then
make similar marks on my own body, and shall tell my friends that you did them. What will
you say then?' In this and other ways, as fear and confidence are created in the minds of
children, so should the man gain her over to his wishes.

On the second and third nights, after her confidence has increased still more, he should
feel the whole of her body with his hands, and kiss her all over; he should also place his
hands upon her thighs and shampoo them, and if he succeed in this he should then shampoo
the joints of her thighs. If she tries to prevent him doing this he should say to her,
'What harm is there in doing it?' and should persuade her to let him do it. After gaining
this point he should touch her private parts, should loosen her girdle and the knot of her
dress, and turning up her lower garment should shampoo the joints of her naked thighs.
Under various pretences he should do all these things, but he should not at that time
begin actual congress. After this he should teach her the sixty-four arts, should tell her
how much he loves her, and describe to her the hopes which he formerly entertained
regarding her. He should also promise to be faithful to her in future, and should dispel
all her fears with respect to rival women, and, at last, after having overcome her
bashfulness, he should begin to enjoy her in a way so as not to frighten her. So much
about creating confidence in the girl; and there are, moreover, some verses on the subject
as follows:

'A man acting according to the inclinations of a girl should try to gain her over so that
she may love him and place her confidence in him. A man does not succeed either by
implicitly following the inclination of a girl, or by wholly opposing her, and he should
therefore adopt a middle course. He who knows how to make himself beloved by women, as
well as to increase their honour and create confidence in them, this man becomes an object
of their love. But he who neglects a girl, thinking she is too bashful, is despised by her
as a beast ignorant of the working of the female mind. Moreover, a girl forcibly enjoyed
by one who does not understand the hearts of girls becomes nervous, uneasy, and dejected,
and suddenly begins to hate the man who has taken advantage of her; and then, when her
love is not understood or returned, she sinks into despondency, and becomes either a hater
of mankind altogether, or, hating her own man, she has recourse to other men.'1


These last few lines have been exemplified in many ways in many novels of this century.

A POOR man possessed of good qualities, a man born of a low family possessed of mediocre
qualities, a neighbour possessed of wealth, and one under the control of his father,
mother or brothers, should not marry without endeavouring to gain over the girl from her
childhood to love and esteem him. Thus a boy separated from his parents, and living in the
house of his uncle, should try to gain over the daughter of his uncle, or some other girl,
even though she be previously betrothed to another. And this way of gaining over a girl,
says Ghotakamukha, is unexceptional, because Dharma can be accomplished by means of it as
well as by any other way of marriage.

When a boy has thus begun to woo the girl he loves, he should spend his time with her and
amuse her with various games and diversions fitted for their age and acquaintanceship,
such as picking and collecting flowers, making garlands of flowers, playing the parts of
members of a fictitious family, cooking food, playing with dice, playing with cards, the
game of odd and even, the game of finding out the middle finger, the game of six pebbles,
and such other games as may be prevalent in the country, and agreeable to the disposition
of the girl. In addition to this, he should carry on various amusing games played by
several persons together, such as hide and seek, playing with seeds, hiding things in
several small heaps of wheat and looking for them, blindman's buff, gymnastic exercises,
and other games of the same sort, in company with the girl, her friends and female
attendants. The man should also show great kindness to any woman whom the girl thinks fit
to be trusted, and should also make new acquaintances, but above all he should attach to
himself by kindness and little services the daughter of the girl's nurse, for if she be
gained over, even though she comes to know of his design, she does not cause any
obstruction, but is sometimes even able to effect a union between him and the girl. And
though she knows the true character of the man, she always talks of his many excellent
qualities to the parents and relations of the girl, even though she may not be desired to
do so by him.

In this way the man should do whatever the girl takes most delight in, and he should get
for her whatever she may have a desire to possess. Thus he should procure for her such
playthings as may be hardly known to other girls. He may also show her a ball dyed with
various colours, and other curiosities of the same sort; and should give her dolls made of
cloth, wood, buffalo-horn, wax, flour, or earth; also utensils for cooking food, and
figures in wood, such as a man and woman standing, a pair of rams, or goats, or sheep;
also temples made of earth, bamboo, or wood, dedicated to various goddesses; and cages for
parrots, cuckoos, starlings, quails, cocks, and partridges; water-vessels of different
sorts and of elegant forms, machines for throwing water about, guitars, stands for putting
images upon, stools, lac, red arsenic, yellow ointment, vermilion and collyrium, as well
as sandalwood, saffron, betel nut and betel leaves. Such things should be given at
different times whenever he gets a good opportunity of meeting her, and some of them
should be given in private, and some in public, according to circumstances. In short, he
should try in every way to make her look upon him as one who would do for her everything
that she wanted to be done.

In the next place he should get her to meet him in some place privately, and should then
tell her that the reason of his giving presents to her in secret was the fear that the
parents of both of them might be displeased, and then he may add that the things which he
had given her had been much desired by other people. When her love begins to show signs of
increasing he should relate to her agreeable stories if she expresses a wish to hear such
narratives. Or if she takes delight in legerdemain, he should amaze her by performing
various tricks of jugglery; or if she feels a great curiosity to see a performance of the
various arts, he should show his own skill in them. When she is delighted with singing he
should entertain her with music, and on certain days, and at the time of going together to
moonlight fairs and festivals, and at the time of her return after being absent from home,
he should present her with bouquets of flowers, and with chaplets for the head, and with
ear ornaments and rings, for these are the proper occasions on which such things should be

He should also teach the daughter of the girl's nurse all the sixty-four means of pleasure
practised by men, and under this pretext should also inform her of his great skill in the
art of sexual enjoyment. All this time he should wear a fine dress, and make as good an
appearance as possible, for young women love men who live with them, and who are handsome,
good looking and well dressed. As for the sayings that though women may fall in love, they
still make no effort themselves to gain over the object of their affections, that is only
a matter of idle talk.

Now a girl always shows her love by outward signs and actions, such as the following:
She never looks the man in the face, and becomes abashed when she is looked at by him;
under some pretext or other she shows her limbs to him; she looks secretly at him though
he has gone away from her side, hangs down her head when she is asked some question by
him, and answers in indistinct words and unfinished sentences, delights to be in his
company for a long time, speaks to her attendants in a peculiar tone with the hope of
attracting his attention towards her when she is at a distance from him, does not wish to
go from the place where he is, under some pretext or other she makes him look at different
things, narrates to him tales and stories very slowly so that she may continue conversing
with him for a long time, kisses and embraces before him a child sitting in her lap, draws
ornamental marks on the foreheads of her female servants, performs sportive and graceful
movements when her attendants speak jestingly to her in the presence of her lover,
confides in her lover's friends, and respects and obeys them, shows kindness to his
servants, converses with them, and engages them to do her work as if she were their
mistress, and listens attentively to them when they tell stories about her lover to
somebody else, enters his house when induced to do so by the daughter of her nurse, and by
her assistance manages to converse and play with him, avoids being seen by her lover when
she is not dressed and decorated, gives him by the hand of her female friend her ear
ornament, ring, or garland of flowers that he may have asked to see, always wears anything
that he may have presented to her, becomes dejected when any other bridegroom is mentioned
by her parents, and does not mix with, those who may be of his party, or who may support
his claims.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
'A man, who has seen and perceived the feelings of the girl towards him, and who has
noticed the outward signs and movements by which those feelings are expressed, should do
everything in his power to effect a union with her. He should gain over a young girl by
childlike sports, a damsel come of age by his skill in the arts, and a girl that loves him
by having recourse to persons in whom she confides.'


Now when the girl begins to show her love by outward signs and motions, as described in
the last chapter, the lover should try to gain her over entirely by various ways and
means, such as the following:

When engaged with her in any game or sport he should intentionally hold her hand. He
should practise upon her the various kinds of embraces, such as the touching embrace, and
others already described in a preceding chapter (Part II, Chapter II). He should show her
a pair of human beings cut out of the leaf of a tree, and such like things, at intervals.
When engaged in water sports, he should dive at a distance from her, and come tip close to
her. He should show an increased liking for the new foliage of trees and such like things.
He should describe to her the pangs he suffers on her account. He should relate to her the
beautiful dream that he has had with reference to other women. At parties and assemblies
of his caste he should sit near her, and touch her under some pretence or other, and
having placed his foot upon hers, he should slowly touch each of her toes, and press the
ends of the nails; if successful in this, he should get hold of her foot with his hand and
repeat the same thing. He should also press a finger of her hand between his toes when she
happens to be washing his feet; and whenever he gives anything to her or takes anything
from her, he should show her by his manner and look how much he loves her.

He should sprinkle upon her the water brought for rinsing his mouth; and when alone with
her in a lonely place, or in darkness, he should make love to her, and tell her the true
state of his mind without distressing her in any way.

Whenever he sits with her on the same seat or bed he should say to her, 'I have something
to tell you in private', and then, when she comes to hear it in a quiet place, he should
express his love to her more by manner and signs than by words. When he comes to know the
state of her feelings towards him he should pretend to be ill, and should make her come to
his house to speak to him. There he should intentionally hold her hand and place it on his
eyes and forehead, and under the pretence of preparing some medicine for him he should ask
her to do the work for his sake in the following words: 'This work must be done by you,
and by nobody else.' When she wants to go away he should let her go, with an earnest
request to come and see him again. This device of illness should be continued for three
days and three nights. After this, when she begins coming to see him frequently, he should
carry on long conversations with her, for, says Ghotakamukha, 'though a man loves a girl
ever so much, he never succeeds in winning her without a great deal of talking'. At last,
when the man finds the girl completely gained over, he may then begin to enjoy her. As for
the saying that women grow less timid than usual during the evening, and in darkness, and
are desirous of congress at those times, and do not oppose men then, and should only be
enjoyed at these hours, it is a matter of talk only.

When it is impossible for the man to carry on his endeavours alone, he should, by means of
the daughter of her nurse, or of a female friend in whom she confides, cause the girl to
be brought to him without making known to her his design, and he should then proceed with
her in the manner above described. Or he should in the beginning send his own female
servant to live with the girl as her friend, and should then gain her over by her means.

At last, when he knows the state of her feelings by her outward manner and conduct towards
him at religious ceremonies, marriage ceremonies, fairs, festivals, theatres, public
assemblies, and such like occasions, he should begin to enjoy her when she is alone, for
Vatsyayana lays it down, that women, when resorted to at proper times and in proper
places, do not turn away from their lovers.

When a girl, possessed of good qualities and well-bred, though born in a humble family, or
destitute of wealth, and not therefore desired by her equals, or an orphan girl, or one
deprived of her parents, but observing the rules of her family and caste, should wish to
bring about her own marriage when she comes of age, such a girl should endeavour to gain
over a strong and good looking young man, or a person whom she thinks would marry her on
account of the weakness of his mind, and even without the consent of his parents. She
should do this by such means as would endear her to the said person, as well as by
frequently seeing and meeting him. Her mother also should constantly cause them to meet by
means of her female friends, and the daughter of her nurse. The girl herself should try to
get alone with her beloved in some quiet place, and at odd times should give him flowers,
betel nut, betel leaves and perfumes. She should also show her skill in the practice of
the arts, in shampooing, in scratching and in pressing with the nails. She should also
talk to him on the subjects he likes best, and discuss with him the ways and means of
gaining over and winning the affections of a girl.

But old authors say that although the girl loves the man ever so much, she should not
offer herself, or make the first overtures, for a girl who does this loses her dignity,
and is liable to be scorned and rejected. But when the man shows his wish to enjoy her,
she should be favourable to him and should show no change in her demeanour when he
embraces her, and should receive all the manifestations of his love as if she were
ignorant of the state of his mind. But when he tries to kiss her she should oppose him;
when he begs to be allowed to have sexual intercourse with her she should let him touch
her private parts only and with considerable difficulty; and though importuned by him, she
should not yield herself up to him as if of her own accord, but should resist his attempts
to have her. It is only, moreover, when she is certain that she is truly loved, and that
her over is indeed devoted to her, and will not change his mind, that she should then give
herself up to him, and persuade him to marry her quickly. After losing her virginity she
should tell her confidential friends about it.

Here end the efforts of a girl to gain over a man.
There are also some verses on the subject as follows:
'A girl who is much sought after should marry the man that she likes, and whom she thinks
would be obedient to her, and capable of giving her pleasure. But when from the desire of
wealth a girl is married by her parents to a rich man without taking into consideration
the character or looks of the bridegroom, or when given to a man who has several wives,
she never becomes attached to the man, even though he be endowed with good qualities,
obedient to her will, active, strong, and healthy, and anxious to please her in every
way.1 A husband who is obedient but yet master of himself, though he be poor and not good
looking, is better than one who is common to many women, even though he be handsome and
attractive. The wives of rich men, where there are many wives, are not generally attached
to their husbands, and are not confidential with them, and even though they possess all
the external enjoyments of life, still have recourse to other men. A man who is of a low
mind, who has fallen from his social position, and who is much given to travelling, does
not deserve to be married; neither does one who has many wives and children, or one who is
devoted to sport and gambling, and who comes to his wife only when he likes. Of all the
lovers of a girl he only is her true husband who possesses the qualities that are liked by
her, and such a husband only enjoys real superiority over her, because he is the husband
of love.'


There is a good deal of truth in the last few observations. Woman is a monogamous animal,
and loves but one, and likes to feel herself alone in the affections of one man, and
cannot bear rivals. It may also be taken as a general rule that women either married to,
or kept by, rich men love them for their wealth but not for themselves.

WHEN a girl cannot meet her lover frequently in private, she should send the daughter of
her nurse to him, it being understood that she has confidence in her, and had previously
gained her over to her interests. On seeing the man, the daughter of the nurse should, in
the course of conversation, describe to him the noble birth, the good disposition, the
beauty, talent, skill, knowledge of human nature and affection of the girl in such a way
as not to let him suppose that she had been sent by the girl, and should thus create
affection for the girl in the heart of the man. To the girl also she should speak about
the excellent qualities of the man, especially of those qualities which she knows are
pleasing to the girl. She should, moreover, speak with disparagement of the other lovers
of the girl, and talk about the avarice and indiscretion of their parents, and the
fickleness of their relations. She should also quote samples of many girls of ancient
times, such as Sakoontala and others, who, having united themselves with lovers of their
own caste and their own choice, were ever happy afterwards in their society. And she
should also tell of other girls who married into great families, and being troubled by
rival wives, became wretched and miserable, and were finally abandoned. She should further
speak of the good fortune, the continual happiness, the chastity, obedience, and affection
of the man, and if the girl gets amorous about him, she should endeavour to allay her
shame2 and her fear as well as her suspicions about any disaster that might result from
her marriage. In a word, she should act the whole part of a female messenger by telling
the girl all about the man's affection for her, the places he frequented, and the
endeavours he made to meet her, and by frequently repeating, 'It will be all right if the
man will take you away forcibly and unexpectedly.'

The Forms of Marriage
When the girl is gained over, and acts openly with the man as his wife, he should cause
fire to be brought from the house of a Brahman, and having spread the Kusha grass upon the
ground, and offered an oblation to the fire, he should marry her according to the precepts
of the religious law. After this he should inform his parents of the fact, because it is
the opinion of ancient authors that a marriage solemnly contracted in the presence of fire
cannot afterwards be set aside.

After the consummation of the marriage, the relations of the man should gradually be made
acquainted with the affair, and the relations of the girl should also be apprised of it in
such a way that they may consent to the marriage, and overlook the manner in which it was
brought about, and when this is done they should afterwards be reconciled by affectionate
presents and favourable conduct. In this manner the man should marry the girl according to
the Gandharva form of marriage.

When the girl cannot make up her mind, or will not express her readiness to marry, the man
should obtain her in any one of the following ways:

On a fitting occasion, and under some excuse, he should, by means of a female friend with
whom he is well acquainted, and whom he can trust, and who also is well known to the
girl's family, get the girl brought unexpectedly to his house, and he should then bring
fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as before described.

When the marriage of the girl with some other person draws near, the man should disparage
the future husband to the utmost in the mind of the mother of the girl, and then having
got the girl to come with her mother's consent to a neighbouring house, he should bring
fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as above.

The man should become a great friend of the brother of the girl, the said brother being of
the same age as himself, and addicted to courtesans, and to intrigues with the wives of
other people, and should give him assistance in such matters, and also give him occasional
presents. He should then tell him about his great love for his sister, as young men will
sacrifice even their lives for the sake of those who may be of the same age, habits, and
dispositions as themselves. After this the man should get the girl brought by means of her
brother to some secure place, and having brought fire from the house of a Brahman should
proceed as before.

The man should on the occasion of festivals get the daughter of the nurse to give the girl
some intoxicating substance, and then cause her to be brought to some secure place under
the pretence of some business, and there having enjoyed her before she recovers from her
intoxication, should bring fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

The man should, with the connivance of the daughter of the nurse, carry off the girl from
her house while she is asleep, and then, having enjoyed her before she recovers from her
sleep, should bring fire from the house of a Brahman, and proceed as before.

When the girl goes to a garden, or to some village in the neighbourhood, the man should,
with his friends, fall on her guards, and having killed them, or frightened them away,
forcibly carry her off, and proceed as before.

There are verses on this subject as follows:
'In all the forms of marriage given in this chapter of this work, the one that precedes is
better than the one that follows it on account of its being more in accordance with the
commands of religion, and therefore it is only when it is impossible to carry the former
into practice that the latter should be resorted to, As the fruit of all good marriages is
love, the Gandharva3 form of marriage is respected, even though it is formed under
unfavourable circumstances, because it fulfils the object sought for. Another cause of the
respect accorded to the Gandharva form of marriage is that it brings forth happiness,
causes less trouble in its performance than the other forms of marriage, and is above all
the result of previous love.'


These forms of marriage differ from the four kinds of marriage mentioned in Chapter I, and
are only to be made use of when the girl is gained over in the way mentioned in Chapters
III and IV.

About this, see a story on the fatal effects of love at of Early Ideas: a Group of Hindoo
Stories, collected and collated by Anaryan, W. H. Allen and Co., London, 1881.

'About the Gandharvavivaha form of marriage, see note to page 28 of Captain R. F. Burton's
Vickram and the Vampire; or Tales of Hindu Devilry, Longmans, Green and Co., London 1870.
This form of matrimony was recognised by the ancient Hindoos, and is frequent in hooks. It
is a kind of Scotch wedding - ultra.Caledonian - taking place by mutual consent without
any form or Ceremony. The Gandharras are heavenly minstrels of Indra's court, who are
opposed to be witnesses.


Now when the girl begins to show her love by outward signs and motions, as described in
the last chapter, the lover should try to gain her over entirely by various ways and
means, such as the following:

When engaged with her in any game or sport he should intentionally hold her hand. He
should practise upon her the various kinds of embraces, such as the touching embrace, and
others already described in a preceding chapter (Part II, Chapter II). He should show her
a pair of human beings cut out of the leaf of a tree, and such like things, at intervals.
When engaged in water sports, he should dive at a distance from her, and come tip close to
her. He should show an increased liking for the new foliage of trees and such like things.
He should describe to her the pangs he suffers on her account. He should relate to her the
beautiful dream that he has had with reference to other women. At parties and assemblies
of his caste he should sit near her, and touch her under some pretence or other, and
having placed his foot upon hers, he should slowly touch each of her toes, and press the
ends of the nails; if successful in this, he should get hold of her foot with his hand and
repeat the same thing. He should also press a finger of her hand between his toes when she
happens to be washing his feet; and whenever he gives anything to her or takes anything
from her, he should show her by his manner and look how much he loves her.

He should sprinkle upon her the water brought for rinsing his mouth; and when alone with
her in a lonely place, or in darkness, he should make love to her, and tell her the true
state of his mind without distressing her in any way.

Whenever he sits with her on the same seat or bed he should say to her, 'I have something
to tell you in private', and then, when she comes to hear it in a quiet place, he should
express his love to her more by manner and signs than by words. When he comes to know the
state of her feelings towards him he should pretend to be ill, and should make her come to
his house to speak to him. There he should intentionally hold her hand and place it on his
eyes and forehead, and under the pretence of preparing some medicine for him he should ask
her to do the work for his sake in the following words: 'This work must be done by you,
and by nobody else.' When she wants to go away he should let her go, with an earnest
request to come and see him again. This device of illness should be continued for three
Continues for 127 more pages >>